sarason

bhaarateeya sarason ke peele fool

sarason krooseeferi (braiseekesi) kul ka dvibeejapatri, ekavarsheeya shaak jaateeya paudha hai. iska vaigyaanik naam bresika kampresatis hai. paudhe ki ooainchaai 1 se 3 foot hoti hai. iske tane mein shaakha-prashaakha hote hain. pratyek parv sandhiyon par ek saamaanya patti lagi rahati hai. pattiyaaain saral, ekaant aapaati, beenakaar hoti hain jinke kinaare aniyamit, sheersh nukeele, shiraavinyaas jaalikaavat hote hain.[1] ismein peele rang ke sampoorn fool lagte hain jo tane aur shaakhaaon ke oopari bhaag mein sthit hote hain. foolon mein ovari supeeriyr, lambi, chapati aur chhoti vartikaavaali hoti hai.[2] faliyaaain pakane par fat jaati hain aur beej jameen par gir jaate hain.[3] pratyek fali mein 8-10 beej hote hain. upajaati ke aadhaar par beej kaale athva peele rang ke hote hain. iski upaj ke liye domat mitti upayukt hai. saamaanyat: yeh December mein boi jaati hai aur March-April mein iski kataai hoti hai. Bhaarat mein iski kheti Punjab, uttar pradesh, Bihar, pashchim Bengal aur Gujarat mein adhik hoti hai.

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anukram

mahattv

Germany mein sarason ke tel ka upayog jaiv indhan ke roop mein bhi kiya jaata hai.

sarason ke beej se tel nikaala jaata hai jiska upayog vibhinn prakaar ke bhojya padaarth banaane aur shareer mein lagaane mein kiya jaata hai. iska tel anchaar, saabun tatha glisraal banaane ke kaam aata hai.[4] tel nikaale jaane ke baad praapt khali maveshiyon ko khilaane ke kaam aati hai. khali ka upayog urvarak ke roop mein bhi hota hai. iska sookha danthal jalaavan ke kaam mein aata hai. iske hare patte se sabji bhi banaai jaati hai. iske beejon ka upayog masaale ke roop mein bhi hota hai. yeh aayurved ki drushti se bhi bahut mahattvapoorn hai. iska tel sabhi charm rogon se raksha karta hai. sarason ras aur vipaak mein charapara, snigdh, kadva, teekha, garm, kaf tatha vaatanaashak, raktapitt aur agnivrddhak, khujali, kodh, pet ke krumi aadi naashak hai aur anek ghareloo nuskhon mein kaam aata hai.[5] Germany mein sarason ke tel ka upayog jaiv indhan ke roop mein bhi kiya jaata hai.

sarason ki kheti

Bhaarat mein mooaingafali ke baad sarason doosari sabse mahatvapoorn tilhani fasal hai jo mukhyataya Rajasthan, Punjab, madhya pradesh, uttar pradesh, Bihar, udeesa, pashchim Bengal evam asam mein ugaayi jaati hai. sarason ki kheti krushakon ke liye bahut lokapriya hoti ja rahi hai kyonki isse kam sinchaai va laagat se anya fasalon ki apeksha adhik laabh praapt ho raha hai. iski kheti mishrit fasal ke roop mein ya do fasaleeya chakr mein aasaani se ki ja sakti hai. sarason ki kam utpaadakata ke mukhya kaaran upayukt kismon ka chayan asantulit urvarak prayog evam paadap rog va keeton ki paryaapt rokathaam na karna, aadi hain. anusandhanon se pata chala hai ki unnatasheel sasya vidhiyaaain apna kar sarason se 25 se 30 quintal prati hekteyar tak upaj praapt ki ja sakti hai. fasal ki kam utpaadakata se kisaanon ki aarthik sthiti kaafi had tak prabhaavit hoti hai. is pariprekshya mein yeh aavashyak hai ki is fasal ki kheti unnatasheel sasya vidhiyaaain apnaakar ki jaaye.

