sanyukt raajashaahi

bruhad Britain aur uttari aayaralaind ka yoonaaited kingadam
United Kingdom
dhvaj shaahi kul-chinh
raashtragaan: "gaud sev the kveen"[1]
यूनाईटेड किंगडम (गहरे हरे रंग में) यूरोपीय संघ के सम्बन्ध में दिखाया गया (हल्के हरे रंग में) और अन्य क्षेत्र यूरोप के (गहरा स्लेटी)
yoonaaited kingadam (gahre hare rang mein) Europeeya sangh ke sambandh mein dikhaaya gaya (halke hare rang mein) aur anya kshetr Europe ke (gahra sleti)
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
London
51°a30′aN 0°a7′aW / 51.5°aN 0.117°aW / 51.5; -0.117
raajabhaasha(eain) angreji vastut:[2]
maanyata praapt kshetriya bhaashaayein aayarish, alstar skauts, skautish gailik , skauts, velsh, kaurnish[3]
maanavajaateeya varg (2001
dekhein: UK ke nasleeya samooh[4])
92.1% shvet
4.0% dakshin Asiaee log
2.0% kaale
1.2% mishrit
0.4% cheeni
0.4% anya
dharm ainglikn
nivaasi angrej, britaun
sarkaar sansadeeya lokatantr aur samvaidhaanik raajashaahi
- samraajnyai mahaaraani Elizabeth dviteeya
- pradhaanamantri David Cameron
vidhaan mandal sansad
- uchch sadan house of laurds
- nimn sadan house of kaumans
samvaidhaanik raajatantr
- sangh ke adhiniyam 1707 1 May 1707
- sangh ke adhiniyam 1800 1 January 1801
- aangl-aayarish sandhi 12 April 1922
kshetrafal
- kul 244820 varg kilometer (79th)
94526 varg meal
- jal (%) 1.34
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 61,612,300[5] (22nd)
- 2001 janaganana 58,789,194[6]
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $2.230 kharab[7] (7vaaain)
- prati vyakti $36,523$[7] (18vaaain)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $2.674 trillion$[7] (chhatha)
- prati vyakti $43,785$[7] (20vaaain)
gini (2012) positive decrease 32.8[8]
madhyam · 33vaaain
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Straight Line Steady.svg 0.892[9]
bahut uchch · 14vaaain
mudra paaund starling[10] (GBP)
samay mandal jee॰ ema॰ tee॰ (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+0)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) BST (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+1)
yaataayaat chaalan disha baaeain[11]
doorabhaash koot 44
Internet teeeladi .uk[12]

vruhat Britain aur uttari aayaralaind ka yoonaaited kingadam[13] (saamaanyat: United kingadam, you ke, UK, ya Britain ke roop mein jaana jaata hai).[14] ek viksit desh hai jo mahaadveepeeya Europe ke pashchimottar tat par sthit hai. yeh ek dveepeeya desh hai,[15][16] yeh british dweep samooh mein faila hai jismein great Britain, Ireland ka poorvottar bhaag aur kai chhote dweep shaamil hain.uttari Ireland, UK ka ekamaatr aisa hissa hai jahaan ek sthal seema anya raashtra se lagti hai aur yahaan aayaralaind UK ka padosi desh hai[17][18]. is desh ki seema ke alaava, UK atalaantik mahaasaagar, uttari saagar, english channel aur aayarish saagar se ghira hua hai. sabse bada dweep, great Britain, channel surang dvaara fraans se juda hua hai.

United kingadam ek samvaidhaanik raajashaahi aur ekaatmak raajya hai jismein chaar desh shaamil hain: England, uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels.[19] yeh ek sansadeeya pranaali dvaara sanchaalit hai jiski rajdhani London mein sarkaar baithati hai, lekin ismein teen nyaagat raashtreeya prashaasan hain, belafaast, kaardif aur edinbarg, kramash: uttari Ireland, vels aur Scotland ki rajdhani.jersey aur gvernase dweep samooh, jinhein saamoohik roop se channel dweep kaha jaata hai aur main dweep (aail of maan), you ke ki raajatv nirbharata hain aur UK ka hissa naheen hain.[20] iske ilaava, UK ke chaudah samudrapaar nirbhar kshetr hain,[21] british saamraajya, jo 1922 mein apne charam pe tha, duniya ke takareeban ek chauthaai kshetrafl ko gherata tha aur itihaas ka sabse bada saamrajya tha. iske poorv upaniveshon ki bhaasha, sanskruti aur kaanooni pranaali mein british prabhaav abhi bhi dekha ja sakta hai.

prateekatmak sakal ghareloo utpaad dvaara duniya ki chhathi badi arthavyavastha aur kraya shakti samaanata ke hisaab se saatavaaain bada desh hone ke saath hi, UK ek viksit desh hai.[7] yeh duniya ka pehla audyogik desh tha[22] aura19 veen aur 20 veen shataabdiyon ke dauraan vishv ki agrani shakti tha,[23] lekin do vishv yuddhon ki aarthik laagat aur 20 veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein saamraajya ke patan ne vaishvik maamalon mein usaki agrani bhoomika ko kam kar diya fir bhi UK apne sudrudh aarthik, saanskrutik, sainya, vaigyaanik aur raajaneetik prabhaav ke kaaran ek pramukh shakti bana hua hai. yeh ek parmaanu shakti hai aur duniya mein chauthi sarvaadhik raksha kharcha karne wala desh hai. yeh Europeeya sangh ka sadasya hai, sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad mein ek sthaayi seat dhaaran karta hai aur raashtra ke raashtramandal, jee8, OECD, naato aur vishv vyaapaar sangathan ka sadasya hai.

anukram

itihaas

vaataraloo ke yuddh ne nepoliyn yuddhon ka ant aur Britain ki prabhuta ke kaal ke shuruaat ko chihnit kiya.

1 May 1707 mein, England ke saamraajya (jismein vels shaamil tha) aur Scotland ke saamraajya ki raajaneetik sangh ke dvaara vruhattar Britain ka yoonaaited kingadam[24][25] ki sthaapana ki gayi. is sandhi ko sahamati 22 July 1706 ko mili |[26] aur fir England ke sansad aur Scotland ke sansad donon ne ek sangh ke adhiniyam 1707 ke dvaara iski pushti ki.lagbhag ek sadi baad, Ireland ka saamraajya, jo 1691 tak angreji niyantran mein aa gaya tha, vah United kingadam banaane ke liye sangh ke adhiniyam 1800 ke dvaara great Britain saamraajya ke saath vilay hua.[27] haalaanki England aur Scotland 1707 se pehle alag ho chuke the, ve 1603 mein raajatv ke sangh se hi vyaktigat roop se sangh mein the, jab skauts ke raaja James VI ko England aur Ireland raajya ka sinhaasan viraasat mein mila aur ve apna darbaar idinbarg se London le gaye.[28][29]

pradesh, jo kisi samay british saamraajya ka ek bhaag the. british videshi kshetr (british antaarkatik kshetr ko chhodkar) laal mein rekhaankit hain .

apni pehli sadi mein, United kingadam ne sansadeeya pranaali ke pashchimi vichaaron ko viksit karne mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai saath hi saahitya, kala aur vigyaan mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya.[30] UK ke netrutv mein audyogik kraanti ne desh ko badal diya aur badhti hui british saamraajya ko uttejit kiya. is samay ke dauraan, anya mahaan shaktiyon ki tarah, UK aupaniveshik shoshan mein shaamil shaamil tha, ismein atalaantik das vyaapaar bhi shaamil hai, haalaanki 1807 mein das vyaapaar adhiniyam ke paarit hone ke saath, UK ne gulaamon ke vyaapaar ka mukaabala karne mein ek agrani bhoomika nibhaai.[31][32]

napoliyn yuddhon mein nepoliyn ki haar ke baad, UK 19 veen sadi mein nausena mein pramukh shakti ke roop mein ubhara aur 20 veen shataabdi ke madhya tak ek prakhyaat shakti bana raha.1921 tak british saamraajya apne adhiktam aakaar mein vistaarit hua, pratham vishv yuddh ke baad jarman aur turk kaaloniyon par raashton ka sanghatan shaasanaadesh haasil kiya. ek saal baad, duniya ke pehle bade paimaane par antararaashtreeya prasaaran network, BBC, banaaya gaya tha.

1918 mein sin fein ki ek chunaav mein jeet hui, jiske baad Ireland mein svatantrata ki ladaai ne 1921 mein is dweep ke vibhaajan ka netrutv kiya[33] iske baad 1922 mein aayarish svatantr raajya ki svatantrata hui jab uttari Ireland ne UK ka hissa banane ka chayan kiya.[34] iske parinaamasvaroop, 1927 mein, UK ka aupachaarik naam uske vartamaan naam mein badal gaya tha, great Britain aur uttari Ireland ka United kingadam.

dviteeya vishv yuddh mein Britain ka yudgh ek mahatvapoorn mod tha.

United kingadam dviteeya vishv yuddh ke sahayogiyon mein se ek thi. yuddh ke pehle varsh mein apne Europeeya sahayogiyon ki haar ke baad, United kingadam ne Germany ke khilaaf havaai abhiyaan ke yuddh jaari rakha jise Britain ki ladaai kaha jaata hai. is jeet ke baad, ladaai ke baad ki duniya ki yojana mein madad karne waali shaktiyon mein se ek UK tha. dviteeya vishv yuddh ne United kingadam ko aarthik roop se kshatigrast kar diya tha. haalaanki, maarshal sahaayata aur sanyukt raajya America aur Canada donon se liye mahange rin ne Britain ki pun: praapti mein madad curry.

turant yuddhottar varshon ne kalyaan raajya ki sthaapana dekhi, jismein duniya ke pehle aur sabse vyaapak saarvajanik svaasthya sevaaeain shaamil thi, jabki arthavyavastha mein sudhaar ki maang ne ek bahu jaateeya Britain banaane ke liye raashtramandal bhar se logon ko agraaneet kiya. haalaaainki 1956 ke svej sankat dvaara Britain ki raajaneetik bhoomika ka naya yuddhottar seema pushti hua, angreji bhaasha ke antararaashtreeya fail ka matlab hai saahitya aur sanskruti ka prabhaav jaari rahana, jabki 1960 se iski lokapriya sanskruti ka videsh mein bhi prabhaav paaya gaya tha.

