sanyukt raajya America ke raashtrapatiyon ki soochi

सामने से व्हाइट हाउस का एक चित्र
raashtrapati ke sarkaari nivaas aur prashaasan ka kendra, white house

sanyukt raajya ke samvidhaan ke mutaabik, raashtrapati desh aur sarkaar donon ka pramukh hai. desh ki kaaryakaarini shaakha aur sangheeya sarkaar ke mukhiya ke roop mein raashtrapati pad prabhaav aur maanyata dvaara sanyukt raajya America mein sarvochch raajaneetik pad hai. raashtrapati sanyukt raajya America ke sashastr balon ka pramukh bhi hai. raashtrapati paroksh roop se ek nirvaachak mandal dvaara chaar saal ke kaaryakaal ke liye chuna jaata hai (ya pratinidhi sabha dvaara agar nirvaachak mandal kisi bhi vyakti ko bahumat naheen deta hai). 1951 mein sanyukt raajya America ke samvidhaan mein baaisavein (22) sanshodhan ke baad se koi bhi vyakti do baar se adhik raashtrapati nirvaachit naheen kiya ja sakta hai aur koi bhi jisne do saal se zyaada raashtrapati ka kaaryabhaar sambhaala hai jab koi aur nirvaachit hua tha (hatya, mrutyu ya pad tyaag ke kaaran), ek se adhik baar chune naheen ja sakte hain.[1] agar koi avalanbi raashtrapati kaaryaalaya ke beech mein pad tyaag deta hai ya unhein hata diya jaata hai ya unki mrutyu ho ja jaati hai, is paristhiti mein uparaashtrapati unka pad sanbhaal leta hai. kisi vyakti ko raashtrapati banane ke liye 35 ya usase adhik varsh ka hona jaroori hai, nyoonatam 14 saal vo sanyukt raajya America mein rahe hon aur vo "praakrutik roop se janme" America ke naagrik ho. aaj tak 43 vyakti raashtrapati pad par aaseen huye hai aur 44 kaaryakaal huye hai, choonki Grover kleevalaand gairalagaataar do baar raashtrapati bane the. raashtrapati ke roop mein nirvaachit vyaktiyon mein se chaar logo ki kaaryaalaya avadhi mein mrutyu ho gayi thi (William henari hairisn,[2] jekari Taylor,[3] vaaren haarding,[4] aur freinkalin rojvelt), chaar ki hatya kar di gayi (Abraham Lincoln,[5] James gaarfeeld,[5][6] William makinli,[7] aur jaahn kenedi) aur ek ne isteefa de diya (richrd Nixon).[8]

George Washington 1789 mein nirvaachan mandal ke sarvasammat vote ke baad sabse pehle raashtrapati bane the. William henari hairisn 1841 mein keval 32 din is pad par rahe the, jo kisi bhi raashtrapati ka sabse chhota kaaryakaal hai. freinkalin rojvelt baarah se adhik varsho tak is pad par rahe jo sabse bada kaaryakaal hai, par jald hi unki apne chauthe kaaryakaal mein mrutyu ho gayi; vo akele raashtrapati hai jo is pad par do baar se zyaada chune gaye hai. jaahn kenedi akele raashtrapati rahe hai jinka dharm roman Catholic tha (doosare ya to protestaint the ya naastik) aur vartamaan raashtrapati Barack Obama, haal ke afreeki mool ke pehle raashtrapati hai.

is soochi mein America ki maujooda sarkaar ke raashtrapati ke naam hai jo 1789 mein astitv mein aayi thi, haalaanki isse pehle bhi sanyukt raajya mein sarkaar rahi hai. iske alaava gruhayuddh ke dauraan ek aur raashtrapati naamak pad tha jo apne astitv ke dauraan keval ek vyakti ke paas raha.

