sarasvati nadi

sarasvati nadi (nadeetama)
Sarasvatiriver.jpg
mahaabhaarat kaaleen sarasvati nadi. (hare rang se pradarshit)
naam ka udgam: hindu devi sarasvati
desh Bhaarat, Pakistan
raajya Himachal pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan
kshetr Bhaarat aur Pakistan
lambaai 1,600 ki.mi. (994 meal)
visrjan sthal arab saagar
udgam roopan (sarasvati) gleshiyr
- sthaan shivaalik parvatamaala, himaalaya, uttaraakhand, Bhaarat
mukh
- sthaan aadibdri, yamunaanagar, uttar Bhaarat, Haryana, Bhaarat
mukhya sahaayak nadiyaaain
- vaamaangi drushavati, hirnyavati
isaro dvaara preshit maanachitr mein sarasvati nadi

sarasvati ek pauraanik nadi jiski charcha vedon mein bhi hai. rigved (2 41 16-18) mein sarasvati ka annavati tatha udakavati ke roop mein varnan aaya hai. yeh nadi sarvada jal se bhari rahati thi aur iske kinaare ann ki prachur utpatti hoti thi. kehte hain, yeh nadi Punjab mein sirmoor raajya ke parvateeya bhaag se nikalkar Ambala tatha kurukshetr hoti hui karnaal jila aur Patiala raajya mein pravisht hokar sirsa jile ki drushadvati (kaangaar) nadi mein mil gayi thi. praacheen kaal mein is sammilit nadi ne rajputana ke anek sthalon ko jalasikt kar diya tha. yeh bhi kaha jaata hai ki prayaag ke nikat tak aakaar yeh ganga tatha yamuna mein milkar triveni ban gayi thi. kaalaantar mein yeh in sab sthaanon se tirohit ho gayi, fir bhi logon ki dhaarana hai ki prayaag mein vah ab bhi ant:salila hokar bahti hai. manusanhita se spasht hai ki sarasvati aur drushadvati ke beech ka bhoobhaag hi brahmaavart kahalaata tha.

anukram

parichay

sarasvati nadi pauraanik hindu granthon tatha rigved mein varnit mukhya nadiyon mein se ek hai. rigved ke nadi sookt ke ek mantra (10.75) mein sarasvati nadi ko 'yamuna ke poorv' aur 'sataluj ke pashchim' mein bahti hui bataaya gaya hai uttar vaidik granthon, jaise taandaya aur jaimineeya braahman mein sarasvati nadi ko marusthal mein sookha hua bataaya gaya hai, mahaabhaaratamein bhi sarasvati nadi ke marusthal mein 'vinaashan' naamak jagah par vilupt hone ka varnan aata hai. mahaabhaarat mein sarasvati nadi ke plakshavati nadi, vedasmruti, vedavati aadi kai naam hain.[1] mahaabhaarat, vaayupuraan adi mein sarasvati ke vibhinn putron ke naam aur unase jude mithk praapt hote hain. mahaabhaarat ke shalya-parv, shaanti-parv, ya vaayupuraan mein sarasvati nadi aur dadheechi rishi ke putr sambandhi mithk thode thode antaron se milte hain unhein sanskrut mahaakavi baanabhatt ne apne granth 'harshacharit' mein vistaar de diya hai. vah likhte hein- " ek baar baarah varsh tak varsha na hone ke kaaran rishign sarasvati ka kshetr tyaag kar idhar-udhar ho gaye, parantu maata ke aadesh par sarasvati-putr, saarasvateya vahaaain se kaheen naheen gaya. fir sukaal hone par jab tak ve rishi vaapas laute to ve sab ved aadi bhool chuke the. unke aagrah ka maan rakhate hue saarasvateya ne unhein shishya roop mein sveekaar kiya aur pun: shrutiyon ka paath karavaaya. ashvaghosh ne apne 'buddhacharit'kaavya mein bhi isi katha ka varnan kiya hai. dasveen sadi ke jaane maane vidvaan raajashekhar ne 'kaavyameemaansa' ke teesare adhyaaya mein kaavya sambandhi ek mithk diya hai ki jab putr praapti ki ichha se sarasvati ne himaalaya par tapasya ki to brahma ne prasann ho kar uske liye ek putr ki rachana ki jiska naam tha- kaavyapurush. kaavyapurush ne janm leti hi maata sarasvati ki vandana chhand vaani mein yon ki- he maata!mein tera putr kaavyapurush teri charan vandana karta hooain jiske dvaara samoocha vaaङamaya artharoop mein parivrtit ho jaata hai..."