1970 mein vaishvik aarthik mandi aur audyogik vivaad ki avadhi ke baad, 1980 ke dashak ne paryaapt uttari saagar ki tel aamdani aur aarthik vikaas ka aagaman dekha.maargaret thaichar ke pradhaan mantripd ne yuddhottar raajaneetik aur aarthik sahamati se ek mahatvapoorn disha parivartan ko chihnit kiya; ek raasta jo 1997 ke baad se toni bleyar aur gaurdan brown ke nai shram sarkaaron ke tahat jaari raha.

1992 mein maastrich sandhi par hastaakshar se Europeeya sangh ki shuruaat ke 12 sansthaapak deshon mein se ek United kingadam tha. iske poorv, 1973 se yeh Europeeya sangh ke Europeeya aarthik samudaaya (EEC) ka ek agradoot sadasya raha hai. vartamaan majadoor sarkaar ka sangathan ke saath ekeekaran ki disha mein drushtikon mishrit hai,[35] sarkaari vipaksh ke saath, roodhivaadi party, jo kuchh shaktiyon aur sakshamataaon ka paksh leti hai use Europeeya sangh ko hastaantarit kiya gaya.[36] 20 veen sadi ke ant ne poorv-vidhaayi sandarbh ke baad uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels ke liye nyaagat raashtreeya prashaasan ki sthaapana ke saath UK ke shaasan mein kai parivartan dekhe.[37]

sarkaar aur raajaneeti

echaem mahaaraani Elizabeth dviteeya

United kingadam ek samvaidhaanik raajashaahi hai. mahaaraani Elizabeth II UK tatha pandrah anya raashtramandal deshon ki raajya pramukh hai UK ka in pandrah deshon ke saath ek niji sangh hai. iske ilaava aail of main, jersey aur gvernase UK ki raajatv nirbharata hai aur mahaaraani ka in kshetron par saarvabhaumatv hai, jo United kingadam ka hissa naheen hain lekin UK sarkaar inke videshi maamalon aur raksha shaasan karti hai aur UK sansad ko unki or se vyavastha karne ka adhikaar rakhati hai.

choonki United kingadam vartamaan duniya ke teen deshon mein se ek hai jinmein suvyavasthit samvidhaan naheen hai,[38] United kingadam ka samvidhaan mein jyaadaatar likhit srot hain, jismein sanvidhiyaaain, nyaayaadheesh dvaara banaae gaye kaanooni maamale aur antararaashtreeya sandhiyaaain shaamil hain. choonki saadhaaran vidhiyon aur "samvaidhaanik vyavastha" ke beech koi takaneeki antar naheen hai, UK sansad keval sansad ke adhiniymon ko paarit karke "samvaidhaanik sudhaar" kar sakte hain aur unke paas lagbhag samvidhaan ki kisi bhi likhit ya alikhit tatv ko is prakaar badalne ya samaapt karne ki shakti hai. fir bhi, koi bhi sansad kaanoon paarit naheen kar sakti jo aagaami sarkaar naheen badal sakti hai.[39]

UK ka ek sansadeeya sarkaar vestaminstar pranaali par aadhaarit hai jiski duniya bhar ne nakal curry hai - british saamraajya ki ek viraasat.vestaminstar ke mahal mein milne waali United kingadam ki sansad ke do sadan hain: ek house of laurds aur ek niyukt house of kaumans aur kisi bhi vidheyak ko kaanoon banaane ke liye shaahi sveekruti ki aavashyakta hoti hai. yeh United kingadam ka antim vidhaayi adhikaar hai kyonki Scotland mein nyaagat sansad aur uttari Ireland aur vels ki nyaagat sabha pradhaan nikaaya naheen hain aur yeh sandarbit hai ki sthaapit hone ke baavajood saarvajanik sveekruti ke baad UK ki sansad dvaara samaapt kiya ja sakta hai.

sansad ka sadan

pradhaanamantri ka pad, jo UK ki sarkaar ke shaasak hain, sansad sadasya hain jo lok sadan ki bahumat ka vishvaas praapt kar sakte hain, aamtaur par sadan ke sabse badi raajaneetik party ke maujooda neta mahaaraani saahiba ki sarkaar banaane ke liye raaja dvaara pradhaanamantri aur mantrimandal ko aupachaarik roop se niyukt kiya jaata hai, haalaaainki pradhaanamantri hi mantrimandal chunate hain aur parampara ke hisaab se HM mahaaraani pradhaanamantri ke chunaav ka sammaan karti hain. paramparaagat roop se mantrimandal ko donon vidhaayi sadanon mein pradhaanamantri ki party ke sadasyon se liya jaata hai aur adhikaanshat: lok sadan se, jiske prati ve jimmedaar hain. pradhaanamantri aur mantrimandal dvaara kaaryapaalika shaktiyon ka prayog hota hai, jo maananeeya mahaaraani saahiba ka sabse sammaaneeya gupt parishad mein shapath lete hain aur raajatv ke mantri ban jaate hain. lebar party ke neta, Rt maananeeya gaurdan brown MP, pradhaanamantri, kosh ke pehle yahova aur 27 June 2007 ke baad se asainik seva ke mantri rah chuke hain.[40]

lok sadan ke chunaav ke liye, UK ko vartamaan mein 646 nirvaachan kshetron mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai, England mein 529, uttari Ireland mein 18, Scotland mein 59 aur vels mein 40,[41] yadyapi yeh sankhya agale aam chunaav mein 650 tak badhegi.pratyek nirvaachan kshetr saral bahusankhya dvaara ek sansad sadasya chunata hai. pradhaanamantri ki salaah par samraat dvaara aam chunaav aayojit hota hai. haalaanki sansad ki koi nyoonatam avadhi naheen hoti hai, sansad adhiniyam (1911) ke anusaar pichhle aam chunaav ke paaainch saal ke bheetar ek nae chunaav ko aayojit karne ki aavashyakta hai.

lebar party, kanjrvetiv party aur udaar prajaatantravaadi UK ke teen pramukh raajaneetik dal hain, jo 2005 ke aam chunaav mein unke beech lok sadan mein upalabdh 646 seaton mein se 616 jeete. adhikaansh shesh sthaan un dal dvaara jeete gaye jo UK ke keval ek hisse mein chunaav lade jaise ki skautish raashtreeya dal (keval Scotland), pled sayamaru (keval vels) aur prajaataantrik sangheeya dal, saamaajik prajaataantrik aur majadoor dal, ulstar sangheeya party aur sin fein (keval uttari Ireland, haalaanki sin fein Ireland mein bhi chunaav ladte hain).dal ki neeti ke anusaar, kisi bhi nirvaachit saansad ke sin fein sadasya ne sadan mein apne ghatak ki or se baat karne ke liye lok sadan mein bhaag naheen liya kyonki sansad ke sadasyon dvaara samraat ke prati nishtha ki shapath lena aavashyak hai.[42]

Europeeya sansad mein chunaavon ke liye, UK ke paas vartamaan mein 78 MEP hain, jo 12 bahu sadasyeeya nirvaachan kshetron se chune gaye hain,[43] haalaaainki 2009 ke chunaav mein yeh kul 72 tak gir jaaega.samprabhuta par savaal yooropiyn sangh mein UK ki sadasyata ke kaaran aage laaya gaya hai.[44]

nyaagat raashtreeya prashaasan

skautish sansad, Scotland ki raashtreeya vidhaayika hai
belafaast, storamaunt mein sansad bhavan, vidhaanasabha ki kursi.

uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels pratyek ki apni sarkaar ya kaaryakaari hai, pehle mantri aur ek nyaagat sabha vidhaayika ke netrutv mein.England, United kingadam ka sabse bada shahar hai, ka kaaryapaalika ya vidhaayika nyaagat naheen hai aur sabhi muddon par seedhe UK sarkaar aur sansad dvaara prashaasit aur vyavasthit.is sthiti ne pashchim lothiyn savaal ko badhaava diya hai jo is tathya se matlab rakhata hai ki uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels ke MP matadaan se sakte hain, kabhi kabhi nirnaayak roop se,[45] England ko prabhaavit karne vaale maamalon mein jo ki nyaagat vidhaayikaaon dvaara unke nirvaachan kshetron ke liye sambhaala jaata hai.[46]

skautish sarkaar aur sansad ko kisi bhi maamale mein vyaapak adhikaar hain jo ki vishesh roop se UK ki sansad ke liye 'aarakshit' naheen hai, ismein shiksha, svaasthya dekhbhaal, skauts kaanoon aur sthaaneeya sarkaar shaamil hain.[47] 2007 ke chunaavon mein apni jeet ke baad, samarthak svatantrata SNP ne alpamat sarkaar ka gathan kiya jiske neta the, Alex sailmond, jo skautlaind ke pehle mantri bane.[48]

velsh vidhaanasabha sarkaar aur national assembly vels ko Scotland ke nyaagat se adhik seemit adhikaar hain,[49] halaaainki vels sarkaar adhiniyam 2006 ke paarit ke baad, vidhaanasabha vidhaan yogyata aadesh dvaara ab kuchh kshetron mein vyavastha kar sakti hai jo ek maamale ke aadhaar pradaan kiya ja sakta hai.[50] vartamaan velsh vidhaanasabha sarkaar ka 2007 ke chunaav ke kai hafton ke baad gathan kiya gaya tha, alpasankhyak prashaasan ke ek sankshipt avadhi ke baad, jab pled sayamaru ek gathabandhan sarkaar mein lebar party mein shaamil hue, pehle mantri rodri maurgan ke netrutv ke tahat.

uttari Ireland kaaryakaari aur sabha ke paas Scotland mein nyaagat jitni shaktiyaaain hai. uttari Ireland kaaryakaari vartamaan mein pehle mantri Peter raubinsan (prajaataantrik sangheeya party) aur pehle up mantri maarteen maikagunines (sin fein) ke netrutv mein hai.[51]

sthaaneeya sarkaar

maanachestar taaun hall, maanachestar ke sthaaneeya prashaasan ke liye upayog hota hai, viktoriyn yug ke gauthik punaruddhaar vaastukala ka ek udaaharan hai.