anukram

raashtrapatiyon ki soochi

raajanaitik dal

nirdaleeya fedaralist democratic-Republican demokraitik vhig Republican

kra॰
san॰
raashtrapati pad grahan kiya pad chhoda dal kaaryakaal
[t 1]
poorv kaaryaalaya uparaashtrapati
1 George-Washington.jpg George Washington
(1732–1799)
[9][10][11]
01789-04-30 April 30, 1789
[t 2]
01797-03-04 March 4, 1797 laagoo naheen[12] 1
(1789)
mahaadveepeeya sena ke pramukh senaapati
(1775–1783)
John aidams
2
(1792)
2 US Navy 031029-N-6236G-001 A painting of President John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd president of the United States, by Asher B. Durand (1767-1845)-crop.jpg John aidams
(1735–1826)
[13][14][15]
01797-03-04 March 4, 1797 01801-03-04 March 4, 1801
[t 3]
fedaralist 3
(1796)
uparaashtrapati Thomas jefarasan
3 Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg Thomas jefarasan
(1743–1826)
[16][17][18]
01801-03-04 March 4, 1801 01809-03-04 March 4, 1809 democratic- Republican 4
(1800)
uparaashtrapati Aaron bur
01801-03-04 March 4, 180101805-03-04 March 4, 1805
5
(1804)
George Clinton[t 4]
01805-03-04 March 4, 180501812-04-20 April 20, 1812
4 James Madison.jpg James maidisn
(1751–1836)
[19][20][21]
01809-03-04 March 4, 1809 01817-03-04 March 4, 1817 democratic- Republican 6
(1808)
raajya sachiv
(1801–1809)
rikt[t 5]
01812-04-20 April 20, 181201813-03-04 March 4, 1813
7
(1812)
elabrij gerri[t 4]
01813-03-04 March 4, 181301814-11-23 November 23, 1814
rikt[t 5]
01814-11-23 November 23, 181401817-03-04 March 4, 1817
5 James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif James munaro
(1758–1831)
[22][23][24]
01817-03-04 March 4, 1817 01825-03-04 March 4, 1825 democratic- Republican 8
(1816)
raajya sachiv
(1811–1817)
dainiyl dee॰ tompakins
9
(1820)
6 John Quincy Adams.jpg John kvinsi edams
(1767–1848)
[25][26][27]
01825-03-04 March 4, 1825 01829-03-04 March 4, 1829
[t 3]
democratic- Republican 10
(1824)
raajya sachiv
(1817–1825)
John see॰ kalhon[t 6]
01825-03-04 March 4, 182501832-12-28 December 28, 1832
7 Andrew Jackson.jpg aindrayoo Jackson
(1767–1845)
[28][29][30]
01829-03-04 March 4, 1829 01837-03-04 March 4, 1837 demokraitik 11
(1828)
Tennessee se ameriki senator
(1823–1825)
rikt[t 5]
01832-12-28 December 28, 183201833-03-04 March 4, 1833
12
(1832)
Martin vaan byooren
01833-03-04 March 4, 183301837-03-04 March 4, 1837
8 MartinVanBuren.png Martin vaan byooren
(1782–1862)
[31][32][33]
01837-03-04 March 4, 1837 01841-03-04 March 4, 1841
[t 3]
demokraitik 13
(1836)
uparaashtrapati richrd mentor Johnson
9 William Henry Harrison.jpg William henari haireesan
(1773–1841)
[34][35][36]
01841-03-04 March 4, 1841 01841-04-04 April 4, 1841
[t 4]
vhig 14
(1840)
kolambiya ke mantri
(1828–1829)
John taayalar
10 WHOportTyler.jpg John taayalar
(1790–1862)
[37][38][39]
01841-04-04 April 4, 1841 01845-03-04 March 4, 1845 vhig
01841-04-04 April 4, 184101841-09-13 sitmbar 13, 1841
uparaashtrapati
[t 7]
rikt[t 5]
nirdaleeya[t 8]
01841-09-13 sitmbar 13, 184101845-03-04 March 4, 1845
11 JamesKPolk.png James ke॰ pok
(1795–1849)
[40][41][42]
01845-03-04 March 4, 1845 01849-03-04 March 4, 1849 demokraitik 15
(1844)
Tennessee ke Governor
(1839–1841)
George ema॰ dalaas
12 Zachary Taylor-circa1850.jpg jaikari Taylor
(1784–1850)
[43][44][45]
01849-03-04 March 4, 1849 01850-07-09 July 9, 1850
[t 4]
vhig 16
(1848)
pehli infeintri rejimeint se ameriki sena mein major general
(1846–1849)
milrd filmor
13 Fillmore.jpg milrd filmor
(1800–1874)
[46][47][48]
01850-07-09 July 9, 1850 01853-03-04 March 4, 1853
[t 9]
vhig uparaashtrapati rikt[t 5]
14 Franklin Pierce.jpg Franklin piyrs
(1804–1869)
[49][50][51]
01853-03-04 March 4, 1853 01857-03-04 March 4, 1857 demokraitik 17
(1852)
9veen infaintri rejimeint se ameriki sena ke Brigadier general
(1847-1848)
William aara॰ King[t 4]
01853-03-04 March 4, 185301853-04-18 April 18, 1853
rikt[t 5]
01853-04-18 April 18, 185301857-03-04 March 4, 1857
15 James Buchanan.jpg James bukaanan
(1791–1868)
[52][53][54]
01857-03-04 March 4, 1857 01861-03-04 March 4, 1861 demokraitik 18
(1856)
United Kingdom ke liye mantri
(1853–1856)
John see॰ brekinrij
16 Abraham Lincoln November 1863.jpg Abraham Lincoln
