sarvekshan

sarvekshan upakarano ki taalika

sarvekshan (Surveying) us kalaatmak vigyaan ko kehte hain jisse pruthvi ki satah par sthit binduon ki samuchit maap lekar, kisi paimaane par aalekhan (plotting) karke, unki saapeksh kshaitij aur oordhv dooriyon ka kaagaj ya, doosare maadhyam par sahi-sahi gyaan karaaya ja sake. is prakaar ka ankit maadhyam lekhaachitr ya maanachitr kahalaata hai. aisi aalekhan kriya ki sampannta aur safalta ke liye raikhik aur koneeya, donon hi maap lena aavashyak hota hai. siddhaantat: aalekhan kriya ke liye rekhik maap ka hona hi paryaapt hai. magar bahudha ooainchi neechi bhagn bhoomi par seedhe raikhik maap praapt karna ya to asambhav hota hai, ya itna jatil hota hai ki usaki yathaarthata sandigdh ho jaati hai. aise kshetron mein koneeya maap raikhik maap ke sahaayak ang ban jaate hain aur ganiteeya vidhiyon se agyaat raikhik maap gyaat karna sambhav kar dete hain.

is prakaar sarvekshan mein teen kaarya sammilit hote hain -

  • kshetr adhyan
  • maanachitran
  • abhiklan

anukram

itihaas

sarvekshan kriya ki utpatti ki kahaani aadikaal se aaj tak ke maanav samaaj ke vikaas ki kahaani, pradhaanat: sukh aur samruddhi ke liye bhraman aur bhoomi par prabhusatta ki praapti se, judi hui hai. bhraman ke liye sthaanon ke beech ki dooriyon aur dishaaon ka gyaan aur prabhusatta ke liye seemaaon aur kshetrafal ka jaanana aavashyak tha. aisa gyaan hone ke pramaan praacheen granthon mein raajyon ke vistaar, dishaaon ke vivran aur doori ke liye yojana aadi ke ullekh se milte hain. praacheen kaal mein shilaaon, bhojapatr, taamrapatr aur kaagaj ke prayog se poorv, sthaanon ke beech ki doori, dishaaeain pahachaanane ka gyaan tatha adhikaar seemaaeain maanav ke smrutiptal par ankit rahati hongi. yuddh aur kalah ka bhaya utpann hone par, us smruti aur liye gaye maapon ko kisi maadhyam par pradarshit karne ki kriya ka janm hua hoga, jise baad mein sarvekshan ki sanjnyaa di gayi. is prakaar manushya ki mahatvaakaankshaaon aur sarvekshan ka gahra sambandh hone ke kaaran sarvekshanakriya nirantar unnati karti gayi.

aise prayaason ka sabse praacheen pramaan isa se 370 varsh poorv ka mila hai, jo tyoorin ke ajaayabaghar mein aaj bhi surakshit hai. yoonaan aur misr mein bhi shilaaon aur lakdi ke takhton par sarvekshan ke praacheen aalekh mile hain. ostriya mein isaapoorv kaal ke kuchh aise chinh mile hain jinse pata lagta hai ki rom saamraajya mein sarvekshan ka prachalan tha. unhonne maargon ki seedh baaaindhane ke liye aaj jaise upakaran, sarvekshan patt (plane table) aur doosra naapane ke liye ankit chhadon ka prayog kiya tha. aise bhi pramaan mile hain ki 300 varsh isaapoorv Bhaarat par aakraman ke samay, yoonaaniyon ne sindh se faaras ki khaadi tak samudratat naapakar lekhaachitr taiyaar kiya tha. kautilya ke arthashaastr aur baanabhatt ke harshacharit mein raajasv ke nirdhaaran ke silsile mein bhoomi ki naap aadi ke ullekh milte hain. 1450 E. mein arabavaasiyon ne kai samudri yaatraaeain keen aur samudrataton ke lekhaachitr taiyaar kiye. 1498 E. mein vaasko da gaama ke Bhaarat aane par ek gujaraati pandit ne use samudratat ka ek rekhaachitr bheint kiya tha. isse vidit hota hai ki sabhyata ke maarg par badhe hue sabhi deshon mein sarvekshan ka mahatva nirantar badhta raha aur krushi, raajasv, bhoomi ke adhikaar ki seemaaon ke nirdhaaran aur yaatraaon mein maargon ke lekhaachitr banaane mein sarvekshan ka abhyaas evam prayog hota raha hai. magar 16veen shataabdi ke samaapt hote hote to sarvekshanakriya ka mahatva aashaateet badha. Marco polo, vaasko di gaama, kolanbas aur captain cook ke bhramanon se Europe nivaasiyon ko sansaar ke vistaar aur usapar sthit samruddh desh tatha upajaaoo bhoomi ka pata laga, to ve bahut taadaad mein apni bhaagyapareeksha ke liye nikal pade. bhoomi par aadhiptya karne mein unamein spardha jaagi, jisse sarvekshanakriyaaon ko nai sfoorti aur teevr gati mili. us samay ka bana hua Bhaarat aur arab ka maanachitr british ajaayabaghar mein aaj bhi surakshit hai. nakshe se pata lagta hai ki vah ferando bartoli dvaara 1565 E. mein banaaya gaya tha. iske baad 1612 E. mein geraardara marketar dvaara banaaya Bhaarat ka maanachitr, us samay ka athak prayaas, bhi thaati ke roop mein surakshit hai.