United kingadam ke pratyek deshon mein sthaaneeya sarkaar ki vyavastha alag se hai jo United kingadam mool jitni puraani hai. 19 veen shataabdi tak un vyavasthaaon mein kuchh badlaav tha lekin uske baad bhoomika aur kaarya mein ek nirantar vikaas hua.[52] England, uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels mein ek samaan roop mein parivartan naheen aaya aur sthaaneeya sarkaar se Scotland, vels aur uttari Ireland ko satta ke hastaantaran ka matlab he ki bhavishya parivartan ke samaan hone ki sambhaavana naheen hai.

England mein sthaaneeya sarkaar ka sangathan jatil hai, jab krutyon mein vitran sthaaneeya vyavastha ke hisaab se badalti hai. England mein sthaaneeya sarkaar ki vyavastha ka UK sansad aur United kingadam ki sarkaar dvaara faisala kiya jaata hai, kyonki England ke ek nyaagat sansad naheen hai. England ki oopari-stareeya upavibhaag mein nau sarkaari kaaryaalaya kshetr ya Europeeya sangh sarkaar kaaryaalaya kshetr hain.[53] ek kshetr, greater London, 2000 ke baad ek janamat sangrah mein is prastaav ke liye lokapriya samarthan ke baad ek seedhe nirvaachit vidhaanasabha aur mahaapaur.[54] yeh iraada tha ki anya kshetron mein bhi apne swayam ke nirvaachit kshetreeya sabha diya jaaega lekin poorvottar kshetr mein 2004 mein ek janamat sangrah se prastaavit sabha ki asveekruti ne raaste mein hi is vichaar ko roka diya.[55][56] kshetr star ke neeche, London mein 32 landan nagar shaamil hain aur England ke baaki mein ya to County parishad aur jila parishad ya ekaatmak adhikaari hain. sabhaasadon ko pehle vigat yeh pad ke dvaara ek sadasya aashrit mein ya bahu sadasyeeya bahusankhya pranaali dvaara bahu sadasyeeya aashrit mein niyukt kiya jaata hai.[57]

1973 se uttari Ireland mein sthaaneeya sarkaar, 26 jila parishdon mein aayojit ki gayi hai, pratyek ekal sankramaneeya mat dvaara sevaaon tak seemit shaktiyon ke saath nirvaachit hain jaise ki kooda ikattha karna, kutton ko niyantrit karna aur park ki dekhabaal karna aur kabristaan.[58] halaaainki, 13 March 2008 ko, karyapalikon ne maujooda vyavastha[59] ko badalne ke liye 11 nai parishdon ko banaane ke prastaavon ko sahamati di aur iske liye agale star ke chunaav 2011 tak sthagit kar diya jaaega.[60]

Scotland mein sthaaneeya sarkaar ko 32 parishad kshetr ke aadhaar par donon aakaar aur janasankhya mein vyaapak parivartan ke saath banta hua hai. glaasgo, edinbarg, ebardeen aur dundi shahar alag parishad kshetr hain jaisa ki haailaind parishd mein hai jisme Scotland ka ek tihaai kshetr hai lekin sirf 200000 log rahate hain. sthaaneeya adhikaariyon mein niveshit shakti nirvaachit paarshadon dvaara prashaasit hoti hai, jinmein se vartamaan mein 1222[61] hain jo aanshit vetan paate hain. chunaav ko bahu sadasyeeya ward mein ekal sankramaneeya mat dvaara aayojit kiya jaata hai jo teen ya chaar paarshad chunate hain. pratyek parishd ek provost ya sanyojak ko chunata hai jo parishad ke baithakon ki adhyakshata kare aur kshetr ke ek kalpit sardaar ke roop mein kaarya kare.sabhaasad aacharan ke sanhita ke adheen hain jo Scotland ke maanak aayog dvaara laagoo hai.[62] Scotland ke sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ki pratinidhi sangh Scotland ke sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ka samjhauta (COSLA) hai.[63]

vels ki sthaaneeya sarkaar mein 22 ekaatmak adhikaariyon ke shaamil hain jismein kaaradiff, svaanasi aur nyooport shaamil hain, jo apne aap mein alag ekaatmak adhikaari hain,[64] pehle vigat yeh pad dvaara[65] har chaar saal mein chunaav aayojit hota hai, haal ke chunaav May, 2008 mein hue the.velsh sthaaneeya sarkaar association vels ke sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ke hit ka pratinidhitv karta hai.[66]

videshi sambandh aur sashastr senaaeain

HMS "utkrusht"- shaahi nausena ka ek "aparaajaya" varg ka vimaan vaahak
ek royal nausena ka "senaagr" varg ki panadubbiyon mein se trideint II MIRV SLBM ka pareekshan prakshepan
shaahi vaayu sena ke Euro faaitar taaifoon - ek unnat ladaakoo vimaan

United kingadam sanyukt raashtra suraksha parishad ka ek sthaayi sadasya hai, G8, NATO, OECD, WTO, raashton ke raashtramandal aur Europeeya sangh ka ek sadasya raajya hai.UK ka sabse ullekhaneeya gathabandhan hai sanyukt raajya America ke saath iska "vishesh sambandh".US aur Europe ke alaava, Britain ke nikat sahayogiyon mein raashton ke raashtramandal aur Japan jaise anya shaamil hain. Britain ki vaishvik upasthiti aur prabhaav iske vyaapaarik sambandhon aur sashastr senaaon ke maadhyam se aur badhata hai, jo lagbhag assi sainya sthaapanaaon ko banaae rakhate hain aur vishv bhar mein anya ki tainaati.[67]

yeh sena, nausena aur vaayu sena ko saamoohik roop se Britain ki sashastr senaaon ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. in 3 senaaon ko raksha mantraalaya ke dvaara prabandhit kiya jaata hai aur raksha parishad ke raksha staaf ke mukhyamantri ki adhyakshata dvaara niyantrit kiya jaata hai.

United kingadam duniya mein takaneeki roop se sabse jyaada unnat aur sarvashreshth prashikshit sashastr senaaon ko tainaat karta hai. raksha mantraalaya sahit vibhinn sroton ke anusaar, janashakti ke hisaab se keval 27 sabse bade sainya hone ke baavajood, UK ka sainya kharch duniya mein teesara sarvaadhik hai. vartamaan mein kul raksha kharch, raashtreeya kul GDP ka 2.5% hai.[68] raayal navy, fraanseesi nausena aur sanyukt raajya America nausena sahit, ek neela-paani nausena hai, vartamaan mein kuchh mein se ek hai.[69] raksha mantraalaya ne 3 July 2008 mein vimaan vaahak aakaar ke do nae bahut bade vaahak banaane ke liye 320 karod ke anubandh par hastaakshar kiya.[70]

United kingadam, parmaanu hathiyaar rakhane ke liye paaainch maanyata praapt deshon mein se ek hain, jo mohra varg panadubbi aadhaarit trideint dviteeya bailistik misaail pranaali ka upayog karte hain.

british sashastr senaaon ko United kingadam aur uske videshi kshetron ki raksha karne ka aadesh hai, United kingadam ki vaishvik suraksha hiton ko badhaava diya aur antararaashtreeya shaanti prayaason ka samarthan kiya. ve NATO mein sakriya aur niyamit roop se, mitr deshon ki raipid riyekshan vaahini sahit, saath hi paanch vidyut raksha vyavastha, RIMPAC aur anya vishvavyaapi gathabandhan operation mein bhaag lete hain. videshon mein sipaahiyon ki chaukiyaaain aur suvidhaaeain udagam dweep, beleej, brunei, Canada, Diego gaarsiya, faukalaind dweep, Germany, gibraaltar, kenya, saaipras aur Qatar par banaaya rakha hai.[71]

2005 mein british sena ki 102440, vaayu sena ki 49210 aur nausena ki 36320 taakat ki ek report thi.[72]

United kingadam vishesh sena, furteele, gatisheel, sainya pratikriyaaon ko aatankvaad ke viruddh, bhoomi, samudri aur dvidha gativaala parichaalanon ke liye prashikshit sainikon ko pradaan karta hai, aksar jahaaain gopaneeyata ya gupt rananeeti ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

niyamit sena ka samarthan karne ke liye aarakshit sena hain. iname praadeshik sena, royal nausena sanrakshit, royal marine sanrakshit aur royal sahaayak vaayu sena shaamil hain. yeh kul sakriya aur aarakshit kartavya sainya karmiyon ko lagbhag 429500 banaata hai, jo assi deshon par tainaat hain.