(1809–1865)
[55][56][57]
01861-03-04 March 4, 1861 01865-04-15 April 15, 1865
[t 10]
Republican 19
(1860)
ilinauya se ameriki pratinidhi
(1847–1849)
hainibl haimalin
01861-03-04 March 4, 186101865-03-04 March 4, 1865
Republican
national union[t 11]
20
(1864)
endryoo Johnson
01865-03-04 March 4, 186501865-04-15 April 15, 1865
17 President Andrew Johnson.jpg endryoo Johnson
(1808–1875)
[58][59][60]
01865-04-15 April 15, 1865 01869-03-04 March 4, 1869 demokraitik
national union[t 11]
nirdaleeya[t 12]
uparaashtrapati rikt
[t 5]
18 UlyssesGrant.png yuleeses sinpasan graant
(1822–1885)
[61][62][63]
01869-03-04 March 4, 1869 01877-03-04 March 4, 1877 Republican 21
(1868)
[[sanyukt raajya America sena ke commanding general]]
(1864–1869)
skooyalar kaulafaiks
01869-03-04 March 4, 186901873-03-04 March 4, 1873
22
(1872)
henari Wilson[t 4]
01873-03-04 March 4, 187301875-11-22 November 22, 1875
rikt[t 5]
01875-11-22 November 22, 187501877-03-04 March 4, 1877
19 President Rutherford Hayes 1870 - 1880.jpg radaraford barkard heyas
(1822–1893)
[64][65][66]
01877-03-04 March 4, 1877 01881-03-04 March 4, 1881 Republican 23
(1876)
ohiyo ke Governor
(1868–1872, 1876–1877)
William e॰ vheelar
20 James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated.jpg James Abraham gaarfeeld
(1831–1881)
[67][68][69]
01881-03-04 March 4, 1881 01881-09-19 sitmbar 19, 1881
[t 10]
Republican 24
(1880)
ohiyo seameriki pratinidhi
(1863–1881)
chestar ailan aarthar
21 Chester Alan Arthur.jpg chestar ailan aarthar
(1829–1886)
[70][71][72]
01881-09-19 sitmbar 19, 1881 01885-03-04 March 4, 1885 Republican uparaashtrapati rikt[t 5]
22 StephenGroverCleveland.png Grover kleevalaind
(1837–1908)
[73][74]
01885-03-04 March 4, 1885 01889-03-04 March 4, 1889
[t 3]
demokraitik 25
(1884)
New York ke Governor
(1883–1885)
Thomas e॰ hendriks[t 4]
01885-03-04 March 4, 188501885-11-25 November 25, 1885
rikt[t 5]
01885-11-25 November 25, 188501889-03-04 March 4, 1889
23 Pach Brothers - Benjamin Harrison.jpg beinjaamin haireesan
(1833–1901)
[75][76][77]
01889-03-04 March 4, 1889 01893-03-04 March 4, 1893 Republican 26
(1888)
indiyaana se ameriki senator
(1881–1887)
levi paarsans maurtan
24 StephenGroverCleveland.png Grover kleevalaind
(1837–1908)
[73][74]
01893-03-04 March 4, 1893 01897-03-04 March 4, 1897 demokraitik 27
(1892)
raashtrapati
(1885–1889)
aadalaai steeveinsan
25 William McKinley 1.png William maikinle
(1843–1901)
[78][79][80]
01897-03-04 March 4, 1897 01901-09-14 sitmbar 14, 1901
[t 10]
Republican 28
(1896)
ohiyo ke Governor
(1892–1896)
garret hobaart[t 4]
01897-03-04 March 4, 189701899-11-21 November 21, 1899
rikt[t 5]
01899-11-21 November 21, 189901901-03-04 March 4, 1901
29
(1900)
thiyodor roojvelt
01901-03-04 March 4, 190101901-09-14 sitmbar 14, 1901
26 President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg thiyodor roojvelt
(1858–1919)
[81][82][83]
01901-09-14 sitmbar 14, 1901 01909-03-04 March 4, 1909
[t 9]
Republican uparaashtrapati rikt[t 5]
01901-09-14 sitmbar 14, 190101905-03-04 March 4, 1905
30
(1904)
Charles dablyoo॰ feyarabainks
01905-03-04 March 4, 190501909-03-04 March 4, 1909
27 William Howard Taft, Bain bw photo portrait, 1908.jpg William hovar taaft
(1857–1930)
[84][85][86]
01909-03-04 March 4, 1909 01913-03-04 March 4, 1913
[t 3]
Republican 31
(1908)
vaar ke sachiv
(1904–1908)
James esa॰ sheramen[t 4]
01909-03-04 March 4, 190901912-10-30 October 30, 1912
rikt[t 5]
01912-10-30 October 30, 191201913-03-04 March 4, 1913
28 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg vudaro Wilson
(1856–1924)
[87][88][89]
01913-03-04 March 4, 1913 01921-03-04 March 4, 1921 demokraitik 32
(1912)
new jersey ke Governor
(1911–1913)
Thomas aara॰ maarshal
33
(1916)
29 Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg vaaran gaimeliyl haarding
(1865–1923)
[90][91][92]
01921-03-04 March 4, 1921 01923-08-02 August 2, 1923
[t 4]
Republican 34
(1920)
ohaayo se ameriki senator
(1915–1921)
kaulvin koolij
30 John Calvin Coolidge, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg kaulvin koolij
(1872–1933)
[93][94][95]
