sanyukt raashtra mahaasabha

'sanyukt raashtra'
mahaasabha
महासभा का न्यूयॉर्क में सम्मेलन
mahaasabha ka New York mein sammelan
mukhyaalaya mainahaitan dweep, New York shahar, New York, sanyukt raajya
sadasya varg 192 sadasya desh
adhikaari bhaashaaen arabi, angreji, cheeni, fraanseesi, roosi, speni
adhyaksh sabha adhyaksh haya rashed al-khaleef
jaalasthal http://www.un.org/en/ga/

sanyukt raashtra mahaasabha (angreji: United Nations General Assembly), sanyukt raashtra ki sarvaangeen sanstha hai, jismein sanyukt raashtra ke samast sadasya raashtron ka sam pratinidhitv hai. mahaasabha sanyukt raashtra ke ghoshanaapatr ke antargat aanevaale samast vishyon par tatha sanyukt raashtra ke vibhinn angon ki kaaryaparidhi mein aanevaale prashnon par vichaar karti hai aur sadasya raashtron evam suraksha parishd se uchit abhistaav kar sakti hai.

yeh sanyukt raashtra ke paanch mukhya angon mein se ek hai. is sabha ka har varsh sab sadasya deshon ke pratinidhiyon ke saath sammelan hota hai. in pratinidhiyon mein se ek ko adhyaksh chuna jaata hai. kyonki samaanya sabha vah akela mukhya ang hai jismein sab sadasya desh sammilit hote hai, uske sammelan adhiktar vivaad ke manch hote hai.

anukram

vivran

mahaasabha baakaayada, vishesh aur aapaat adhiveshan mein milti hai. baakaayada adhiveshan September ke teesare mangalvaar ko aayojit hoti hai aur December mein thodi der ke liye rukati hai. agale varsh, yadi aavashyakta pade, to mahaasabha fir se aayojit hoti hai aur yeh adhiveshan September mein, doosare adhiveshan ke ek din pehle, samaapt hoti hai. har adhiveshan ke teen maheene pehle sabha ka adhyaksh chuna jaata hai (2003 tak, adhyaksh adhiveshan ke pehle sammelan mein chuna jaata tha). aaranbhik do saptaahon ke liye, samaanya vivaad jaari rahate hain, jismein mahaasachiv aur adhyaksh ke baad har pratinidhi ko sabha ke saamane vyaakhyaan dene ka avsar diya jaata hai.

mahaasabha ke vishesh adhiveshan suraksha parishad ya sabha ke bahumat ke anurodh dvaara aayojit ki ja sakti hai.

mahatvapoorn prashnon (jaise shaanti aur suraksha ke liye sifaarish, sanyukt raashtra ke angon ke sadasyon ka chunaav, aarthik nirnaya, sadasyon ke pravesh, nishkaasan, aadi) ke nirnaya do tihaai bahumat ke anusaar hote hain. baaki ke nirnaya saadhaaran bahumat ke anusaar liye jaate hain. har sadasya ko ek mat milta hai.

1980 ke aas-paas, mahaasabha vikaasasheel raashtron aur viksit raashtron ke beech ke vivaad ki jagah ban gayi thi. sabha ke do tihaai se adhik sadasya vikaasasheel raashtron ke hain aur isliye vikaasit raashtron ke paas mahaasabha mein sankhya bal ki drushti se adhik shakti naheen hai.