United kingadam ki sainya kshamataaon ke baavajud, haal hi ki vyaavahaarik raksha neeti ki ek ghoshit dhaarana hai ki "sabse maang karne vaale parichaalan" ek gathabandhan ke hisse ke roop mein kiya jaaega.[73] siyra Leon mein hastakshep alag karne ke baad, bosniya, kosovo, Afghanistan aur Iraq mein operation sabhi misaal ke roop mein liya ja sakta hai. vaastav mein aakhri yudgh jo british sena dvaara akele lada gaya tha vo 1982 ka faukalaind yuddh tha, jismein ve vijayi rahe the.

kaanoon aur aaparaadhik nyaaya

England aur vels ke shaahi nyaayaalayon ki nyaayamoorti.

pehle svatantr deshon ke raajaneetik sangh dvaara nirmit hone ke kaaran, United kingadam mein ek kaanooni vyavastha naheen hai sangh ki sandhi ke anuchhed 19 jo Scotland ki alag kaanooni pranaali ki jaari rakhane ka vishvaas dilaata hai.[74] aaj UK ki kaanoon ke paas teen alag pranaaliyaaain hai: angreji kaanoon, uttari Ireland kaanoon aur skauts kaanoon.haal ki samvaidhaanik badlaav United kingadam ka ek naya Supreme court October 2009 mein astitv mein dekhega jo ki yahova sabha ke punarvichaar sambandhi samiti ke nivedan kaaryon ko lega.[75] niji parishad ki nyaayik samiti mein, yahova sabha ke punarvichaar sambandhi samiti ke ek hi sadasya shaamil hain, kai svatantr raashtramandal, UK videshi kshetron aur british raajatv nirbharata deshon ke liye nivedan ki sarvochch adaalat hai.

England, vels aur uttari Ireland

England aur vels mein laagoo hone vaale, donon angreji kaanoon aur uttari Ireland kaanoon, aam kaanoon siddhaanton par aadhaarit hain. aam kaanoon ka saar hai ki kaanoon adaalat mein baithe nyaayaadheeshon, unki aam bhaavana aavedan aur tathyon se parampara ke gyaan (taak desisis) dvaara nirmit hote hain.England aur vels ke nyaayaalaya, England aur vels ke mahakama ke uchchatam nyaayaalaya ke netrutv mein hain, nivedan ka nyaayaalaya, nyaaya ka uchch nyaayaalaya (naagrik maamalon ke liye) aur raajatv nyaayaalaya (aaparaadhik maamale ke liye) iske nirvaachakagan hain.yahova sabha ke punarvichaar sambandhi samiti (aamtaur par bas "yahova sabha" ke naam se jaana jaata hai) England, vels aur uttari Ireland mein donon aaparaadhik aur naagrik maamalon ke liye vartamaan mein desh ka sarvochch nyaayaalaya hai aur usaka har faisala padaanukram ke har doosare adaalat mein baadhyakaari hai.

England aur vels mein aparaadh mein 1981 aur 1995 avadhi ke beech vruddhi hui, yadyapi us choti ke baad se, 1995 se 2007/8 tak aparaadh mein 48% ki samagr giraavat hui.[76] aparaadh ke dar mein giraavat ke baavajood, isi avadhi mein England aur vels ki jail aabaadi lagbhag doguni ho gayi hai, lagbhag 80,000 tak, 147 prati 100000 mein pashchimi Europe mein England aur vels ko kaid ki uchchatam dar dekar.[77] mahaaraani saahiba ki jail seva, jo nyaaya mantraalaya ko report karti hai, England aur vels ke bheetar jailon ka adhikaansh prabandhan karti hai.

Scotland

uchch nyaayaalaya ke nyaayajnya - Scotland ke sarvochch aaparaadhik nyaayaalaya.

skauts kaanoon, ek sankar pranaali donon aam-kaanoon aur naagrik kaanoon ke siddhaanton par aadhaarit, skautlaind mein laagoo hai. mukhya nyaayaalaya satr nyaayaalaya ke hain, naagrik maamalon ke liye,[78] aur nyaayajnya ka uchch nyaayaalaya, aaparaadhik maamalon ke liye hai.[79] yahova sabha ki punarvichaar sambandhi samiti (aamtaur par "yahova sabha" kaha jaata hai) skauts kaanoon ke antargat vartamaan mein nivedan ke sarvochch nyaayaalaya mein naagrik maamalon ka kaarya karta hai lekin jab satr court nivedan ko chhutti deta hai ya praarambhik nirnaya bahumat nirnaya se kiya gaya ho.sherif nyaayaalaya naagrik aur aaparaadhik maamale jismein aaparaadhik maamale niptaana, panchaayat ke saath aaparaadhik pareekshanon ya ek pradhaan aur koi panchaayat naheen, (jise sherif saaraansh nyaayaalaya kaha jaata hai) shaamil hai.sherif nyaayaalaya ek sthaaneeya adaalat seva pradaan karta hai jismein chhah sherifdam bhar mein aayojit 49 sherif adaalat hain.[80] skauts kaanooni ek aparaadhik pareekshan pranaali ke liye teen sambhaavit faisale karne mein adviteeya hai: "doshi", "doshi naheen" aur "siddh naheen ".donon "doshi naheen" aur "siddh naheen" mukadame ki sambhaavana ke bina ek abhimukti mein parinaam.[81]

nyaaya ke mantrimandal sachiv skautish sarkaar ke sadasya hain jo police, adaalaton aur aaparaadhik nyaaya ke liye jimmedaar hain aur skautish jail seva, jo Scotland mein jailon ka prabandhan karti hai.[82] haalaanki 2007/8 mein darj aparaadh ka star 25 saal mein sabse kam tak gira,[83] jail janasankhya, lagbhag 8000,[84] record star ko maar raha hai aur design kshamata se kaafi oopar hai.[85]

bhoogol

United kingadam ke desh

United kingadam ka kul kshetrafal lagbhag 245000km2 hai jismein great Britain ke dweep, Ireland (uttari Ireland) dweep ke poorvottar ka ek chhata hissa aur chhote dweep shaamil hain.[86] uttar atalaantik mahaasaagar aur uttar saagar ke beech padta hai, France ke uttar pashchimi tat ke 35 km ke bheetar, jahaaain se yeh english channel ke dvaara alag hota hai.[86] great Britain akshaansh 49° aur 59° uttar ke beech (shetalaind dweep 61° uttar tak pahuainchata hai) aur deshaantar 8° poorv se 2° pashchim mein padta hai. landan ke paas, royal greenavich vedhashaala, pramukh paraakaashtha ka paribhaashit nishaan hai. jab seedhe uttar -dakshin maapa gaya, great Britain lanbaai mein 1100 km lamba hai aur vyaapakatam par 500 km kam ek ansh hai, do ank ke beech sabse sabse adhik doori 1350 km hai bhoomi ki samaapti aur kaurnavaul (peinjains ke najdeek) aur kaithanes mein John O' groats (thurso ke najdeek) ke beech.uttari Ireland, Ireland ke saath 360 km seema bhoomi baaaintata hai.[86]

United kingadam mein ek sheetoshn jalavaayu hai, jahaaain saal bhar bharpoor maatra mein varsha hoti hai.[86] mausam ke saath taapamaan badalta hai lekin kabhi kabhi -10 C neeche girta hai ya 35 C oopar uthata hai. maujooda hava dakshin poorv se hai, jo atalaantik mahaasaagar se lagaataar narm aur geela mausam lekar aati hai. poorvi bhaag ko hava se sabse jyaada sharan mili hai aur isliye sabse adhik sookha hai. gulf nadi se garam hui atalaantik dhaaraaeain, halki sardiyaaain laati hain, khaaskar pashchim mein, jahaaain vishesh roop se uchch bhoomi mein, sardiyaaain geeli hain. Europeeya mahaadveep ke sabse kareeb hote hue, England ke dakshini poorv mein greeshmakaal sabse garm hain aur uttar mein sabse thandau॰aabarfabaari sardiyon aur shuruvaati vasant mein ho sakti hai, yadyapi uchch bhoomi se door yeh kabhi kabhi hi mahaan gaharaai mein basati hai.

UK ki sthalaakruti

England UK ke kul kshetrafal ka sirf aadha hai, 130410 km2 aachhaadan karte hue.adhikaansh desh mein taraai kshetr hain, tees-ex ki rekha ke uttar pashchim mein pahaadi ilaake ke saath jheel jila ke kambriyn pahaadiyon, penines aur choona patthar pahaadi ke peek jila, eksmoor aur daartmoor sahit.thems, sevarn aur hanbar, mukhya nadiyaaain aur jvaaranadamukh hain. England ka sabse oonche parvat skaafel paaik hai, jo jheel jila 978 m mein haiinglaind mein kai nagar aur shahar hain, jismein Europeeya sangh ke sarvochch 50 bade shahari kshetr ke chhah shaamil hain. skautlaind UK ke kul kshetrafal ka ek tihaai hissa hai, 78772 km2 aachhaadan karte hue,[87] jismein aath hajaar dweep,[88] mukhya roop se pashchim aur uttar mukhya bhoomi, khaaskar hebreeds, orkaneya dweep aur shetalaind dweep samooh shaamil hain. Scotland ki sthalaakruti ke paarvatya desh seema truti – dvaara vishisht hai, ek bhoovaijnyaaanik patthar asthibhang – jo helanasbargh se stonahaivan tak Scotland ke mukhya bhoomi ko paar karta hai. yeh chookarekha do vishisht vibhinn kshetron ho alag karta hai; arthaat uttar aur pashchim mein paarvatya aur dakshin aur poorv mein taraai.jitna adhik visham paarvatya kshetr mein Scotland ke pahaadi ilaake ki bahumat shaamil hai, ben nevis sahit, jo 1343 m par british dveepon mein uchchatam sthaan mein hai.[89] taraai kshetr, khaaskar klaaid ki sankeern saagar shaakha aur aage ka sankeern saagar shaakha jise central belt kaha jaata hai unke beech ke desh ke jameen ki sankeern kamar chapati hai aur jyaadaatar janasankhya ko ghar karti hai jismein glaasago, Scotland ka sabse bada shahar hai aur edinbarg, desh ki rajdhani aur raajaneetik kendra, shaamil hain.

