sanyukt raashtra

sanyukt raashtra
संयुक्त राष्ट्र झंडा
sanyukt raashtra jhanda
mukhyaalaya mainahaitan taapoo, New York shahar, New York, sanyukt raajya
sadasya varg 192 sadasya desh
adhikaari bhaashaaen arabi, cheeni, angreji, fraanseesi, roosi, speni
adhyaksh mahaasachiv baan keemoon
jaalasthal http://www.un.org

sanyukt raashtra (angreji: United Nations) ek antararaashtreeya sangathan hai, jiske uddeshya mein ullekh hai ki yeh antararaashtreeya kaanoon ko suvidhaajanak banaane ke sahayog, antarraashtreeya suraksha, aarthik vikaas, saamaajik pragati, maanav adhikaar aur vishv shaanti ke liye kaaryarat hai. sanyukt raashtra ki sthaapana 24 October 1945 ko sanyukt raashtra adhikaarapatr par 50 deshon ke hastaakshar hone ke saath hui.

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke vijeta deshon ne milkar sanyukt raashtra ko antarraashtreeya sangharsh mein hastakshep karne ke uddeshya se sthaapit kiya tha. ve chaahate the ki bhavishya me fir kabhi dviteeya vishvayuddh ki tarah ke yuddh na ubhar aae. sanyukt raashtra ki sanrachana mein suraksha parishad vaale sabse shaktishaali desh (sanyukt raajya America, fraans, roos aur sanyukt raajashaahi) dviteeya vishvayuddh mein bahut aham desh the.

vartamaan mein sanyukt raashtra me 193 desh hai, vishv ke lagbhag saare antarraashtreeya maanyata praapt desh. is sanstha ki sanrachan mein aam sabha, suraksha parishad, aarthik va saamaajik parishad, sachivaalaya aur antarraashtreeya nyaayaalaya sammilit hai.

anukram

itihaas

sain frainsisko ki sanyukt raashtra sammelan

pratham vishvayuddh ke baad 1929 mein raashtra sangh ka gathan kiya gaya tha. raashtra sangh kaafi had tak prabhaavaheen tha aur sanyukt raashtra ka usaki jagah hone ka yeh bahut bada faayda hai ki sanyukt raashtra apne sadasya deshon ki senaaon ko shaanti sambhaalne ke liye tainaat kar sakta hai.

sanyukt raashtra ke baare mein vichaar pehli baar dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samaapt hone ke pehle ubhare the. dviteeya bhishv yuddh me vijayi hone vaale deshon ne milkar koshish ki ki ve is sanstha ki sanrachan, sadasyata, aadi ke baare mein kuchh nirnaya kar paae.

24 April 1945 ko, dviteeya vishvayuddh ke samaapt hone ke baad, America ke sain frainsisko mein antaraashtreeya sansthaaon ki sanyukt raashtra sammelan hui aur yahaan saare 40 upasthit deshon ne sanyukt raashtriya sanvidha par hastaakshar kiya. Poland is sammelan mein upasthit to naheen thi, par uske hastaakshar ke liye khaas jagah rakhi gayi thi aur baad mein Poland ne bhi hastaakshar kar diya. suraksha parishad ke paanch sthaayi deshon ke hastaakshar ke baad sanyukt raashtra ki astitv hui.

sadasya varg

sanyukt raashtra ke sadasya deshon ka vishv naksha

2006 tak sanyukt raashtra mein 192 sadasya desh hai. vishv ke lagbhag saari maanyata praapt desh [1]sadasya hai. kuchh vishesh upavaad taivaan (jiski sthiti cheen ko 1971 mein de di gayi thi), vaitikn, filisteen (jisko darshak ki sthiti ka sadasya maana ja [2] sakta hai), tatha aur kuchh desh. sabse nae sadasya desh hai maaainteneegro, jisko 28 June, 2006 ko sadasya banaaya gaya.

mukhyaalaya

sanyukt raashtra mukhyaalaya

sanyukt raashtra ka mukhyaalaya America ke New York shahar mein pachaasi lakh dollar ke liye khareedi bhoosanpatti par sthaapit hai. is imaarat ki sthaapana ka prabandh ek antarraashtreeya shilpakaaron ke samooh dvaara hua. is mukhyaalaya ke alaava aur aham sansthaaen janeeva, kopanahegan aadi mein bhi hai.
yeh sansthaaen sanyukt raashtra ke svatantr adhikaar kshetr to naheen hain, parantu unako kaafi svatantrataaen di jaati hai.

bhaashaaeain

sanyukt raashtra ne 6 bhaashaaon ko "raaj bhaasha" sveekrut kiya hai (arabi, cheeni, angreji, fraanseesi, roosi aur speni), parantu in mein se keval do bhaashaaon ko sanchaalan bhaasha maana jaata hai (angreji aur fraanseesi).