vargeekaran

shanai:-shanai: adhikaar ki raksha ke saath-saath deshon mein vikaas ke prati bhi ruchi jaagi. sampoorn desh, amuk saamraajya, sampoorn sansaar ek saath dekhne ki jijnyaaasa badhi. iski poorti ka saadhan maanachitr hi ho sakta tha. is kaaran sarvekshan mein itni nai-nai khojein hui ki unke aadhaar par sarvekshanakriya hi do pramukh vargon mein baint gayi :

(1) bhooganiteeya sarvekshan aur

(2) patt sarvekshan.

is vargeekaran ka mukhya aadhaar pruthvi ka aakaar hai. jis sarvekshan mein pruthvi ke aakaar ko golaabh (spheroid) maankar, usaki satah par liye gaye naapon ka prayog karne se pehle pruthvi ki vakrata ke liye shodhan karte hain, use bhooganiteeya sarvekshan kehte hain. yeh kathin prakriya hoti hai. magar pruthvi ki gol ya vakr satah par naapi dooriyaaain yadi adhik lambi na hon, to unhein vakr na maankar riju (seedha) hi maan liya jaae, to koi vishesh truti naheen hogi. udaaharanaarth, pruthvi ki vakr satah par 11.5 meal lambi rekha naapane par usamein pruthvi ke kaaran keval 0.05 foot ki truti hogi. isi prakaar pruthvi ki satah par kinheen bhi teen binduon dvaara 75 varg meal kshetrafal ke tribhuj ko samatal satah par seedhi rekhaaon dvaara pradarshit kiya jaae, to uske konon ke yog aur usi tribhuj ki vakr satah par bane konon ke yog mein keval ek second ka antar hoga. is kaaran yadi chhote chhote kshetron ke nakshe taiyaar kiye jaaeain, to pruthvi ki satah par li gayi naap ko seedhi rekhaaon mein satal par pradarshit karne se koi khatakanevaali galati naheen hogi. isliye pruthvi ke chhote kshetr ko samatal maankar, us par li gayi naapon ko bina vakrata ke shodhan ke kisi paimaane par samatal kaagaj par ankit kar diya jaata hai. is prakaar ke sarvekshan ko patt sarvekshan kehte hain.

saamaanya vyavahaar mein aanevaale sarvekshan samataleeya sarvekshan hi hote hain. bhinn uddeshyon ki siddhi ke liye sarvekshanon ki prakriya, upakaran, paimaana aadi mein bhi kuchh antar paida ho jaata hai. in kaaranon se patt sarvekshan ke bhi kai varg ban gaye hain :

  • (1) paimaane ke aadhaar par 1:50,000; 1:25,000 1:5,000; 1:1,000 sarvekshan (is prakaar se bataae paimaane ka arth hai ki maanachitr par ek ikaai lambi rekha bhoomi par kramash: 50,000; 25,000; 5,000 1,000 ikaai lanbaai ke baraabar hog),
  • (2) kisi mantavya ya kaarya vishesh ke liye kiya gaya sarvekshan, jaise sthalaakrutik (topographical), injeeniyri, raajasv (revenue) tatha khanij (mineral) sarvekshan, tatha
  • (3) prayukt pramukh yantron ke naam par, jaise jareeb sarvekshan, taikomeetar (tachometer) sarvekshan aadi.