Scotland mein, ben nevis, british dweep samooh mein uchchatam sthal hai

vels, UK ki kul bhoomi ke ek dasvein hisse se kam kshetr mein hai, 20758 km2 aachhaadan karte hue.vels adhiktar pahaadi hai, haalaanki uttar aur madhya vels ki tulana mein dakshin vels kam pahaadi hai. dakshin vels ki mukhya aabaadi aur audyogik kshetr, kaardif ke tateeya shaharon ki nirvaachakagan (rajdhani, raajaneetik aur aarthik kendra), svaanasi aur nyooport aur unke uttar mein dakshin vels ghaati.vels mein sabse oonche pahaad snodoniya mein hain aur ismein snodon (velsh: Yr Wyddfa) shaamil hai, jo 1085 meter (3560 feet) par vels ka sarvochch shikhar hai. 14 (ya sanbhavat: 15) velsh pahaad lagbhag 3000 feet (914 mi) oonche, saamoohik roop mein velsh 3000 ke roop mein jaane jaate hain. vels mein 1200 kimi (750 meal) ka samudra tat hai. velsh mukhya bhoomi se door kai dweep hain, jismein se sabse bada uttar pashchim ka engalase (Ynys Môan) hai.

uttari Ireland sirf 14160 km2 hai aur adhiktar pahaadi hai. ismein laugh negh shaamil hai, 388 km2 par, UK aur aayaralaind mein sabse bada jal kshetr hai.[90] uttari Ireland mein maurn pahaadon ke 849 m mein uchchatam shikhar sliyev donard hai.

shahar aur mahanagar

UK ke alag alag deshon ki raajadhaaniyon hain: belafaast (uttari Ireland), kaardif (vels), edinbarg (Scotland) aur landan (England); aakhri wala poori tarah se UK ki rajdhani hai.[86]

sabse bade mahanagar is prakaar hain:

  • bruhattar London shahari kshetr - 85 lakh
  • pashchim samudra se door jameen - 23 lakh
  • bruhattar Manchester shahari kshetr - 22 lakh
  • pashchim yaurkashaayar shahari kshetr - 15 lakh
  • bruhattar glaasago - 12 lakh

saaaincha:Largest cities of the United Kingdom

janasaankhyiki

UK ke sabhi hisson mein har das saalon mein ek janaganana hoti hai.[91] raashtreeya saankhyiki kaaryaalaya England aur vels ke liye deta sangrah karne ke liye jimmedaar hai, jahaaain skautlaind ke general panjeekaran kaaryaalaya aur uttari Ireland saankhyiki aur anusandhaan agency pratyek apne desh ki janaganana ke liye jimmedaar hai.[92]

janasankhya

haal ki 2001 mein janaganana mein, United kingadam ki kul aabaadi 58789194 thi, Europeeya sangh mein teesara, raashtramandal mein paanchava aur vishv mein ikkeesva hai. madhya 2007 tak, yeh 60,975,000 tak viksit hone ka anumaan lagaaya gaya tha.[93] vartamaan janasankhya vruddhi mukhya roop se shuddh aapravaas ke kaaran hai lekin badhti janm dar aur jeevan pratyaasha mein badhat ne bhi yogadaan diya hai.[94] madhya 2007 janasankhya anumaan se yeh bhi pata chala hai ki, pehli baar, UK 16 varsh ki aayu ke neeche ke bachchon ki tulana mein ab aur adhik peinshani umr ke logon ka ghar hai.[95]

madhya 2007 tak England ki aabaadi 511 lakh hone ka anumaan tha.[96] duniya ki sabse adhik ghani aabaadi vaale deshon mein se ek hai jo madhya 2003 mein 383 log ka nivaas prati varg kilometer tha,[97] jahaaain London aur dakshin poorv mein ek vishesh ekaagrata hai. madhya 2007 ke anumaan ne Scotland ki janasankhya 51 lakh, vels ki 30 lakh aur uttari Ireland 18 lakh bataai hai, iski tulana mein England mein kaafi kam janasankhya ghanatv hai.[96] madhya 2003 mein England ke 383 nivaasi prati varg kilometer (990 /varg meal) tulana mein, vels ke liye 142 /kimi2 (370 /varg meal) aankade the, uttari Ireland ke liye 125 /kimi2 (320 /varg meal) aur sirf skautlaind ke liye 65 /kimi2 (170 /varg meal).[97]

2007 mein, UK bhar mein ausat kul prajanan dar (TFR) 1.90 bachche prati aurat tha.[98] yeh anumaan hai ki 2008 mein, England aur vels ka prajanan 1.95 bachche prati aurat[99] utha kyonki us saal 709,000 bachche paida hue jismein se ek chauthaai videshi maataaon se the jinke prajanan dar 2.2 bachche prati aurat hai, 1.6 bachchon ki dar ki tulana mein jo ki british janmi maataaeain ausat karti hain. haalaanki ek badhti janm dar vartamaan janasankhya vruddhi ko yogadaan de rahi hai, yeh 1964 ke 2.95 bachche prati maata ke 'baby boom' shikhar ke kaafi neeche bani hui hai, 2.1 ki pratisthaapan dar neeche, lekin 2001 ke 1.63 jitni kam rikaard se neeche.[98] Scotland mein keval 1.73 bachche prati aurat ka sabse kam prajanan tha, jabki uttari Ireland ke 2.02 bachche se uchchatam tha.

aapravaasan

kuchh anya Europeeya deshon ke vipreet, aapravaas janasankhya ki badhat mein yogadaan de raha hai,[100] 1991 aur 2001 ke beech ki aabaadi mein vruddhi mein aadhe ke liye jimmedaar hai.Europeeya sangh ke naagrikon ko kisi bhi sadasya desh mein[101] hai[102] aur chhah mein se ek pravaasi poorvi Europeeya deshon se the jo 2004 mein EU mein shaamil hue, jismein badi sankhya nae raashtramandal deshon mein se the. sankramanakaaleen prabandh romaaniyaai aur balgeriyn par laagoo hoti hai jinke desh January 2007 mein Europeeya sangh mein shaamil hue the.[103] sarkaari aankadon ne dikhaaya hai ki 1997 ke baad se 23 lakh kul pravaasi[104] Britain mein chale gaye,[105] unamein se 84% Europe ke bahaar se hain,[106] aur 2031 ek aur 70 lakh ki ummeed hai,[107] haalaanki yeh aankade vivaadit hain.[108] taaja sarkaari aankadon se pata chalta hai ki 2007 mein UK mein kul aapravaas 237000 tha, isse pehle saal ke 191000 se utha hai.[109] haalaanki UK mein videshon mein janme logon ka anupaat anya Europeeya deshon se thoda neeche bana rahata hai,[110] vaastavik sankhya agale do dashakon mein lagbhag 91 lakh tak doguna ho sakta hai.[111] usi samay, utpravaas ke kaaran, kam se kam 55 lakh Britain videshon mein rah rahe hain,[112][113][114] jismein Australia, Spain aur sanyukt raajya America sheersh teen sthaanon mein hain.[112]

janme ka desh ke hisaab se videsh mein janmi janasankhya
videsh mein rahane vaale british naagrik

2006 mein, british naagarikta ke liye 149035 aavedan the, 2005 se 32% kam.2006 ke dauraan naagarikta pradaan logon ki sankhya 154095 thi, 2005 se 5% kam.british naagarikta mile logon ka sabse bada samooh Bhaarat, Pakistan, somaaliya aur fileepins se tha.[115] England aur vels mein janme 21.9% bachche UK ke baahar paida hue maataaon se paida hue the, (669601 mein se 146956), 2007 mein jaari kiye gaye sarkaari aaainkadon ke anusaar.[116]

August 2007 mein prakaashit aankade 682940 logon ne kaaryakarta panjeekaran yojana ke liye aavedan diya tha (kendreeya aur poorvi Europeeya raajyon ke raashtreeyon ke liye jo May 2004 mein EU mein shaamil hue the) 1 May 2004 aur 30 June 2007 ke beech, jismein se 656395 sveekaar kiye gaye the.[117] sv-niyojit shramikon aur jo log kaam naheen kar rahe hain (chhaatron sahit) unhein is yojana ke tahat rajistar karne ke liye aavashyak naheen hai, to yeh aankada aapravaas par ek kam seema ke aagaman ka prateek hai. ye aankade un pravaaseeyon ki sankhya ka sanket naheen hai jo ghar vaapas aa gaye hain, lekin 30 June 2007 ko samaapt hone 12 maheenon mein 56% aavedakon ki teen maheene ke ek adhiktam samay tak rahane ki yojana banaane ki soochana hai, 2005 mein nae EU se kul pravaas 64000 the.[118] anusandhaan ka kehna hai ki April 2008 tak lagbhag 10 lakh log nae EU ke sadasya raajyon se UK mein sthaanaantarit hue the, lekin yeh us sankhya ko aadha karta hai jo ghar vaapas aa gaye hain ya ek teesare desh chale gaye hain.[119][120] UK mein chaar mein ek danda ne jeevan bhar yahaaain rahane ki yojana banaai hai, ek sarvekshan se pata chala hai.[121] UK mein 2008 aarthik sankat aur Poland mein badhti arthavyavastha ne UK mein visthaapit hone ke liye dande ki aarthik protsaahan ko kam kar diya hai.[122]

raashtreeya beema deta bataata hai ki 25 lakh videshi kaamagaar kaam karne ke liye Britain mein sthaanaantarit hue (sankshipt avadhi ke liye jaanevaalon sahit), 2002 aur 2007 ke beech EU deshon se bahumat.[123]

UK sarkaar ne ropeeya aarthik kshetr ke baahar se aapravaas ke liye vartamaan mein ek ank-aadhaarit aavrajan pranaali shuroo curry hai, jo skautish sarkaar ki taaja pratibha pahal sahit, maujooda yojanaaon ko badal dega.