sthaapana ke samay, keval chaar raaj bhaashaaen sveekrut ki gayi thi (cheeni, angreji, fraanseesi, roosi) aur 1973 mein arabi aur speni ko bhi sanmilit kiya gaya. in bhaashaaon ke baare mein kaafi vivaad uthata hai. kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki raaj bhaashaaon ko 6 se ek (angreji) tak ghataana chaahiye, parantu inke virodh hai ve jo maanate hai ki raaj bhaashaaon ko badhaana chaahiye. in logon mein se kai ka maanana hai ki hindi ko sanmilit karna aavashyak hai.

sanyukt raashtra ameriki angreji ki jagah british angreji ka prayog karta hai. 1971 tak, jab tak sanyukt raashtra taivaan ke sarkaar ko cheen ka adhikaari sarkaar maana jaata tha, cheeni bhaasha ke paramparaagat akshar ka prayog chalta tha. jab taivaan ki jagah aaj ke cheeni sarkaar ko sveekrut kiya gaya, sanyukt raashtra ne saraleekrut akshar ke prayog ka praarambh kiya.

uddeshya

sanyukt raashtra ke vyakt uddeshya hain yuddh rokana, maanav adhikaaron ki raksha karna, antarraashtreeya kaanoon ko nibhaane ki prakriya jutaana, saamaajik aur aarthik vikaas [3] ubhaarana, jeevan star sudhaarana aur bimaariyon se ladna. sadasya raashtra ko antarraashtreeya chintaaen aur raashtreeya maamalon ko samhaalane ka mauka milta hai. in uddeshya ko nibhaane ke liye 1948 mein maanav adhikaaron ki saarvabhaum ghoshana pramaanit ki gayi.

maanav adhikaar

dviteeya vishvayuddh ke jaatisanhaar ke baad, sanyukt raashtra ne maanav adhikaaron ko bahut aavashyak samjha tha. aisi ghatnaaon ko bhavishya mein rokana aham samajhakar, 1948 mein saamaanya sabha ne maanav adhikaaron ki saarvabhaum ghoshana ko sveekrut kiya. yeh abandhanakaari ghoshana poore vishv ke liye ek samaan darja sthaapit karti hai, jo ki sanyukt raashtra samarthan karne ki koshish karegi.

15 March 2006 ko, samaanya sabha ne sanyukt raashtra maanav adhikaaron ke aayog ko tyaagakar sanyukt raashtra maanav adhikaar parishad ki sthaapana ki.

aaj maanav adhikaaron ke sambandh mein saat sangh nikaaya sthaapit hai. yeh saat nikaaya hain:

  1. maanav adhikaar sansad
  2. aarthik saamaajik aur saanskrutik adhikaaron ka sansad
  3. jaateeya bhedabaav nishkaasan sansad
  4. naari viruddh bhedabhaav nishkaasan sansad
  5. yaatana viruddh sansad
  6. bachchon ke adhikaaron ka sansad
  7. pravaasi karmachaari sansad

sanyukt raashtra mahila (yooen voomen)

vishv mein mahilaaon ke samaanata ke mudde ko protsaahit karne ke uddeshya se vishv nikaaya ke bheetar ekal agency ke roop mein sanyukt raashtra mahila ke gathan ko 4 July 2010 ko sveekruti pradaan kar di gayi. vaastavik taur par 01 January 2011 ko iski sthaapana ki gayi. mukhyaalaya America ke New York shahar mein banaaya gaya hai. yooen voomen ki vartamaan pramukh chili ki poorv pradhaanamantri sushri Michelle baishalait hain. sanstha ka pramukh kaarya mahilaaon ke prati sabhi tarah ke bhedabhaav ko door karne tatha unke sashaktikran ki disha mein prayaas karna hoga. ullekhaneeya hai ki 1953 mein 8vein sanyukt raashtra mahaasabha ki pratham mahila adhyaksh hone ka gaurav Bhaarat ki vijyalakshmi pandit ko praapt hai. sanyukt raashtra ke 4 sangathanon ka vilay karke nai ikaai ko sanyukt raashtra mahila naam diya gaya hai. ye sangathan nimnavat hain:

  • sanyukt raashtra mahila vikaas kosh 1976
  • mahila sanvardhan prabhaag 1946
  • lingaadhaarit mudde par vishesh salaahakaar kaaryaalaya 1997
  • mahila sanvardhan hetu sanyukt raashtra antararaashtreeya shodh aur prashikshan sansthaan 1976

shaantirksha

sanyukt raashtra ke shaantirkshak vahaan bheje jaate hain jahaan hinsa kuchh der pehle se band hai taaki vah shaanti sangh ki sharton ko lagoo rakhein aur hinsa ko rokakar rakhein. yeh dal sadasya raashtra dvaara pradaan hote hain aur shaantirksha karyon mein bhaag lena vaikalpik hota hai. vishv mein keval do raashtra hain jinne har shaantirksha kaarya mein bhaag liya hai: Canada aur Portugal. sanyukt raashtra svatantr sena naheen rakhati hai. shaantirksha ka har kaarya suraksha parishad dvaara anumodit hota hai.