yadi aise samataleeya sarvekshanon se Bhaarat jaise vistrut desh ya mahaadveep ke maanachitr sankalit (compile) kiye ja sakein, to patt sarvekshanon ka mahatva aashaateet badh jaata hai. yeh tabhi sambhav hoga, jab patt sarvekshanon ki aadhaarashila bhooganiteeya sarvekshan par ho. aadhaarashila ka ullekh tabhi graahya ho sakega, jab usaki kuchh sankshipt vyaakhya kar di jaae.

sarvekshan ko bhinn-bhinn aadhaaron ke anusaar adholikhit prakaar se vargeekrut kiya jaata hain-

sarvekshan ka praathamik vargeekaran

  • bhooganiteeya sarvekshan
  • samatal sarvekshan

sarvekshan ki vidhi ke anusaar

  • tribhujan sarvekshan
  • chankraman sarvekshan

prayukt sarvekshan apakaran ke anusaar vargikran

sarvekshan ki vastu ke anusaar vargeekaran

  • sthalaakrutik sarvekshan
  • puraataatvik sarvekshan
  • bhoovaijnyaaanik sarvekshan
  • sainya sarvekshan
  • shahar sarvekshan
  • injeeniyri sarvekshan

sarvekshan-kshetr ki prakruti ke anusaar vargeekaran

  • bhoo-sarvekshan
  • saagariya sarvekshan
  • khagoleeya sarvekshan

sarvekshan ke aadhaarbhoot siddhaant

ye siddhaant bade hi saral hain. pruthvi ki satah par badi saralata se do aise bindu chune ja sakte hain jo ek doosare ki sthiti se dekhein ja sakein aur unke beech ki doori naapi ja sake. inhein kisi bhi vaanchhit paimaane par kaagaj par aise lagaaya ja sakta hai ki unke niktavarti kshetr ka sarvekshan kaagaj par sama sake. iske baad in do binduon se kisi bhi teesare bindu ki doori naapakar usi paimaane se kaagaj par usaki saapeksh sthiti ankit kar sakte hain. is prakaar ankit kinheen bhi do binduon se kisi teesare agyaat bindu ki doori nikaalkar tatha kramaanugat ankit karke, poore kshetr ka maanachitr banaaya ja sakta hai.

doosare shabdon mein, sarvekshan ki vidhi tribhuj ki rachana hai. oopar to tribhuj ki ek hi rachana ka ullekh kiya gaya hai, jismein tribhuj ki teenon bhujaaon ki lanbaaiyaaain gyaat hai. tribhuj ki anya rachana vidhiyaaain bhi sarvekshan mein prayukt hoti hain.

vistrut lekh sarvekshan ke aadhaarbhoot siddhaant dekhein.

sarvekshan vidhiyaaain

theek bhaugolik sthiti mein bhoo aakruti ke roopaankan ke liye maanachitr ke kshetr ke andar aise pramukh niyantran binduon ke jaal ke pratham aavashyakta hai jinke greenavich ke saapeksh sahi sahi akshaansh aur deshaantar athva ausat samudratal se ooainchaai gyaat ho. mahaan‌ trikonamiteeya sarvekshan ne Bhaarat ke adhikaansh maanachitron ke nirmaan mein yeh kar liya hai. saar roop mein yeh chauras bhoomi par invaar (invar) dhaatu ke taar ya feete se saavadhaani se naapi hui lagbhag 10 meal lambi jameen hoti hai jise 'aadhaar' kehte hain.

aadhaar ki sthaapana ke baad usapar ek ke baad ek upayukt bhuja aur kon ke tribhujon ki maala rachi jaati hai. tribhujon ke konon ka nireekshan kar bhuja tatha binduon ke niyaamakon ki ganana kar li jaati hai. ise trikoneeya sarvekshan kehte hain. tribhujon ka jaal sarvekshan mein sarvatr faila hota hai. mukhya upakaran kaach chaap thiyodolaait hai jismein oordhvaadhar tatha kshaitij konon ko chaap ke ek second ansh ya isse bhi kam tak sahi padhne ki kshamata hoti hai. ye bindu kaafi door door hote hain. at: vistrut sarvekshan sambhav naheen. iske liye yeh aavashyak hai ki mahaan‌ trikonamiteeya sarvekshan ke bade tribhujon ko todkar chhote chhote tribhujon ka jaal banaakar saari jameen ko kuchh meal ke antar par sthit binduon ki maala mein parint kar diya jaae.