khet ka chunaav va taiyaari

sarason ki achhi upaj ke liye samatal evam achhe jal nikaas waali balui domat se domat mitti upayukt rahati hai, lekin yeh lavaneeya evam kshaareeyata se mukt ho. kshaareeya bhoomi se upayukt kismon ka chunaav karke bhi iski kheti ki ja sakti hai. jahaaain ki mruda kshaareeya se vahaan prati teesare varsh jipsam 5 tan prati hekteyar ki dar se prayog karna chaahiye. jipsam ki aavashyakta mruda pi. H. maan ke anusaar bhinn ho sakti hai. jipsam ko May-June mein jameen mein mila dena chaahiye. sarason ki kheti baaraani evam sinchit donon hi dashaaon mein ki jaati hai. sinchit kshetron mein pehli jutaai mitti palatane vaale hal se aur uske baad teen-chaar jutaaiyaan tabedaar hal se karni chaahiye. pratyek jutaai ke baad khet mein paata lagaana chaahiye jisse khet mein dhele na banein. buaai se poorv agar bhoomi mein nami ki kami ho to khet mein paleva karne ke baad buaai karein. fasal buaai se poorv khet kharapatavaaron se rahit hona chaahiye. baaraani kshetron mein pratyek barasaat ke baad tavedaar hal se jutaai karni chaahiye jisse nami ka sanrakshan ho sake. pratyek jutaai ke baad paata lagaana chaahiye jisse ki mruda mein nami bane rahe. antim jutaai ke samay 1.5 pratishat kyoonaulafaus 25 kilo gram prati hekteyar ki dar se mruda mein mila dein, taaki bhoomigat keedon se fasal ki suraksha ho sake.

unnat kismein

beej ki maatra, beejopachaar evam buaai buaai mein deri hone ke upaj aur tel ki maatra donon mein kami aati hai. buaai ka uchit samay kism ke anusaar sitmbar madhya se lekar ant tak hai. beej ki maatra prati hekteyar 4-5 kilo gram paryaapt hoti hai. buaai se pehle beejon ko upachaarit karke bona chaahiye. beejopachaar ke liye kaarbendaajim (bauvisteen) 2 gram athva epron (S.di. 35) 6 gram kavakanaashak davaai prati kilo gram beej ki dar se beejopachaar karne se fasal par lagne vaale rogon ko kaafi had tak kam kiya ja sakta hai. beej ko paudhe se paudhe ki doori 10 sein.mi. rakhate huya kataaron mein 5 sein.mi. gahra boyein. kataar ke kataar ki doori 45 sein.mi. rakhein. baraani kshetron mein beej ki gaharaai mruda nami ke anusaar karein.

samay par buaai waali sinchit kshetr ki kismein

kismein pakaav avadhi (din) upaj (ki.gra. / hakte.) tel (pratishat) paidaavaar ke liye upayukt kshetr
poosa bold 110-140 2000-2500 40 Rajasthan, Gujarat, Delhi, Maharashtra
poosa jayakisaan (baayo 902) 155-135 2500-3500 40 Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan
kraanti 125-135 1100-2135 42 Haryana, uttar pradesh, Rajasthan
aar H 30 130-135 1600-2200 39 Haryana, Punjab, pashchimi Rajasthan
aar L M 619 140-145 1340-1900 42 Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu va Kashmir, Rajasthan
poosa vijay 135-154 1890-2715 38 Delhi
poosa mastard 21 137-152 1800-2100 37 Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan, uttar pradesh
poosa mastard 22 138-148 1674-2528 36 Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan

sankar kismein

kismein pakaav avadhi (din) upaj (ki.gra./hai.) tel (pratishat) paidaavaar ke liye upayukt kshetr
N aar si H bi 506 130-140 1550-2542 41 uttar pradesh, madhya pradesh, poorvi Rajasthan
di M H 1 145-150 1782-2249 39 Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan
pi A si 432 130-135 2000-2200 41 uttar pradesh, madhya pradesh, Rajasthan