01923-08-02 August 2, 1923 01929-03-04 March 4, 1929 Republican uparaashtrapati rikt[t 5]
01923-08-02 August 2, 192301925-03-04 March 4, 1925
35
(1924)
Charles jee॰ daves
01925-03-04 March 4, 192501929-03-04 March 4, 1929
31 HerbertHoover.jpg harbart Clark hoovar
(1874–1964)
[96][97][98]
01929-03-04 March 4, 1929 01933-03-04 March 4, 1933
[t 3]
Republican 36
(1928)
ameriki vaanijya sachiv
(1921–1928)
Charles kartis
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt - NARA - 196715.jpg Franklin delaano roojvelt
(1882–1945)
[99][100][101]
March 4, 1933 (1933-03-04) April 12, 1945 (1945-04-12)
[t 4]
demokraitik 37
(1932)
[t 13]
New York ke Governor
(1929–1932)
John nains gaarnar
01933-03-04 March 4, 193301941-01-20 January 20, 1941
38
(1936)
39
(1940)
henari e॰ vaales
01941-01-20 January 20, 194101945-01-20 January 20, 1945
40
(1944)
Harry S troomain
01945-01-20 January 20, 194501945-04-12 April 12, 1945
33 Harry S. Truman.jpg Harry S troomain
(1884–1972)
[102][103][104]
01945-04-12 April 12, 1945 01953-01-20 January 20, 1953 demokraitik uparaashtrapati rikt[t 5]
01945-04-12 April 12, 194501949-01-20 January 20, 1949
41
(1948)
alben dablyoo॰ baarkale
01949-01-20 January 20, 194901953-01-20 January 20, 1953
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower, White House photo portrait, February 1959.jpg dvaait David aaijnahaavar
(1890–1969)
[105][106][107]
01953-01-20 January 20, 1953 01961-01-20 January 20, 1961
[t 14]
Republican 42
(1952)
Supreme elaaid commander Europe
(1949–1952)
richrd Nixon
43
(1956)
35 Jfk2.jpg John efa॰ kenedi
(1917–1963)
[108][109][110]
01961-01-20 January 20, 1961 01963-11-22 November 22, 1963
[t 10]
demokraitik 44
(1960)
maisaachoosits se ameriki senator
(1953–1960)
lindan bens Johnson
36 Lyndon B. Johnson, photo portrait, leaning on chair, color.jpg lindan bens Johnson
(1908–1973)
[111][112]
01963-11-22 November 22, 1963 01969-01-20 January 20, 1969 demokraitik uparaashtrapati rikt[t 5]
01963-11-22 November 22, 196301965-01-20 January 20, 1965
45
(1964)
hyubart hamfri
01965-01-20 January 20, 196501969-01-20 January 20, 1969
37 Richard M. Nixon, ca. 1935 - 1982 - NARA - 530679.jpg richrd Nixon
(1913–1994)
[113][114][115]
01969-01-20 January 20, 1969 01974-08-09 August 9, 1974
[t 6]
Republican 46
(1968)
uparaashtrapati
(1953–1961)
spiro egnyoo[t 6]
01969-01-20 January 20, 196901973-10-10 October 10, 1973
47
(1972)
rikt[t 5]
01973-10-10 October 10, 197301973-12-06 December 6, 1973
jeraald ford
01973-12-06 December 6, 197301974-08-09 August 9, 1974
38 Gerald Ford.jpg jeraald ford
(1913–2006)
[116][117][118]
01974-08-09 August 9, 1974 01977-01-20 January 20, 1977[t 15] Republican uparaashtrapati rikt[t 5]
01974-08-09 August 9, 197401974-12-19 December 19, 1974
nelsan raukafelar
01974-12-19 December 19, 197401977-01-20 January 20, 1977
39 JimmyCarterPortrait.jpg Jimmy Carter
(born 1924)
[119][120][121]
01977-01-20 January 20, 1977 01981-01-20 January 20, 1981
[t 3]
demokraitik 48
(1976)
jaurjiya ke raajyapaalon
(1971–1975)
vaaltar mondal
40 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg ronaald Reagan
(1911–2004)
[122][123][124]
01981-01-20 January 20, 1981 01989-01-20 January 20, 1989 Republican 49
(1980)
California ke Governor
(1967–1975)
George harbart vaukar bush
50
(1984)
41 George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg George harbart vaukar bush
(born 1924)
[125][126][127]
01989-01-20 January 20, 1989 01993-01-20 January 20, 1993
[t 3]
Republican 51
(1988)
uparaashtrapati dain kveele
42 Bill Clinton.jpg William Clinton
(born 1946)
[128][129][130]
01993-01-20 January 20, 1993 02001-01-20 January 20, 2001 demokraitik 52
(1992)
arkaansas ke Governor
(1979–1981, 1983–1992)
albart gor
53
(1996)
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg George vaukar bush
(janm 1946)
[131][132][133]
02001-01-20 January 20, 2001 02009-01-20 January 20, 2009 Republican 54
(2000)
Texas ke Governor
(1995–2000)
dik cheni
55
(2004)
44 President Barack Obama, 2012 portrait crop.jpg Barack Obama
(janm 1961)
[134][135][136]
02009-01-20 January 20, 2009 padasth demokraitik 56
(2008)
ilinauya se ameriki senator
(2005–2008)
jo biden
57
(2012)

tippani

  1. kramaankan ke uddeshya ke liye, kaaryakaal ko ek vyakti dvaara nirantar pad rahana paribhaashit kiya gaya hai. udaaharan ke liye, George Washington lagaataar do baar raashtrapati bane aur unhein pehla raashtrapati maana jaata hai (na ki pehla aur doosra). richrd Nixon ke isteefe ke baad, jerald Ford 38 vein raashtrapati bane yadyapi unhone keval Nixon ka bacha hua kaaryakaal poora kiya aur unhein kabhi khud nirvaachit naheen kiya gaya. Grover kleevalaand 22 vein aur 24 vein donon raashtrapati the kyonki unke donon kaaryakaal lagaataar naheen the.
  2. bajaay 4 March 1789 ko pad grahan karne ke, George Washington ne 30 April 1789 ko pad grahan kiya tha (1 maheene aur 27 din baad) kyonki ameriki Congress ke paas ganapoorti naheen thi.
  3. a aa i E u oo A ai apadasth (agala choonaav haar gaye).
  4. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k praakrutik kaaranon se kaaryaalaya ke beech mein nidhan ho gaya.
  5. a aa i E u oo A ai O au k kh g gh ch chh j 1967 mein sanyukt raajya America ke samvidhaan mein pachcheesavein sanshodhan se pehle, koi tantr ya niyam naheen tha jisse uparaashtrapati ke pad ko bhara ja sake. richrd Nixon sabse pehle raashtrapati the jinhonein in praavadhaanon ke tahat uparaashtrapati ka pad bhara tha jab unhonein jeraald ford ko is pad par niyukt kiya. jeraald ford doosare aise raashtrapati bane jinhonein is pad ko bhara jab unhone nelsan raukafelar ko is pad par niyukt kiya apne aap ko anugaami karne ke liye.
  6. a aa i tyaag patra de diya.
  7. raashtrapati pad grahan karne vaale pehle uparaashtrapati hone ke naate, taailar ne ek misaal sthaapit ki jo uparaashtrapati raashtrapati ka pad sanbhaaleinga vo poori tarah se kaaryarat hoga jiska apna raashtrapatitv hoga, na ki kaaryavaahak raashtrapati. sanyukt raajya America ke samvidhaan mein pachcheesavein sanshodhan ne taayalar ki misaal samvidhaan mein daal di.
  8. poorv democrat jinhonein vhig ticket par uparaashtrapati ke liye chunaav lada. vhig Congress ke netaaon ke saath takaraav hua aur 1841 mein vhig party se nishkaasit kar diye gaye.
  9. a aa baad mein ek gair lagaataar kaaryakaal ke liye fir se chunaav lada.
  10. a aa i E hatya kar di gayi.
  11. a aa Abraham Lincoln aur endryoo Johnson kramash: Republican aur democrat the. jinhonein 1864 mein national union ke ticket par chunaav lada tha.
  12. endryoo Johnson jab raashtrapati the to vo kisi do mukhya paarteeyon ke sadasya naheen the aur unki apni party naam maatr ki thi jiske kaaran unhein nirdaleeya samjha jaata hain.
  13. sanyukt raajya America ke samvidhaan ka bees vaan sanshodhan 1933 se laagoo ho gaya, jisne 1937 ka raashtrapati pad ka grahan din 4 March se 20 January kar diya aur is kaaryakaal ko 43 din chhota kar diya.
  14. dvait aijnahauvar pehle raashtrapati the jinhein kaanooni taur par sanyukt raajya America ke samvidhaan ke 22 vein sanshodhan dvaara nishiddh kar diya gaya teesare kaaryakaal ke liye chunaav ladne se.
  15. poori avadhi ke liye chunaav lada, lekin asafal rahe.