patal chitran (Plane tabling)

ichhit paimaane par prekshap banaaya jaata hai. prakshep mein niyantran bindu ankit kiye jaate hain. in binduon se pratichhedan aur sthiti nirdhaaran (inter secting and resecting) dvaara patalachitran aur drushtiptti ki sahaayata se vistrut sarvekshan kiya jaata hai. ise patal chitran kehte hain. bhaarateeya pravanataamaapi (clinometers) naamak yantr ke atirikt ooainchaai nishchit ki jaati hai. ooainchaai se nishchit oordhvaadhar antaraal par talarekha tak jise samochch rekha kehte hain, kheenche ja sakte hain, jo bhoomi ki dharaakruti achhi tarah pradarshit karte hain.

havaai sarvekshan

gat 30 varsho mein sarvekshan ke kshetr mein pravisht, atyant prabhaavakaari vidhi havaai fotograaf ki vidhi hai. sainik aur asainik upayogita ki drushti se havaai fotograafi ka mahatva pratham vishvayuddh kaal mein hi anubhav kiya jaane laga tha tatha sarvekshan aur maanachitr nirmaanakaarya mein iska upayog sarvapratham 1916 E. mein England mein ordanaans sarve ki yuddhottarakaaleen yojana mein hua. tab se Europeeya deshon tatha uttari amareeka mein is disha mein aashcharyajanak pragati hui. ab to havaai fotograafi ya fotograafi dvaara sarvekshan ek anoothi vaigyaanik pravidhi hai. havaai fotograaf dvaara sarvekshan ki do vidhiyaaain hain : lekhaachitreeya aur yaantriki.

lekhaachitreeya vidhi

Bhaarat mein lekhaachitreeya vidhi ka kuchh varshon se atyaadhik upayog ho raha hai aur jahaaain tak sthalaakruteeya maanachitr ankan ka prashn hai, yeh vidhi lagbhag poornata praapt kar chuki hai. iska aadhaarbhoot siddhaant yeh hai vaastavik oordhvaadhar havaai fotograaf mein vikirn rekhaaeain, jo fotograaf mein thal bindu tak faili hoti hain, yathaarth aur sthir kon banaati hain. aakrutiyon ka uchchata visthaapan (height displacements) maanachitr ke samatal mein drushti bindu se theek neeche sthit ek bindu se (jise avalanb bindu (Plumb line) kehte hain aur jo vyavahaar mein vaastavik oordhvaadhar photo (true vertical photograph) ka kendra maana jaata hai) areeya hote hain jisse vivran, maanachitr samatal ke baahar usaki oochaai aur avalanb bindu se doori ke theek anupaat mein vaastavik maanachitr sthiti se visthaapit ho jaata hai. abheesht shakl photo praapt kar lene ke baad trikonakaran dvaara ke theek anupaat mein vaastavik maanachitr sthiti se visthaapit ho jaata hai. abheesht shakl photo praapt kar lene ke baad trikonakaran dvaara nishchit ninyatran binduon ki sahaayata aur photo ke areeya gun ka upayog kar prakshipt patron par, jinka jikr ho chuka hai, theek bhaugolik sthiti mein photo ke kendra ankit kiye jaate hain. pratyek photo ke areeya gun ka upayog kar vividh vivranon ka pratichhedan unki sahi sthiti nishchit ki jaati hai. lekhaachitreeya vidhi ki sabse badi samasya photo se parishuddh uchchata gyaat karna hai. is kathinaai ke kaaran praaya: bhoomi sarvekshan vidhiyon mein poorak uchchata niyantran ka ghana jaal banaaya jaata hai. is maargadarshak uchchataaon ki sahaayata se trivimdarshi (stereoscope) ke neeche rakhakar photo par samochch rekhaaeain kheenchakar unhein maanachitr patra par laga diya jaata hai.

yaantrik vidhi

udbhaasan (Exposure) ke samay camera ke prakaashaaksh ke oordhvaadhar na hone ke kaaran uparyukt lekhaachitreeya vidhi se trutimukt maanachitr naheen bante. yaantrik sankalan (mechanical compilation) trivim aalekhan upakaran (stereoscopic plotting instruments) mein hota hai jisse photo theek usi sthiti mein ulatate, jhukate aur ghoom jaate hain jismein udbhaasan ke samay vimaan tha. ye upakaran vaayusarvekshan samasyaaon ka theek samaadhaan kar dete hain jab ki lekhaachitreeya vidhiyaaain sannikt samaadhaan prastut karti hain. Bhaarat mein aajkal kaam aanevaale aalekhan upakaran hain : wild otograaf 47, wild 48, malteefleks aur steerotop.

inhein bhi dekhein