rigved tatha anya pauraanik vaidik granthon mein diye sarasvati nadi ke sandarbhon ke aadhaar par kai bhoo-vigyaani maanate hain ki Haryana se Rajasthan hokar bahne waali maujooda sookhi hui ghagghar-hakara nadi praacheen vaidik sarasvati nadi ki ek mukhya sahaayak nadi thi, jo 5000-3000 isa poorv poore pravaah se bahti thi. us samay sataluj tatha yamuna ki kuchh dhaaraaen sarasvati nadi mein aa kar milti theen. iske atirikt do anya lupt hui nadiyaaain drushtaavadi aur hirnyavati bhi sarasvati ki sahaayak nadiyaaain theen, lagbhag 1900 isa poorv tak bhoogarbhi badlaav ki vajah se yamuna, sataluj ne apna raasta badal diya tatha drushtaavadi nadi ke 2600 isa poorv sookh jaane ke kaaran sarasvati nadi bhi lupt ho gayi. rigved mein sarasvati nadi ko nadeetama ki upaadhi di gayi hai. vaidik sabhyata mein sarasvati hi sabse badi aur mukhya nadi thi. isaro dvaara kiye gaye shodh se pata chala hai ki aaj bhi yeh nadi Haryana, Punjab aur Rajasthan se hoti hui bhoomigat roop mein pravaahamaan hai.

sarasvati ek vishaal nadi thi. pahaadon ko todti hui niklati thi aur maidaanon se hoti hui arab saagar mein jaakar vileen ho jaati thi. iska varnan rigved mein baar-baar aata hai. kai mandalon mein iska varnan hai. rigved vaidik kaal mein ismein hamesha jal rahata tha. sarasvati aaj ki ganga ki tarah us samay ki vishaalatam nadiyon mein se ek thi. uttar vaidik kaal aur mahaabhaarat kaal mein yeh nadi bahut kuchh sookh chuki thi. tab sarasvati nadi mein paani bahut kam tha. lekin barasaat ke mausam mein ismein paani aa jaata tha. bhoogarbhi badlaav ki vajah se sarasvati nadi ka paani ganga mein chala gaya, kai vidvaan maanate hain ki isi vajah se ganga ke paani ki mahima hui, bhoochaal aane ke kaaran jab jameen oopar uthi to sarasvati ka paani yamuna mein gir gaya. isliye yamuna mein sarasvati ka jal bhi pravaahit hone laga. sirf iseeliye prayaag mein teen nadiyon ka sangam maana gaya, jabki yathaarth mein vahaan teen nadiyon ka sangam naheen hai. vahaaain keval do nadiyaan hain. sarasvati kabhi bhi Allahabad tak naheen pahuainchi.

rigved mein sandarbh

raaja ravi varma dvaara nirmit devi sarasvati ka chitr.
  • rigved ki chauthe pustak (mandal ?) ko chhodkar sarasvati nadi ka sabhi (mandalon) pustakon (?) mein kai baar ullekh kiya gaya hai. keval yahi aisi nadi hai jiske liye rigved ki richa 6.61,7.95 aur 7.96 mein poori tarah se samarpit stavan diye gaye hain.
  • prashasti aur stuti:
    • vaidik kaal mein sarasvati ki badi mahima thi aur ise 'param pavitra' nadi maana jaata tha, kyon ki iske tat ke paas rah kar tatha isi nadi ke paani ka sevan karte hue rishiyon ne ved rache au‍aar vaidik gyaan ka vistaar kiya. isi kaaran sarasvati ko vidya aur gyaan ki devi ke rup mein bhi pooja jaane laga. rigved ke 'nadi sookt' mein sarasvati ka is prakaar ullekh hai ki 'iman me gange yamune sarasvati shutudri stoman sachata parooshnya asiknya maroodvadhe vitstayaarjeekeeye shrrunuhya sushomaya'[2] sarasvati, rigved mein keval 'nadi devi' ke roop mein varnit hai (iski vandana teen sampoorn tatha anek prakeern mantron mein ki gayi hai), kintu braahman grathon mein ise vaani ki devi ya vaach ke roop mein dekha gaya, kyonki tab tak yeh lupt ho chuki thi parantu iski mahima lupt naheen hui aur uttar vaidik kaal mein sarasvati ko mukhyat:, vaani ke atirikt buddhi ya vidya ki adhishthaatri devi bhi maana gaya. brahma ki patni ke roop mein iski vandana ke geet gaaye gaye hain **rigved mein sarasvati ko nadeetama ki upaadhi di gayi hai. usaki ek shaakha 2.41.16 mein ise "sarvashreshth maaain, sarvashreshth nadi, sarvashreshth devi" kah kar sambodhit kiya gaya hai. yahi prashansa rigved ke anya chhandon 6.61,8.81,7.96 aur 10.17 mein bhi ki gayi hai.
    • rigved ke mantra 7.9.52 tatha anya jaise 8.21.18 mein sarasvati nadi ko "doodh aur ghi" se paripoorn bataaya gaya hai. rigved ke shlok 3.33.1 mein ise 'gaaya ki tarah paalan karne waali' bataaya gaya hai
    • rigved ke shlok 7.36.6 mein sarasvati ko saptasindhu nadiyon ki janani bataaya gaya hai.

anya vaidik granthon mein sandarbh

rigved ke baad ke vaidik saahitya mein sarasvati nadi ke vilupt hone ka ullekh aata hai, iske atirikt sarasvati nadi ke udgam sthal ki 'plaksh prasravan' ke rup mein pehchaan ki gayi hai, jo yamunotri ke paas hi avasthit hai.

yajurved
yajurved ki vaajasneyi sanhita 34.11 mein kaha gaya hai ki paanch nadiyaaain apne poore pravaah ke saath sarasvati nadi mein pravisht hoti hain, ye paanch nadiyaaain Punjab ki sataluj, raavi, vyaas, chenaav aur drushtaavati ho sakti hain. vi. S vaakanakar ke anusaar paanchon nadiyon ke sangam ke sookhe hue avashesh Rajasthan ke baadmer ya jaisalamer ke nikat panchabhadr teerth par dekhe ja sakte hai.[3]
raamaayan
vaalmeeki raamaayan mein bharat ke kaikaya desh se ayodhya aane ke prasang mein sarasvati aur ganga ko paar karne ka varnan hai- 'sarasvateen ch ganga ch yugmen pratipdya ch, uttaraan veeramatsyaanaan bhaaroondan praavishdvanam'[4] sarasvati nadi ke tatavarti sabhi teerthon ka varnan mahaabhaarat mein shalyaparv ke 35 vein se 54 vein adhyaaya tak savistaar diya gaya hai. in sthaanon ki yaatra balaraam ne ki thi. jis sthaan par maroobhoomi mein sarasvati lupt ho gayi thi use 'vinshan' kehte the.
mahaabhaarat
mahaabhaarat mein to sarasvati nadi ka ullekh kai baar kiya gaya hai. sabse pehle to yeh bataaya gaya hai ki kai raajaaon ne iske tat ke sameep kai yagya kiye the.[5] vartamaan sookhi hui sarasvati nadi ke samaantar khudaai mein 5500-4000 varsh puraane shahar mile hain jin mein peeleebanga, kaaleebanga aur lothal bhi hain. yahaaain kai yagya kundon ke avashesh bhi mile hain, jo mahaabhaarat mein varnit tathya ko pramaanit karte hain.[6]
mahaabhaarat mein yeh bhi varnan aata hai ki nishaadon aur malechhon se dvesh hone ke kaaran sarasvati nadi ne inke pradeshon me jaana band kar diya jo iske sookhane ki pratham avastha ko darshaati hai.[7], saath hi yeh bhi varnan milta hai ki sarasvati nadi marusthal mein vinaashan naamak sthaan par lupt ho kar kisi sthaan par fir prakat hoti hai.[8] mahaabhaarat mein varnan aata hai ki rishi vasishth sataluj mein doob kar aatmahatya ka prayaas karte hain jisse nadi 100 dhaaraaon mein toot jaati hai. yeh tathya sataluj nadi ke apne puraane maarg ko badalne ki ghatna ko pramaanit karta hai, kyonki praacheen vaidik kaal mein sataluj nadi sarasvati mein hi ja kar apna pravaah chhodti thi.[9]
balaraam ji dvaara iske tat ke samaantar plaksh ped (plakshaprastravan, yamunotri ke paas) se prabhaas kshetr (vartamaan kachh ka ran) tak ki gayi teerthayaatra ka varnan bhi mahaabhaarat mein aata hai.[10] mahaabhaarat ke anusaar kurukshetr teerth sarasvati nadi ke dakshin aur drushtaavati nadi ke uttar mein sthit hai.[11]
puraan mein sandarbh
siddhapur (Gujarat) sarasvati nadi ke tat par basa hua hai. paas hi bindusar naamak sarovar hai, jo mahaabhaarat ka 'vinshan' ho sakta hai. yeh sarasvati mukhya sarasvati hi ki dhaara jaan padti hai. yeh kachh mein girti hai, kintu maarg mein kai sthaanon par lupt ho jaati hai.'sarasvati' ka arth hai- sarovaron waali nadi, jo iske chhode hue sarovaron se siddh hota hai.
shreemadbhaagavat "shreemad Bhagwat (5,19,18)" mein yamuna tatha drushadvati ke saath sarasvati ka ullekh hai."mandaakineeyamunaasarasvateedrushadvadi gomateesarayu" "meghadoot poorvamegh" mein kaalidaas ne sarasvati ka brahmaavart ke antargat varnan kiya hai. "krutva taasaamabhigmamapaan saumya saarasvateenaamant:shuddhastvamapi bhavita varnamaatren Krishna:" sarasvati ka naam kaalaantar mein itna prasiddh hua ki Bhaarat ki anek nadiyon ko isi ke naam par 'sarasvati' kaha jaane laga. paarasiyon ke dharmagranth avesta mein bhi sarasvati ka naam harahavati milta hai.

udgam sthal tatha vilupt hone ke kaaran

vaidik sarasvati nadi (hare rang me)

mahaabhaarat mein mile varnan ke anusaar sarasvati nadi Haryana mein yamunaanagar se thoda oopar aur shivaalik pahaadiyon se thoda sa neeche aadibdri naamak sthaan se niklati thi. aaj bhi log is sthaan ko teerthasthal ke roop mein maanate hain aur vahaan jaate hain. kintu aaj aadibdri naamak sthaan se bahne waali nadi bahut door tak naheen jaati ek patali dhaara ki tarah jagah-jagah dikhaai dene waali is nadi ko hi log sarasvati kah dete hain. vaidik aur mahaabhaarat kaaleen varnan ke anusaar isi nadi ke kinaare brahmaavart tha, kurukshetr tha, lekin aaj vahaan jalaashaya hain. jab nadi sookhati hai to jahaan-jahaan paani gahra hota hai, vahaan-vahaan taalaab ya jheelein rah jaati hain aur ye taalaab aur jheelein ardhdachandraakaar shakl mein paayi jaati hain. aaj bhi kurukshetr mein brahmasarovar ya pehava mein is prakaar ke ardhdachandraakaar sarovar dekhne ko milte hain, lekin ye bhi sookh gaye hain. lekin ye sarovar pramaan hain ki us sthaan par kabhi koi vishaal nadi bahti rahi thi aur uske sookhane ke baad vahaan vishaal jheelein ban gayeen. bhaarateeya puraatatv parishd ke anusaar sarasvati ka udgam uttaraanchal mein roopan naam ke himnad (gleshiyr) se hota tha. roopan gleshiyr ko ab sarasvati gleshiyr bhi kaha jaane laga hai. naitavaar mein aakar yeh himnad jal mein parivrtit ho jaata tha, fir jaladhaar ke roop mein aadibdri tak sarasvati bahakar aati thi aur aage chali jaati thi.

vaigyaanik aur bhoogarbheeya khojon se pata chala hai ki kisi samay is kshetr mein bheeshan bhookamp aae, jiske kaaran jameen ke neeche ke pahaad oopar uth gaye aur sarasvati nadi ka jal peechhe ki or chala gaya. vaidik kaal mein ek aur nadi drushadvati ka varnan bhi aata hain. yeh sarasvati nadi ki sahaayak nadi thi. yeh bhi Haryana se ho kar bahti thi. kaalaantar mein jab bheeshan bhookamp aae aur Haryana tatha Rajasthan ki dharati ke neeche pahaad oopar uthe, to nadiyon ke bahaav ki disha badal gayi. drushadvati nadi, jo sarasvati nadi ki sahaayak nadi thi, uttar aur poorv ki or bahne lagi. isi drushadvati ko ab yamuna kaha jaata hai, iska itihaas 4,000 varsh poorv maana jaata hai. yamuna pehle chambal ki sahaayak nadi thi. bahut baad mein yeh Allahabad mein ganga se jaakar mili. yahi vah kaal tha jab sarasvati ka jal bhi yamuna mein mil gaya. rigved kaal mein sarasvati samudra mein girti thi. jaisa oopar bhi kaha ja chuka hai, prayaag mein sarasvati kabhi naheen pahunchi. bhoochaal aane ke kaaran jab jameen oopar uthi to sarasvati ka paani yamuna mein gir gaya. isliye yamuna mein yamuna ke saath sarasvati ka jal bhi pravaahit hone laga. sirf iseeliye prayaag mein teen nadiyon ka sangam maana gaya jabki bhoogarbheeya yathaarth mein vahaan teen nadiyon ka sangam naheen hai. vahaan keval do nadiyaan hain. sarasvati kabhi bhi Allahabad tak naheen pahunchi.

sarasvati nadi aur hadppa sabhyata

sarasvati nadi ke tat par basi sabhyata ko jise hadppa sabhyata ya sindhu-sarasvati sabhyata kaha jaata hai, yadi ise vaidik richaaon se hata kar dekha jaae to fir sarasvati nadi maatr ek nadi rah jaaegi, sabhyata khatm ho jaaegi. sabhyata ka itihaas bataata hai ki sarasvati nadi tat par basi bastiyon se mile avashesh tatha in avasheshon ki kahaani keval hadppa sabhyata se judti hai. hadppa sabhyata ki 2600 bastiyon mein se vartamaan Pakistan mein sindhu tat par maatr 265 bastiyaan hain, jabki shesh adhikaansh bastiyaan sarasvati nadi ke tat par milti hain. abhi tak hadppa sabhyata ko sirf sindhu nadi ki den maana jaata raha tha, lekin ab naye shodhon se siddh ho gaya hai ki sarasvati ka sindhu sabhyata ke nirmaan mein bahut bada yogadaan tha.

sandarbh

  1. mahaabhaarat, anushaasan-parv,165.25
  2. riagved 10,75,5
  3. vi.S. vaakanakar aur si.N.parachuri: the laust sarasvati rivr, Mysore 1994, pej.45
  4. vaalmeeki raamaayan ayo0 71,5
  5. mahaabhaarat 1.90.26
  6. frantiyr of inds sivilaaijeshan-bi bi laal
  7. mahaabhaarat 3.130.3-5; 9.37.1-2
  8. mahaabhaarat 3.82.111; 3.130.3; 6.7.47; 6.37.1-4., 9.34.81; 9.37.1-2
  9. Yash Pal in S.P. Gupta 1995: 175
  10. mahaabhaarat 3.80.118; 9.36.1; 3.130.4
  11. mahaabhaarat-3.81.115