jaateeya samooh

UK ki vartamaan janasankhya vividh jaateeya samooh ke vanshajo se hai, jinme mukhya hain poorv keltik, keltik, roman, englo-sakson aur normann1945 ke baad se, Africa, kairibiyaai aur dakshin Asia se paryaapt aapravaas samaanata ki viraasat hai jo british saamraajya dvaara anukaran ki gayi hai. 2004 ke baad se kendreeya aur poorvi Europe mein nae EU sadasya raajyon se pravaasan in janasankhya samoohon ke vikaas mein badal gaya hai, lekin, 2008 mein, yeh rujhaan vipreet ho raha hai aur in pravaaseeyon mein se kai ghar laut rahe hain, jisse is samoohon ka aakaar agyaat reh gaya hai.[124][125] 2001 tak, janasankhya ki 92.1% ne khud ko white ke roop mein pehchaan, UK janasankhya ki 7.9%[126] chhodkar jinhonne mishrit nasl ya jaateeya alpasankhyak ke roop mein khud ki pahachaana.

jaateeya samooh janasankhya kul* ka %
shvet &&&&&&&054153898.&&&&&05,41,53,898 92.1%
kaale &&&&&&&&01148738.&&&&&011,48,738 2.0%
mishrit nasl &&&&&&&&&0677117.&&&&&06,77,117 1.2%
bhaarateeya &&&&&&&&01053411.&&&&&010,53,411 1.8%
Pakistani &&&&&&&&&0747285.&&&&&07,47,285 1.3%
baanglaadeshi &&&&&&&&&0283063.&&&&&02,83,063 0.5%
anya Asiaee (gair cheeni) &&&&&&&&&0247644.&&&&&02,47,644 0.4%
cheeni &&&&&&&&&0247403.&&&&&02,47,403 0.4%
anya : &&&&&&&&&0230615.&&&&&02,30,615 0.4%
* Percentage of total UK population

jaateeya vividhta you.ke. mein kaafi bhinn hota hai. London ki janasankhya ka 30.4%[127] aur laaisestar ka 37.4%[128] June, 2005 tak gair-safed hone ka anumaan tha, jabki poorvottar England, vels aur dakshin pashchim ki aabaadi 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar kam se kam 5% jaateeya alpasankhyakon mein se the.[129] 2007 tak, praathamik ka 22% aur England mein anurakshan schoolon mein maadhyamik vidyaarthiyon ke 17.7% jaateeya alpasankhyak parivaaron se the.[130][131]

bhaashaaeain

desh jahaaain angreji bhaasha ko vaastavik ya vidhi sammat aadhikaarik bhaasha ka darja mila hai.

UK ki vidhi sammat ek aadhikaarik naheen bhaasha hai lekin prabal bhaasha angreji hai, puraani angreji se utara ek pashchim jarman bhaasha puraani naurs, norman French aur laitin se ek badi sankhya mein visheshataaeain udhaar leti hain. jyaadaatar british saamraajya ke kaaran, angreji bhaasha duniya bhar mein fail hua hai aur kaarobaar ka antarraashtreeya bhaasha bana saath hi sabse adhik vyaapak roop se sikhaaya doosari bhaasha hai.[132] skauts, uttari madhya angreji se utari ek bhaasha ne Europeeya star par maanyata praapt curry hai[133] aur sirf ek angreji bhaasha naheen hai.UK mein chaar keltik bhaashaaeain upayog mein hain: velsh, aayarish gaaelik (aamtaur par sirf aayarish ke naam se jaana jata hai), skautish gaaelik aur kornish.2001 ki janaganana mein vels ki ek bata paanch (21%) aabaadi ne kaha ki ve velsh mein baat kar sakte hain,[134] 1991 ki janaganana se adhik (18%).[135] iske alaava, yeh anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki 200000 velsh vakta England mein rahate hain.[136] uttari Ireland mein 2001 ki janaganana ne dikhaaya ki 167487 (10.4%) logon ko "aayarish ka kuchh gyaan tha" (uttari Ireland mein aayarish bhaasha dekhein), lagbhag vishesh roop se Catholic/raashtravaadi janasankhya mein.Scotland mein 92,000 logon (bas 2% janasankhya ke antargat) gaaelik bhaasha kshamata thi, jismein ilean siaar mein rahane vaale 72% log bhi shaamil hain.[137] velsh aur skautish gaaelik vishv bhar mein chhote samooh ke dvaara boli jaati hain jismein nova skotiya, Canada aur arjenteena ke paataagoniya mein velsh.

United kingadam mein aamtaur par vidyaarthiyon ke liye doosari bhaasha ka adhyayan karna kuchh had tak anivaarya hai: England mein 14 varsh ki umr tak.[138] aur skautlaind mein 16 varsh ki umr tak.England aur Scotland mein French aur jarman do sabse adhik sikhaae jaane waali doosari bhaashaaeain hain. vels mein, sabhi 16 saal ke vidyaarthiyon ko ya to velsh mein sikhaaya jaata hai ya doosari bhaasha ke roop mein velsh sikhaaya jaata hai.[139]

dharm

sangh ki sandhi, jisne United kingadam ke gathan ka netrutv kiya usane sunishchit kiya ki vahaaain ek kattar uttaraadhikaar hoga saath hi church aur raajya ke beech ka rishta bana rahega.isaai dharm pramukh dharm hai, uske baad anya dharmaanuyaayiyon ki sankhya ke drushtikon se islaam, hindu dharm, sikh dharm aur fir yahoodi hai. 2007 ke tiyrafand sarvekshan[140] ke anusaar is desh ke 53% log swayam ki pehchaan isaai dharmaavalanbi ke roop mein karte hain, jo ki 2004 ke british saamaajik drushtikon sarvekshan ke samaan hai.[141] 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar 71.6% logon ne bataaya ki isaai dharm hi unka dharm hai[142] (haalaanki unase "ek udaar prashn" kiya gaya tha). yadyapi, tiyrafand sarvekshan ne dikhaaya ki das mein se keval ek britenavaasi hi vaastav mein church mein saaptaahik roop se upasthit the.[143][144][145]

iske atirikt yahaaain naastikta ko sveekaarane/maanane vaale aur ajnyaeyavaadi logon ki janasankhya bhi vyaapak maatra mein hai. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar, 91 lakh (15% Britain ki janasankhya) kisi bhi dharm ko na maanane ka daava karti hai aur 43 lakh (Britain ki janasankhya ka 7%) swayam ko koi dhaarmik praathamikta naheen bataati hai.[146] is aankade ke beech asamaanata hai unke liye jo ek vishesh dharm ke saath swayam ki pehchaan karte hain aur unamein jo Bhagwan mein vishvaas prachaar karte hain: 2005 mein aayojit yoorobairomeetar chunaav ne dikhaaya ki uttaradaataaon ka 38% ka vishvaas hai ki "Bhagwan hain", 40% ka maanana hai ki "kisi prakaar ki aatma ya jeevan shakti hoti hai" aur 20% ne kaha ki "mujhe kisi aatma, Bhagwan ya jeevan shakti par vishvaas naheen hai".[147]

isaai dharm

vestaminstar ebbe, british raajaaon ke raajyaabhishek ke liye kiya jaata hai

isaai dharm England mein pramukh dharam hai jahaaain England ka church (angareji) ek sthaapit church hai:[148] UK sansad mein church ka pratinidhitv barkaraar hai aur british samraat church ka sadasya hai (sangh ki sandhi anuchhed 2 ke antargat aavashyak) saath hi iske pramukh raajyapaal.England ka church saamaanya parishd ke maadhyam se vaidhaanik upaayon ka masauda taiyaar karne ka bhi rakhata hai (dhaarmik prashaasan ke liye) jo ki sansad dvaara kaanoon mein paarit kiya ja sakta hai.England aur vels ka roman Catholic church doosra sabse bada isaai church hai jismein 50 lakh sadasya hain, jo jyaadar England se hain.[149] vahaaain bhi roodhivaadi, injeel aur peintakost ke church badh rahe hain, jahaaain church upasthiti ke sandarbh mein England mein peintakost ke church England ke church aur roman Catholic church ke baad teesara hai.[150][151] anya bade isaai samoohon mein methodist aur bapatisma-daata shaamil hain.

Scotland ka purohit church (anaupachaarik roop se kirk kahalaaya jaata hai), Scotland ke raashtreeya church ke roop mein pahachaana jaata hai aur raajya niyantran ke adheen naheen hai. british samraat ek saadhaaran sadasya hai aur unke pravesh par unhein church ki "suraksha ki raksha" karne ki ek shapath lena aavashyak hai.Scotland mein roman Catholic church Scotland ka doosra sabse bada krishchiyn church, ek chhate aabaadi ke hisse ka pratinidhitv karta hai.[152] skautish dharmaadhyaksheeya church, jo angareji aikya ka hissa hai, 1960 mein skautlaind ke purohit ki antim sthaapana jitna puraana hai, jab yeh Scotland ke church se alag hua aur yeh England ke church ka ek 'sahayogi church' naheen hai. skautlaind ke church mein aur vibhaajan, vishesh roop se unneesaveen shataabdi mein, skautlaind mein vibhinn anya purohit charchon ka nirmaan karne ke liye netrutv bana, skautlaind ke muft church sahit.