pramukh vichaaraneeya vishay

mahaasabha ke pramukh vichaaraneeya vishay hai - ni:shastreekaran evam shastraniyantran ke siddhaant aur antararaashtreeya shaanti evam suraksha sambandhi prashn. mahaasabha ko antararaashtreeya sahayog ki vruddhi, antararaashtreeya vidhi ka vikkaas evam sanhitaakaran, maanavamaatr ke maulik adhikaar aadi vishyon par adhyayan ki vyavastha karke unapar abhistaav karne ka bhi adhikaar hai. mahaasabha suraksha parishd ka dhyaan un sthitiyon ki or aakrusht kar sakti hai jinse shaanti evam suksha ko sankat ki aashanka hai. uparyukt vishyon par mahaasabha ke prastaav aadeshaatmak nahi hai parantu apne naitik bal evam vishv janamat ke nirdeshak hone ke naate unka vishesh mahatva hai. iske atirikt mahaasabha suraksha parishd ke asthaayi sadasyon aur saamaajik aarthik parishd ev nyaasatv parishd ke sadasyon ko nirvaachit karti hai aur mahaasachiv evam antararaashtreeya nyaayaalaya ke nyaayaadheesh ke nirvaachan mein yog deti hai. raashtrasangh ke sadasyon ka pravesh aur nishkaasan bhi, suraksha parishd ki sanstuti par, mahaasabha dvaara kiya jaata hai. mahaasabha ke anya krutyon mein raashtrasangh ke bajat ka anumodan, nyaas vyavastha ka paryavekshan aur anya angon ke kaaryon ka sanyojan ullekhaneeya hai.

mahaasabha ka niyamit adhiveshan prati varg September maas se hota hai parantu adhikaansh sadasyon athva suraksha parishd ke anurodh par, mahaasachiv vishesh adhiveshan bula sakta hai. mahaasabha pratyek adhiveshan ke liye ek sabhaapati aur saat upasabhaapati chunati hai.

samitiyaaain

mahaasabha ka adhikaansh kaarya nimn saat mukhya samitiyon mein hota hai jinmein pratyek sadasya raashtra ke pratinidhi hote hain:

  1. raajaneetik evam suraksha samiti
  2. aarthik evam vitteeya samiti
  3. saamaajik, maanaveeya evam saanskrutik samiti
  4. nyaas samiti
  5. prashaasan evam bajat samiti
  6. vidhi samiti
  7. vishesh raajaneetik samiti

mahaasabha ki do prakriyaatmak samitiyaaain bhi hain:

  1. saamaanya samiti uparyukt samitiyon ke kaaryo ka samanvaya karti hai.
  2. pramaanapatr samiti pratinidhiyon ke pramaanapatron par vichaar karti hai.

pramukh kaarya

sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad ke sthaayi sadasyon ke nishedhaadhikaar prayog se utpann raashtrasangh ki akarmanyata ke nivaaran ke liye mahaasabha ne 1940 mein laghusabha naamak ek antarim samiti ki sthaapana ki. mahaasabha ke satraavasaan mein mahaasabha ka kaarya laghusabha kar sakti hai aur mahaasabha ka adhiveshan bula sakti hai. iske anusaar, suraksha parishd mein shaanti evam suraksha ke prashnon par mataikya na hone par, 24 ghante ki soochana par mahaasabha ka vishesh adhiveshan bulaaya ja sakta hai jo saamoohik upaayon ka abhistaav aur sainik kaaryavaahi ka nirdesh kar sakta hai.

mahaasabha dvaara suraksha parishaad ke 10 asthaayi sadasyon tatha saamaajik evam aarthik parishaad ke 54 sadasyon evam nyaas parishaad ke asthaayi sadasyon ka nirvaachan kiya jaata hai.

antararaashtreeya nyaayaalaya ke sadasyon ka nirvaachan karne ka adhikaar saamaanya roop se mahaasabha(aam sabha)evam suraksha parishaad ko hi hain.

mahaasabha ne pichhle varshon mein vishv ki vibhinn jatil samasyaaon par vichaar kiya aur Korea, grees, pailestaain, Spain aadi ke prashn par uchit kaaryavaahi ki. 1959 mein Britain, France aur isaraail dvaara svej par kiye gaye aakraman ko rokane mein mahaasabha safal hui. mahaasabha ko praapt safalataaon evam asafalataaon ke aadhaar par iska moolyaankan karna uchit na hoga. yadyapi mahaasabha ke nirnaya sadasyon ke liye aadeshaatmak naheen hai, tathaapi vishv itihaas ki sarvaadhik pratinidhi sanstha hone ke naate antararaashtreeya shaanti evam sahayog ki sthaapana ke liye usaka mahatvapoorn sthaan nirvivaad hai.