sandarbh

  1. "The Constitution: Amendments 11–27". U.S. National Archives & Records Administration. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html. abhigman tithi: 18 May 2014.
  2. Cleaves, Freeman (1939). Old Tippecanoe: William Henry Harrison and His Time. C. Scribner's Sons. pa॰ 152.
  3. Ingersoll, Jared. "Death of the President". University of Virginia's Miller Center of Public Affairs. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/taylor/essays/biography/6. abhigman tithi: November 2, 2010.
  4. Russell, Francis (1962). The Shadow of Blooming Grove – Warren G. Harding in His Times. Easton Press. pa॰ 591. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0070543380.
  5. a aa Martin, Paul "Lincoln's Missing Bodyguard", Smithsonian Magazine, April 8, 2010, Retrieved November 15, 2010
  6. Donald (1996), p. 597.
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  39. "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862) [John taayalar (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)]". American presideintas: life portrets. si-spaan. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=10. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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  42. "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) [James ke॰ pok (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)]". American presideintas: life portrets. si-spaan. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=11. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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  45. "Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) [jaikari Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850)]". American presideintas: life portrets. si-spaan. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=12. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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  47. "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents [milrd filmor – vhig party – terahavein raashtrapati – ameriki raashtrapati]". history. http://www.history.com/presidents/fillmore. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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  90. "Biography of Warren G. Harding [vaaran jee॰ haarding ki jeevani]". white house dot jeeovi. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/warrenharding/. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
  91. "Warren Harding – Republican Party – 29th President – American Presidents [vaaran haarding – Republican party – unnateesavein raashtrapati – ameriki raashtrapati]". history. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
  92. "Warren G. Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) [vaaran jee॰ haarding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923)]". American presideintas: life portrets. si-spaan. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=28. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
  93. "Biography of Calvin Coolidge [kaulvin koolij ki jeevani]". white house dot jeeovi. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/calvincoolidge/. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
  94. "Calvin Coolidge – Republican Party – 30th President – American Presidents [kaulvin koolij – Republican party – teesavein raashtrapati – ameriki raashtrapati]". history. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
  95. "Calvin Coolidge (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) [kaulvin koolij (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933)]". American presideintas: life portrets. si-spaan. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=29. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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  98. "Herbert Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) [harbart Clark hoovar (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964)]". American presideintas: life portrets. si-spaan. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=30. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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  101. "Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945) [Franklin dee॰ roojvelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945)]". American presideintas: life portrets. si-spaan. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=31. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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  105. "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower [dvaait dee॰ aaijnahaavar ki jeevani]". white house dot jeeovi. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/dwightdeisenhower/. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
  106. "Dwight D. Eisenhower – Democratic Party – 34th President – American Presidents [dvaait dee॰ aaijnahaavar – democratic party – chauteesavein raashtrapati – ameriki raashtrapati]". history. http://www.history.com/presidents/eisenhower. abhigman tithi: 5 June 2014.
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