1920 ke dashak mein, vels ka church England ke church se svatantr hua aur 'visthaapit' hua lekin angareji aikya mein hai. methodism aur anya adhik svatantr church vels mein paaramparik roop se majaboot hain.

uttari Ireland mein pramukh dhaarmik samooh ek akhil Ireland ke aadhaar par aayojit hain. haalaanki kattar aur angareji samagr bahumat mein hain,[153] Ireland ka roman Catholic church sabse bada ekal church hai. Ireland mein purohit church, skautlaind ke church se dharmashaastr aur itihaas ke sandarbh mein niktata se juda hua hai, doosra sabse bada church hai jiske baad Ireland ka church (angareji) hai jo unneesaveen sadi mein visthaapit hua tha.

anya dharm

poorvi London masjid, desh ka sabse bade islaami ibaadat ka sthaan

2001 ki janaganana mein, England aur vels mein 15,36,015 muslamaan the,[154] jo 3% janasankhya ka gathan karti hai.Scotland mein 42,557 muslamaan hain jo 0.84% aabaadi ka pratinidhitv karte hain.[155] uttari Ireland mein aur 1943 muslamaan the.[156] muslamaanon ka sabse bada samooh Pakistani, baanglaadeshi aur bhaarateeya mool se hain. raashtreeya saankhyiki kaaryaalaya ke anusaar, 2008 mein UK mein 24,22,000 kul muslamaan the.[157]

10 lakh se adhik log bhaarateeya mool ke dharmon ka paalan karte hain: 5,60,000 hindu, 3,40,000 sikh jinmein se 150000 bauddh dharm ka abhyaas kar rahe hain.[158] ek gair sarkaari sangathan ka anumaan hai ki UK mein 8,00,000 hindu hain.[159] laaisestar ghar, duniya ke kuchh jain mandir jo Bhaarat ke baahar hain.[160][161]

2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar, Britain mein lagbhag 2,70,000 yahoodi hain.[162]

arthavyavastha

London, Europe ka sabse bada vitteeya kendra aur, New York aur tokyo ke saath duniya ki teen sabse bade vitteeya keindron mein se ek hai.[159]

UK ki arthavyavastha (aakaar ke ghatate kram mein) England, Scotland, vels aur uttari Ireland se bani hai.baajaar vinimay dar ke aadhaar par United kingadam aaj duniya ki chhathi sabse badi arthavyavastha hai aur Germany aur France ke baad Europe mein teesara.[7]

United kingadam mein audyogik kraanti bhaari udyogon par ek praarambhik ekaagrata ke saath shuroo hui jaise ki jahaaj nirmaan, koyala khanan, ispaat utpaadan aur vastr.is saamraajya ne british utpaadon ke liye ek videshi baajaar banaaya, jisse 19 veen sadi mein UK ko antarraashtreeya vyaapaar par haavi hone ka mauka mila.fir bhi, jab do vishv yuddhon ke baad aarthik giraavat ke saath yugmit anya raashtra audyogik bane, United kingadam ne apna pratispardhaatmak laabh khona shuroo kar diya tha aur poore 20 veen sadi mein dhaatu udyog mein badi maatra mein giraavat I.vinirmaan arthavyavastha ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa rahata hai, lekin 2003 mein yeh raashtra utpaadan ka keval ek-chhatha hissa tha.[163] british motor udyog is kshetr ka ek mahatvapoorn hissa hai, yadyapi MG rovar samooh ke patan ke saath yeh kam ho gaya hai aur yeh udyog sabse adhik videshi svaamitv hai. naagrik aur raksha vimaan utpaadan, Europe ke sabse bade raksha thekedaar, BAE tantr,[164] aur eyarabas ke maalik mahaadveepeeya Europeeya farm EADS ke netrutv mein hai. rols-royas ke paas vaishvik eyarospes engine baajaar ka pramukh hissa hai. rasaayan aur dava udyog UK mein majaboot hai, duniya ki doosari aur chhathi sabse badi dava kanpaniyaaain (GlaxoSmithKline aur AstraZeneca, kramash:)[165] UK mein sthit hain.

UK ka seva kshetr, halaaainki, kaafi bad gayi hai aur GDP ka lagbhag 73% ka nirmaan karta hai.[166] seva kshetr par vitteeya sevaaeain haavi hai, vishesh roop se banking aur beema.London duniya ka sabse bada vitteeya kendra hai, jahaaain London stock exchange, London antararaashtreeya vitteeya viniyman aur vikalp vinimay aur London ke lauyad beema baajaar sabhi landan shahar mein base hain. London, antararaashtreeya vyaapaar aur vaanijya ka ek pramukh kendra hai aur vaishvik arthavyavastha ke liye teen "command seintaron" ka leedar hai (New York shahar aur tokyo ke saath).[167] yahaaain, duniya mein videshi bank shaakhaaon ki sabse badi ekaagrata hai. pichhle dashak mein, London mein ek pratidvandvi vitteeya kendra daukalaind kshetr mein bada hua, jahaaain duniya ka sabse bada bank HSBC hai, "[168],""[169]" aur baarkale bank ne apna pradhaan kaaryaalaya vahaan sthaanaantar kiya. kai bahuraashtreeya kanpaniyaaain jo mukhya roop se UK mein base nahi hain, unhonne London ko apne Europeeya ya baaki vishv mukhyaalaya ke liye chuna hai: US vitteeya seva farm Citigroup ek udaaharan hai. skautlaind ki rajdhani edinbarg ka Europe mein bada vitteeya kendra hai[170] aur duniya ke sabse bade bankon mein se ek, Scotland samooh ke royal bank ka pradhaan kaaryaalaya hai.

uttari saagar ka tel aur gas, Britain ki oorja aavashyakta ki aapoorti karta hai.

british arthavyavastha ke liye paryatan bahut mahatvapoorn hai. 2004 mein 270 lakh paryatakon pahunchane ke saath, United kingadam ko duniya mein chhatha pramukh paryatan sthal kramit kiya gaya hai.[171] London kaafi margin se duniya ka sabse ka daura kiya jaane wala shahar hai jahaaain 2006 mein 156 lakh paryatak aae, dusare pad mein bainkauk (104 lakh) aue teesare padak peris (97 lakh) se aage.[172]

2005 mein rachanaatmak udyog 7% GVA ke liye jimmedaar hai aur 1997 aur 2005 ke beech prativrsh 6% ki ausat se bada hai.[173]

United kingadam ka krushi kshetr, desh ke GDA mein keval 0.9% ke liye jimmedaar hai.[86]

UK ka ek chhota koyala aarakshan hai, praakrutik gas aur tel bhandaar jo mahatvapoorn hai fir bhi lagaataar giraavat[174] hai. 400 lakh tan se jyaada siddh koyala bhandaar ki UK mein pehchaan ki gayi hai.[175] 2004 mein, UK ka kul koyala khapat (aayaat sahit) 61 lakh tan hai,[176] jiski vajah se sirf 6.5 varshon ke liye Britain koyale ke liye aatmanirbhar tha, haalaanki vartamaan samay mein nikaasi ki dar ke saath Khan khodane mein 20 saal lag jaaega.[175]bhoomigat koyala gaiseekaran (UCG) koyala jalaakar bijli utpaadan ka vaikalpik hai. bhaap aur okseejan ko gadde ke neeche bhejane ke liye UGC jimmedaar hain, koyala se gas ko alag karta hai aur mishran ko satah tak laata hai - koyala shoshan ki ek sambhaavit bahut kam kaarban vidhi.pahachaana gaya kshetr ka moolya jahaaain UGC ki sambhaavana hai vah 700 karod tan aur 16 karod tan ke beech hai.[177] vartamaan UK koyale ki khapat par aadhaarit, yeh maatra aarakshan ka pratinidhitv karti hai jo UK ke liye 200 aur 400 ke beech chalega.[178]

bank of England; United kingadam ka keindreeya bank.

arthavyavastha mein sarkaar ki bhaageedaari raajakosh ke kulaadhipti dvaara kiya jaata hai (varttamaan mein aleestair daaraling) jo HM raajakosh ko chalaate hain, lekin pradhaanamantri raajakosh ke pehle shaasak hain; raajakosh ke kulaadhipti raajakosh ke doosare shaasak hain. haal ke varshon mein, UK ki arthavyavastha ko udaareekaran aur kam karaadhaan aur viniyman ke siddhaanton ke anusaar prabandhit kiya gaya hai. 1997 ke baad se, bank of England ke raajyapaal dvaara netrutv, bank of England ke maudrik neeti samiti, byaaj dar nirdhaarit karne ke liye jimmedaar hain jo ek star samagr mudraasfeeti lakshya ko praapt karne ke liye aavashyak hai jis arthavyavastha ko prativrsh kulaadhipti dvaara banaaya jaata hai.[179] skautish sarkaar ko, skautish sansad ke anumodan ke adheen, skautlaind mein aayakar ke mool dar ko pound ke 3 peins kam jyaada karke bhinn karne ki shakti hai, haalaanki abhi tak is shakti ka prayog naheen kiya gaya hai.

March 2009 tak, UK ki sarkaar ka rin GDP ka 49% tha.[180]

pound starling UK ki mudra hai, £ prateek dvaara pratinidhitv karta hai. bank of England keindreeya bank hai, mudra dene ke liye jimmedaar hai. Scotland aur uttari Ireland ke bank apne not jaari rakhane ka adhikaar rakhate hain, paryaapt bank of England ke not ko aarakshit banaae rakhane ke adheen.UK Euro mudra ki shuruaat mein shaamil naheen hua aur british pradhaanamantri, maananeeya gaurdan brown MP, nikat bhavishya ke liye sadasyata se inkaar kiya hai, yeh kehkar ki na shaamil hone ka ka faisala Britain aur Europe ke liye sahi hai.[181] poorv pradhaanamantri toni bleyar ki sarkaar ne sadasyata tay karne ke liye ek saarvajanik janamat sangrah karaane ka nirnaya liya ki kya "paaainch aarthik pareekshan" milne chaahiye.2005 mein, aadhe se jyaada (55%) UK, mudra apnaane ke khilaaf the jabki 30% paksh mein the.[182]

23 January 2009 ko, raashtreeya saankhyiki kaaryaalaya se sarkaar ke aankade ne dikhaaya ki 1991 ke baad pehli baar UK mandi mein hai.[183]

shiksha

kings college, Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya ka hissa
maseeh church, Oxford vishvavidyaalaya ka hissa

United kingadam ke pratyek deshon mein ek alag shiksha pranaali hai, jahaaain uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels mein shiksha ke oopar shakti nyaagat hui hai.