asinchint kshetr ke liye kismein

kismein pakaav avadhi (din) upaj (ki.gra./hai.) tel (pratishat) paidaavaar ke liye upayukt kshetr
araavali 130-135 1200-1500 42 Rajasthan, Haryana
geeta 145-150 1700-1800 40 Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
aar ji N 48 138-157 1600-2000 40 Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
aar bi 50 141-152 846-2425 40 Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Jammu va Kashmir
poosa bahaar 108-110 1000-1200 42 asam, Bihar, udeesa, pashchim Bengal

ageti buaai tatha kam samay mein pakane waali kismein

kismein pakaav avadhi (din) upaj (ki.gra./hai.) tel (pratishat) paidaavaar ke liye upayukt kshetr
poosa agrani 110-115 1500-1800 40 Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan
poosa mastard 27 115-120 1400-1700 42 uttar pradesh, madhya pradesh, utaraakhand, Rajasthan
poosa mastard 28 105-110 1750-1990 41.5 Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Delhi, Jammu Kashmir
poosa sarason 25 105-110 39.6 uttari pashchimi raajya
poosa taarak 118-123 40 uttari pashchimi raajya
poosa mahak 115-120 40 uttari-poorvi va poorvi raajya

der se boi jaane waali kismein

kismein pakaav avadhi (din) upaj (ki.gra./hai.) tel (pratishat) paidaavaar ke liye upayukt kshetr
N aar si H bi 101 120-125 1200-1450 40 uttar pradesh, madhya pradesh, Rajasthan
si S 56 113-147 1170-1425 38 Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan
aar aar N 505 121-127 1200-1400 40 Rajasthan
aar ji N 145 121-141 1450-1640 39 Delhi Punjab, Haryana
poosa mastard 24 135-145 2020-2900 37 Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Jammu va Kashmir
poosa mastard 26 123-128 1400-1800 38 Jammu va Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Delhi, uttar pradesh

lavaneeya mruda ki kismein

kismein pakaav avadhi (din) upaj (ki.gra./hai.) tel (pratishat) paidaavaar ke liye upayukt kshetr
si S 54 135-145 1600-1900 40 sabhi lavaneeyata prabhaavit kshetr
si S 52 135-145 580-1600 41 sabhi lavaneeyata prabhaavit kshetr
Narendra raai 1 125-130 1100-1335 39 sabhi lavaneeyata prabhaavit kshetr

urvarakon ka upayog

mruda ki urvarata evam utpaadakata banaaye rakhane ke liye urvarakon ka santulit upayog bahut aavashyak hota hai. santulit urvarak upayog ke liye niyamit bhoomi pareekshan aavashyak hota hai. mruda pareekshan ke aadhar par urvarakon ki maatra nirdharit ki ja sakti hai. sarason ki fasal natraajan ke prati adhik samvedansheel hoti hai va iski aavashyakta bhi adhik maatra mein hoti hai. asinchit kshetron mein sarason ki fasal mein 40-60 kilo gram natraajan, 20-30 kilo gram faasforas, 20 kilo gram potaash va 20 kilogram salfar ki aavashyakta hai jabki sinchit fasal ko 80-120 kilo gram natraajan, 50-60 kilo gram faasforas, 20-40 kilo gram potaash va 20-40 kilo gram salfar ki aavashyakta hoti hai. natraajan ki poorti hetu amoniym salfet ka upayog karna chaahiye kyonki ismein salfar ki upalabdh rahata hai. sinchit kshetron mein natraajan ki aadhi maatra va faasforas potaash evam salfar ki poori maatra ko buaai ke samay, beej se 5 sein.mi. neeche mruda mein dena chaahiye tatha natraajan ki shesh aadhi maatra ko pehli sinchaai ke saath dena chaahiye. ainchit kshetron mein urvarakon ki sampoorn maatra buaai ke samay khet mein daal deni chaahiye.