sanyukt raashtra ke sansthaapakon ko oonchi ummeed thi ki vah yuddh ko hamesha ke liye rok paaenge, par sheet yuddh (1945 - 1991) ke samay vishv ka virodhi bhaagon mein vibhaajit hone ke kaaran, shaantirksha sangh ko banaae rakhana bahut kathin tha.

sangh ki svatantr sansthaaen

sanyukt raashtra sangh ki vishisht sansthaaen
san. laghunaam dhvaj sanstha mukhyaalaya adhyaksh sthaapana
1 efaeo
खाद्य एवं कृषि संगठन
khaadya evam krushi sangathan इटली rom, Italy सेनेगल jaikas diyof 1945
2 aaieie
अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय परमाणु ऊर्जा अभिकरण
antarraashtreeya parmaanu oorja abhikran ऑस्ट्रिया viyna, ostriya जापान yukeeya amaano 1957
3 aaiseeeo
अंतर्राष्ट्रीय नागर विमानन संगठन
antarraashtreeya naagar vimaanan sangathan कनाडा mauntriyl, Canada फ़्रान्स remand benjaamin 1947
4 aaiefaedi
अंतर्राष्ट्रीय कृषि विकास कोष
antarraashtreeya krushi vikaas kosh इटली rom, Italy नाईजीरिया kanaayo ef nvaanje 1977
5 aaielo
अंतर्राष्ट्रीय श्रम संघ
antarraashtreeya shram sangh स्विट्ज़रलैंड jeneva, Switzerland चिली juaan somaaviya 1946
6 aaiemao
अंतर्राष्ट्रीय सागरीय संगठन
antarraashtreeya saagareeya sangathan यूनाइटेड किंगडम London, Britain यूनान E. mitropaulus 1948
7 aaiemaef antarraashtreeya mauneetari fund संयुक्त राज्य Washington, san.ra फ़्रान्स domineek straus kaahn 1945
8 aaiteeyoo antarraashtreeya doorasanchaar sangh स्विट्ज़रलैंड jeneva, Switzerland माली hamaadooon taure 1947
9 yoonesko
संयुक्त राष्ट्र शैक्षिक, वैज्ञानिक एवं सांस्कृतिक संगठन
sanyukt raashtra shaikshik, vaigyaanik evam saanskrutik sangathan फ़्रान्स pairis, France बुल्गारिया aayareena bokova 1946
10 yooenaaaideeo
संयुक्त राष्ट्र औद्योगिक विकास संगठन
sanyukt raashtra audyogik vikaas sangathan ऑस्ट्रिया viyna, ostriya सियरा लोन kaandeh yumakela 1967
11 yoopeeyoo
वैश्विक डाक संघ
vaishvik daak sangh स्विट्ज़रलैंड barn, Switzerland फ़्रान्स eduaardo daayan 1947
12 dablyu bi
विश्व बैंक
vishv bank संयुक्त राज्य Washington, san.ra संयुक्त राज्य Robert bi jolik 1945
13 dablyu efapi vishv khaadya kaaryakram इटली rom, Italy संयुक्त राज्य joset sheeraan 1963
14 dablyu H O
विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन
vishv svaasthya sangathan स्विट्ज़रलैंड jeneva, Switzerland हाँगकाँग maargaret chain 1948
15 dablyuaaipeeo
वर्ल्ड इन्टलेक्चुअल प्रोपर्टी ऑर्गनाइजेशन
world intalekchual proparti organaaijeshan स्विट्ज़रलैंड jeneva, Switzerland ऑस्ट्रेलिया Francis guri 1974
16 dablyuemao
विश्व मौसम संगठन
vishv mausam sangathan स्विट्ज़रलैंड jeneva, Switzerland रूस elekjendar bedritski 1950
17 dablyuteeo
विश्व पर्यटन संगठन
vishv paryatan sangathan स्पेन madreed, Spain जार्डन taalib rifaai 1974

sanyukt raashtra sangh ke apne kai kaaryakramon aur agencyon ke alaava 14 svatantr sansthaaon se iski vyavastha gathit hoti hai. svatantr sansthaaon mein vishv bank, antarraashtreeya mudra kosh aur vishv svaasthya sangathan shaamil hain. inka sanyukt raashtra sangh ke saath sahayog samjhauta hai. sanyukt raashtra sangh ki apni kuchh pramukh sansthaaen aur kaaryakram hain.[4] ye is prakaar hain:

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain