sarasvateekanthaabharan

sarasvateekanthaabharan, (shaabdik arth - 'sarasvati ke kanth ki maala') kaavyatatv ka vivechan karanevaala sanskrut-saahitya-shaastr ka ek maananeeya granth hai jiski rachana dhaareshvar ke mahaaraaj bhojaraaj ne ki.

anukram

parichay

mahaaraaj bhojaraaj ka samay isavi san 1010-1055 tak itihaasakaaron dvaara sveekrut kiya gaya hai. ataev sarasvateekanthaabharan ka rachanaakaal isavi gyaarahaveen shataabdi ka madhya maana ja sakta hai. iske praneta kaavyaprakaash ke rachayita mammat (E. san 1100 ke lagbhag) se kinchit poorvavarti hain. yadyapi aanandavardhan dvaara dhvanisiddhaant ki sthaapana ho chuki thi tathaapi us samay tak kaavyaatma ke roop mein dhvani ki maanyata vivaadagrast si hi thi ; ataev saakshaat roop se dhvani ko kaavya ki paribhaasha mein aatma ke roop mein sthaan dene ki drudhta na bhojadev ne hi apnaai aur na bhatt mammat ne hi. donon aachaaryon ne kaavya mein doshaabhaav tatha gunavatta ko pradhaanata di hai. bhojadev ki yeh visheshata hai ki unhonne alankaaron ki upaadayeta kanthat: sveekaar ki hai tatha kaavya ke liye rasaanvit hona aavashyak samjha hai. yon bhojadev ke sarasvateekanthaabharan ne anshat: mammat ko evam vishvanaath ko prabhaavit kiya hai.

pustak ki sanrachana evam vishyavastu

sarasvateekanthaabharan ek deerghakaaya granth hai jismein paaainch parichhed hain. pratham parichhed mein rachayita ne kaavyasaamaanya ki paribhaasha dene ke pashchaat sarvapratham kaavya ke deergh evam gun ka vivechan kiya hai. isi sandarbh mein bhojadev ne pad, vaakya evam vaakyaarthagat dosh bataae hain. har prakaar ke doshon ki sankhya solah hai. bhojadev ke anusaar gun, shabdagat aur vaakyaarth gat hote hain aur pratyek ke chaubees bhed hain. pratham parichhed ke ant mein katipya dosh kaheen kaheen gun ban jaate hain. is kaavyatatv ko udaaharan dvaara samajhaate hue unhonne kaavyadoshon ka nityaanityatv sveekrut kiya hai.

dviteeya parichhed mein shabdaalankaar ka nirnaya karte hue unhonne sarvapratham auchiti par bal diya tatha jaati, reeti, vrutti, chhaaya, mudra, ukti, yukti, bhaniti, gunfana, shayya evam pathiti ka sodaaharan vivechan kiya hai. in baarah tatvon mein se reeti ko chhod shesh tatvon ka vishd vivechan sanskrut ke kisi anya upalabdh saahityagranth mein praapt naheen hota. baanabhatt ne kaavyasaushthav ke vishesh tatv, shayya ka ullekh kiya hai parantu usaki paribhaasha keval sarasvateekanthaabharan mein hi upalabdh hoti hai. tatpashchaat, yamak, shlesh, anupraas, chitr, prahelika, goodh evam prashnottar alankaaron ke bhoori bhedopabhedon ka sodaaharan vivran diya gaya hai. is ansh mein bhi sarasvateekanthaabharan ki sarvatha niji visheshata hai. tadanantar bhojadev kaavyavyutpatti ke kaaranon ka vivechan kar kaavya ke teen bhedon ko shravya, drushya evam chitraabhinya ke roop mein prastut karte hain. drushyakaavya ke antargat unhonne dasharoopakon ka ullekh naheen kiya hai varan nrutt evam nrutya par hi unka vibhaajan seemit hai.

teesare parichhed mein arthaanlakaaron ke svaroop evam prakaar bhed ka vivechan hai jo itar saahityaachaaryon ki apeksha bhinn svaroop ko liye hue hai.

chauthe parichhed mein ubhayaalankaaron ka vivechan hai jismein upama aadi alankaaron ke bhedopabhedon ko savistaar samajhaaya hai.

antim parichhed hai - rasavivechan. ismein naayakaadi ka tatha vibhaavon, bhaavon evam anubhaavon ka vistaarapoorvak svaroop nirnaya kiya gaya hai; saath hi saath kaavyapaak, vividh ratiraag ke svaroop ka bhi nirdesh hai. ant mein bhaarati, kaishiki aadi vruttiyon ke vivechan ke saath granthopasanhaar hota hai. sarasvateekanthaabharan mein rasasiddhaant ki vivechana praaya: vishay par ek vihangam drushtimaatr hai. kaavyagat ras gambhir vishay hai jiski garima ke saath poornat: nyaaya karne ki drushti se bhoj ne ek shrungaaraprakaash naamak svatantr granth ki rachana kar rasavivechan ke adhyaaya ki poorti ki hai.

visheshataaeain

sarasvateekanthaabharan ki visheshata yeh hai ki yeh itar saahityashaastreeya granthon ki apeksha vyaapak evam vyutpaadak granth hai. iske rachayita bhojadev granthavistaar ke bhaya se bheet honevaale naheen hain, udaaharan de-dekar anek sookshm bhed evam upabhedon ko samajhaane ka sada ve udaar prayaas karte hain. yadyapi unke dvaara upasthaapit bhedopabhedon ki maanyata paravarti granthakaaron ne sveekrut naheen ki hai tathaapi unke taatvik vivechan se sahasa asahamat hone ki drudhta bhi kutraapi drushtigochar naheen hoti.

teekaaeain

is granth par aadyopaant kisi teeka ki rachana naheen milti. pehle teen parichhedon par ratneshvar raamasinhakrut darpan teeka tatha chauthe parichhed par prasiddh teekaakaar jagadghar ki vivran naamak teeka upalabdh hain, pancham parichhed ka teeka naheen hai. yeh granth nirnaya saagar dvaara prakaashit hai. iska anuvaad abhi tak naheen hua hai. sarasvateekanthaabharan mein uddhrut udaaharan shlokon ki soochi aur unke rachayitaaon ki khoj kar ek soochi Colonel jekab ne banaai hai, jo India office laayabreri, London mein surakshit hai.

baahari kadiyaaain