sarason ki fasal se adhik upaj praapt karne ke liye sookshm poshak tatvon ka upayog atiaavashyak hota hai. jink ki kami waali mruda mein jink daalne se kareeb 25-30 pratishat tak paidaavaar mein vruddhi hoti hai. jink ki poorti hetu bhoomi mein buaai se pehle 25 kilo gram jink salfet prati hekteyar akele ya jaivik khaad ke saath prayog kiya ja sakta hai. agar khadi fasal mein jink ki kami ke lakshan dikhaai de to 0.5 pratishat jink salfet va 0.25 prati bujhe hue choone (200 liter paani mein 1 kilogram jink salfet tatha bujhe hue choone) ka ghol banaakar parneeya chhidkaav karna chaahiye. boron ki kami waali mrudaaon mein 10 kilo gram boreks prati hekteyar ki dar se buaai ke poorv mruda mein mila dein.

thaayo yuriya ka prayog

anusandhanon ev pareekshanon ke gyaat hua hai ki thaayo yuriya ke prayog se sarason ki upaj ko 15 se 20 pratishat tak badhaaya ja sakta hai. thaayo yuriya mein upasthit salfar ke kaaran paudhein ki aantarik kaaryiki mein sudhar hota hai. thaayo yuriya mein 42 pratishat gandhk evam 36 pratishat natraajan hoti hai. sarason ki fasal mein 0.1 pratishat thaayo yuriya (500 liter paani mein 500 gram thaayo yuriya) ke do parneeya chhidkaav upayukt paaye gaye hain. pehla chhidkaav fool aane ke samay (buaai ke 50 din baad) evam doosra chhidkaav faliyaan bante samay karna chaahiye.

jaivik khaad

asinchit kshetron mein 4-5 tan prati hekteyar tatha sinchit kshetron mein 8-10 tan prati hekteyar ki dar se achhi sadi hui gobar ki khaad buaai ke ek maah poorv khet mein daalkar jutaai kar achhi tarah mruda mein mila dein. gobar ki khaad mein mukhya poshak tatvon ke saath sookshm poshak tatv bhi paaye jaate hain jisse paudhein ko uchit poshan praapt hota hai. gobar ki khaad se mruda ki jal dharan kshamata mein vruddhi hoti hai evam mruda sanrachana mein sudhar hota hai. at: bhoomi ki urvara shakti ko banaaye rakhane ke liye jaivik khaadon ka upayog aavashyak hota hai. sarason ki fasal se poorv hari khaad ka bhi prayog kiya ja sakta hai. iske liye varsha shuroo hote hi dhaincha ki buaai karein va 45-50 din baad fool aane se pehle mruda mein daba dena chaahiye. sinchit evam baaraani donon kshetron mein pi.S.bi. (10-15 gram prati kilo gram beej) evam ejotobaiktar se beejopachaar bhi laabhadaayak rahata hai, iske natraajan evam faasforas ki upalabdhta badhti hai va upaj mein vruddhi hoti hai.

paudhein ka virleekaran

khet mein paudhein ki uchit sanrakshan aur samaan badhvaar ke liye buaai ke 15-20 din baad paudhein ka virleekaran aavashyak roop se karna chaahiye. virleekaran dvaara paudhein se paudhein ki doori 10 se 15 se.mi. kar deni chaahiye jisse paudhein ki uchit badhvaar ho sakein.

jal prabandhan

sarason ki achhi fasal ke liye pehli sinchaai khet ki nami, fasal ki jaati aur mruda prakaar ko dekhte hue 30 se 40 din ke beech fool banane ki avastha par hi karni chaahiye. doosari sinchaai faliyaan bante samay (60-70 din) karna laabhadaayak hota hai. jahaaain paani ki kami ho ya khaara paani ho vahaaain siprf ek hi sinchaai karna achha rahata hai. baaraani kshetron mein sarason ki achhi upaj praapt karne ke liye monsoon ke dauraan khet ki achhi tarah do-teen baar jutaai karein evam gobar ki khaad ka prayog karein jisse mruda ki jal dharan kshamata mein vruddhi hoti hai. vaashpeekaran dvaara nami ka hraas rokane ke liye ant: sasya kriyaayein karein evam mruda satah par jalavaar ka prayog karein.

kharapatavaar niyantran

kharapatavaar fasal ke saath jal, poshak tatvon, sthaan evam prakaash ke liye pratispardh karte hain. kharapatavaaron ko khet se nikaalne aur nami sanrakshan ke liye buaai ke 25 se 30 din baad niraai-gudaai karni chaahiye. kharapatavaaron ke kaaran sarason ki upaj mein 60 pratishat tak ki kami aa jaati hai. kharapatavaar niyantran ke liye khurapi evam haind ho ka prayog kiya jaata hai. rasaayanik kharapatavaar niyantran ke liye fraluklorelin (45 E.si.) ki ek liter sakriya tatv/hekteyar (2.2 liter dava) ki dar se 800 liter paani mein milaakar buaai ke poorv chhidkaav kar bhoomi mein bhali-bhaanti mila dena chaahiye athva pendeemitheleen (30 E.si) ki 1 liter sakriya tatv (3.3 liter davaaddh ko 800 liter paani mein milaakar buaai ke turant baad (buaai ke 1-2 din ke andar) chhidkaav karna chaahiye.

keet evam rog prabandhan

sarason ki upaj ko badhaane tatha use tikaauf banaane ke maarg mein naashak jeevon aur rogon ka prakop ek pramukh samasya hai. is fasal ko keeton evam rogon se kaafi nuksaan pahunchata hai jisse iski upaj mein kaafi kami ho jaati hai. yadi samay rahate in rogon evam keeton ka niyantran kar liya jaaye to sarason ke utpaadan mein badhottri ki ja sakti hai. cheinpa ya maahoo, aaraamakkhi, chitkabara keet, leef maainar, Bihar heyari ketarapilr aadi sarason ke mukhya naashi keet hain. kaala dhbba, safed ratuaa, mruduromil aasita, choornal aasita evam tana galan aadi sarason ke mukhya rog hain.

sarason ke pramukh keet

cheinpa ya maahoo:

sarason mein maahoo pankhaheen ya pankhayukt halke sleti ya hare rang ke 1.5-3.0 mimi. lambe chubhane evam choosane mukhaang vaale chhote keet hote hai. is keet ke shishu evam praudh paudhon ke komal tanon, pattiyon, foolo evam nai faliyon se ras choosakar use kamjor evam chhatigrast to karte hi hai saath-saath ras choosate samay pattiyoper madhusraav bhi karte hai. is madhusraav par kaale kavak ka prakop ho jaata hai tatha prakaash sanshleshan ki kriya baadhit ho jaati hai. is keet ka prakop December-January se lekar March tak bana rahata hai.

jab fasal mein kam se kam 10 pratishat paudhein ki sankhya cheinpa se grasit ho va 26-28 cheinpa/paudha ho tab daaimithoet (rogor) 30 E si ya monokrotofaas (nyoovaakron) 36 ghulanasheel dravya ki 1 liter maatra ko 600-800 liter paani mein gholakar prati hekteyar mein chhidkaav karna chaahiye. yadi dubaara se keet ka prakop ho to 15 din ke antaraal se pun: chhidkaav karna chaahiye.

iske prabandhan ke liye-

1. maahoo ke praakrutik shatruo ka sanrakshan karna chaahiye.
2. praarambh mein prakopit shaakhaaon ko todakar bhoomi mein gaad dena chaahiye.
3. maahoo se fasal ko bachaane ke liye keet naashi daaimethoet 30 E . si .1 liter ya mithaail O demetaan 25 E. si.1 liter ya feintothion 50 E . si .1 liter prati hekteyar ki dar 700-800 liter paani mein gholakar chhidkaav saayankaal karna chaahiye.
aara makkhee:

is keet ki rokathaam hetu melaathiyaan 50 E.si. maatra ko 500 liter paani mein gholakar prati hekteyar mein chhidkaav karna chaahiye. aavashyakta padne par dubaara chhidkaav karna chaahiye.

pented bag ya chitkabara keet:

is keet ki rokathaam hetu 20-25 kilo gram prati hekteyar ki dar se 1.5 pratishat kyoonaalafaas choorn ka bhurakaav karein. ugr prakop ke samay melaathiyaan 50 E.si. ki 500 mi.li. maatra ko 500 liter paani mein gholakar prati hekteyar ke hisaab se chhidkaav karein.

Bihar heyari ketarapilr:

iski rokathaam hetu melaathiyaan 50 E.si. ki 1.0 liter maatra ko 500 liter paani mein gholakar prati hekteyar ke hisaab se chhidkaav karein. sarason ke pramukh rog

safed ratuva ya shvet kitt:

fasal ke rog ke lakshan dikhaai dene par mainkojeb (daaithen M-45) ya ridomil M.Z. 72 dabloo.pi. fafooaindanaashi ke 0.2 pratishat ghol ka chhidkaav 15-15 din ke antar par karne ke safed ratuaa se bachaaya ja sakta hai.

kaala dhabba ya parn chittee:

is rog ki rokathaam hetu aaiprodiyaun (rovaraul), menkojeb (daaithen M-45) fafoondanaashi ke 0.2 pratishat ghol ka chhidkaav rog ke lakshan dikhaai dene par 15-15 din ke se adhiktam teen chhidkaav karein.

choornil aasitaa:

choornil aasita rog ki rokathaam hetu ghulanasheel salfar (0.2 pratishat) ya dinokaap (0.1 pratishat) ki vaanchhit maatra ka ghol banaakar rog ke lakshan dikhaai dene par chhidkaav karein. aavashyakta hone par 15 din baad pun: chhidkaav karein.

mruduromil aasitaa:

safed ratuaa rog ke prabandhan dvaara is rog ka bhi niyantran ho jaata hai.

tana lagan:

kaarbendaajim (0.1 pratishat) fafoondeenaashak ka chhidkaav do baar fool aane ke samay 20 din ke antaraal (buaai ke 50vein va 70vein din par) par karne se rog ka bachaav kiya ja sakta hai.

fasal kataai

sarason ki fasal February-March tak pak jaati hai. fasal ki uchit paidaavaar ke liye jab 75 pratishat faliyaaain peeli ho jaayein tab hi fasal ki kataai karein kyonki adhiktar kismon mein is avastha ke baad beej bhaar tatha tel pratishat mein kami ho jaati hai. sarason ki fasal mein daanon ka bikhraav rokane ke liye fasal ki kataai subah ke samay karni chaahiye kyonki raat ki os se subah ke samay faliyaaain nam rahati hai tatha beej ka bikhraav kam hota hai.

fasal madaai (gahaai)

jab beejon mein ausatan 12-20 pratishat aardrata pratishat ho jaaya tab fasal ki gahaai karni chaahiye. fasal ki madaai thairasar se hi karni chaahiye kyonki isse beej tatha bhoosa alag-alag nikal jaate hain saath hi saath ek din mein kaafi maatra mein sarason ki madaai ho jaati hai. beej nikalne ke baad unako saaf karke boron mein bhar lene evam 8-9 pratishat nami ki avastha mein sookhe sthaan par bhandaaran karein.

chitr deergha

sandarbh

  1. Singh, brujaraaj (July 2007). jeevan vigyaan parichay. Kolkata: Abhishek prakaashan.
  2. bilgraami, krushnasahaaya (July 1997). intarameediyet vanaspati vigyaan. Patna: bhaarati bhavan. pa॰ 99.
  3. Singh, manishankar (July 2006). aadhunik jeev vigyaan. Kolkata: kamala pustak bhavan.
  4. rai, umaashankar (July 1983). jeevan vigyaan darpan. Kolkata: Bapu pustak bhandaar.
  5. "sarason : graameen vanaspati". vebaduniya. http://hindi.webduniya.com/miscellaneous/health/homeremedies/0812/15/1081215019_1.htm. abhigman tithi: 2009.

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