England mein shiksha bachchon, schoolon aur parivaar ke liye raajya ke sachiv aur Abhinav, vishvavidyaalayon aur kaushal ke liye raajya ke sachiv ki jimmedaari hai, halaaainki din pratidin prashaasan aur raajya ke schoolon ka vittaposhan sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ki jimmedaari hai (pehle sthaaneeya shiksha adhikaariyon ke naam jaana jaat tha).[184] England aur vels mein saarvalaukik raajya shiksha 1870 mein praathamik star ke liye aur 1900 mein maadhyamik star ke liye shuroo kiya tha.[185] paanch se solah ki umr tak shiksha anivaarya hai (15 agar July ya August ke aankhir mein janm hua ho).bahumat bachche raajya ke kshetr schoolon mein shikshit hote hain, jiska keval ek chhota hissa shaikshanik yogyata ke aadhaar par chunata hai. vaastavik sankhya mein giraavat ke baavajood, niji school jaane vaale England ke bachchon ka anupaat 7% utha hai.[186] pramukh vishvavidyaalayon Cambridge aur Oxford ke bas aadhe chhaatr raajya ke schoolon mein pade.[187] raajya ke school jo vidyaarthiyon ki samajh aur shaikshik yogyata ke aadhaar par chayan kar sakte hain ve jyaadaatar chuninda niji schoolon ke mukaabale tulaneeya parinaam praapt kar sakte hain: 2006 mein sarvottam das schoolon ka GCSE parinaamon ke hisaab se pradarshan mein do raajya ke vyaakaran school the. England mein duniya ke kuchh sarvottam vishvavidyaalaya hain: Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya, Oxford vishvavidyaalaya, impeeriyl college London aur university college London ki ginti 2008 ke THES - QS vishvavidyaalaya vishv kramaankan mein vishv ke sarvottam 10 mein hui hai.[188] antarraashtreeya ganit aur vigyaan mein rujhaan adhyayan (TIMSS) England mein vidyaarthiyon ko ganit ke liye duniya mein 7 vaan aur vigyaan ke liye 6 moolyaankan kiya hai. is parinaam ne England ke vidyaarthiyon ko anya Europeeya deshon ke aage daal diya, jinmein Germany aur skainadeeneviya shaamil hain.[189]

Scotland mein shiksha, shiksha aur aajeevan gyaan ke mantrimandal sachiv ki jimmedaari hai, jismein din pratidin prashaasan aur raajya ke schoolon ka vittaposhan sthaaneeya adhikaariyon ki jimmedaari hai. do gair-vibhaageeya saarvajanik nikaayon ki skautish shiksha ke kshetr mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai: skautish yogyata praadhikran ki jimmedaari hai vikaas, maanyata, moolyaankan aur degree ke alaava, jo ki maadhyamik vidyaalayon mein vitrit, yogyata ka pramaan patra, maadhyamik collegeon ke baad aage ki shiksha aur anya keindron;[190] aur adhyayan aur adhyaapan Scotland shiksha samudaaya ko paathyacharya vikaas ko badhaava dene ke liye aur navaachaar, mahatvaakaanksha aur utkrushtata ke ek sanskruti ka nirmaan karne ke liye salaah, sansaadhanon aur karmachaariyon vikaas pradaan karta hai.[191] 1496 mein Scotland ne sabse pehle anivaarya shiksha ke liye kaanoon banaaya tha.[192] Scotland mein neeji school jaane vaale bachchon ka anupaat sirf 4% hai, halaaainki kuchh saalon se yeh bad raha hai.[193] Scotland ke chhaatr jo Scotland ke vishvavidyaalayon mein padte hain ve na to tuition shulk naahi snaatak dharmaada prabhaar dete hain kyonki 2001 mein shulk ko samaapt kar diya tha aur snaatak dharmaada prabhaar ko 2008 mein samaapt kar diya tha.[194]

uttari Ireland mein shiksha ki jimmedaari shiksha mantri aur rojagaar aur adhyayan mantri ki hai, halaaainki sthaaneeya star par jimmedaari paaainch shiksha aur pustakaalaya bordon dvaara prashaasit hain, vibhinn bhaugolik kshetron ko kavar karte hain.'paathyakram, pareeksha evam moolyaankan ke liye parishad' (CCEA) sarkaar ko salaah dene ke liye jimmedaar hai ki uttari Ireland ke schoolon mein kya padhaana chaahiye, maanakon ki nigraani aur yogyata dena.[195]

vels raashtreeya sabha vels mein shiksha ke liye jimmedaar hai. velsh chhaatron ki ek mahatvapoorn sankhya ko ya to poori tarah ya mote taur par velsh bhaasha mein sikhaaya jaata hai; velsh mein sabak 16 saal ki umr tak sabke liye anivaarya hain. velsh meediym schoolon ka praavadhaan badhaane ke liye yojana hai taaki ek poornat dvibhaashik vels ki yojana poori ho sake.

svaasthya raksha

norafok aur naurvich vishvavidyaalaya aspataal - ek aadhunik NHS aspataal.
royal abaradeen bachchon ke aspataal ek visheshagya bachchon ke aspataal hai, jo NHS Scotland ka hissa hai.

United kingadam mein svaasthya seva hastaantaran maamala hai aur England, uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels ki vibhinn neetiyon aur praathamiktaaon ke saath alag pranaaliyaaain hain.[196][197] haalaanki sahayog ki had seema-paar prayoktaaon ki sevaaon ke antar ko aamtaur par chhupa deti hai. chaar pranaali UK sthaayi nivaaseeyon ko saarvajanik svaasthya seva pradaan karti hai ko jaroorat padne par muft hai aur saamaanya karaadhaan se bhugata jaata hai. ek bahut chhoti niji chikitsa vyavastha bhi maujood hai. vibhinn viniyaamak nikaaya ko UK-bhar aadhaarit kiya gaya hai jaise ki saamaanya chikitsa parishad, upacharya aur daai parishad aur gair sarkaari dvaara aayojit curry jaati hai (jaise royal college).poore UK mein, badi sankhya mein medical school aur daant school hain aur nurse aur chikitsa sambandhit vyavasaayon ke prashikshan ke liye mahatvapoorn sthaapana ki gayi hai.

England mein svaasthya seva mukhya roop se raashtreeya svaasthya seva dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai jo aaj sirf England ko kavar karta hai yadyapi moolat: yeh England aur vels kavar karta hai. yeh raashtreeya svaasthya seva adhiniyam 1946 dvaara laagoo kiya gaya tha 5 July 1948 ko sthaapit kiya gaya tha.svaasthya vibhaag svaasthya mein sudhaar aur England ke logon ki bhalaai ke liye maujood hai,[198] aur svaasthya ke liye raajya ke sachiv uske kaam ke liye aur NHS ke kaam ke liye UK ki sansad ke prati javaabadeh hota hai. England ki NHS duniya ki ek sabse bada kisi bhi tarah se jodnevaali sangathanon mein se ek hai jo 13 lakh se adhik logon ko niyukt karti hai.[199] saarvajanik kshetr svaasthya seva vitran mein praathamik (saamaanya abhyaas), maadhyamik (jila saamaanya aspataal) aur truteeyak (shikshan aspataal) seva ka star shaamil hai. vahaaain vibhinn staron ke beech kaafi samvaad aur pravaah hai.svaasthya aur chikitsakeeya sarvotkrushthata ke liye raashtreeya sansthaan, ya NICE, England aur vels mein salaah deta hai ki NHS dvaara davaaon ya upachaar mein se kya pradaan kiya jaana chaahiye.

Scotland mein svaasthya seva NHS Scotland dvaara pradaan kiya jaata hai, Scotland ki saarvajanik svaasthya pranaali.yeh seva raashtreeya svaasthya seva (Scotland) adhiniyam 1947 ke dvaara (jo baad mein raashtreeya svaasthya seva (Scotland) adhiniyam 1978 dvaara pun:appeal mein laai gayi) jo 5 jalaai 1948 ko England aur vels mein NHS ke shurooaat ke saath prabhaavi hui.halaaainki, 1948 ke poorv, Scotland ki aadhi janta pehle se hi raajya mein svaasthya seva ke dvaara vitt poshit thi, jo paarvatya desh aur dweep samooh ki chikitsa seva dvaara pradaan kiya gaya tha.[200] 2006 mein, NHS Scotland ne lagbhag 158000 karmachaari kaaryarat kiye jinmein 47500 se adhik nurse, dhaatriyon evam svaasthya paryavekshak aur 3800 salaahakaar shaamil the. iske alaava, 12000 se adhik Doctor, paarivaarik chikitsak aur svaasthya sambandhit peshevar bhi shaamil the, dant chikitsak, chashma banaane wala aur samudaaya davaasaaj sahit, jo NHS ke bheetar sevaaon ki ek seema pradaan karte hue svatantr thekedaaron ke roop mein fees aur bhatton ke badle mein kaarya karte the.[201] svaasthya aur bhalaai ke mantrimandal sachiv NHS Scotland ke kaam ke liye skautish sansad ko jimmedaar hain.

vels mein svaasthya seva NHS vels dvaara mukhya roop se pradaan kiya jaata hai.raashtreeya svaasthya seva adhiniyam 1946 dvaara moolat: ek hi NHS sanrachana ke bhaag ke roop mein gathan kiya gaya, 1969 mein NHS vels ke oopar adhikaar vels ke raajya ke sachiv ko hastaantarit kiya gaya tha.[202] badle mein, NHS vels ki jimmedaari velsh assembly aur kaaryapaalika ke hastaantaran ke tahat 1999 mein paarit kiya gaya tha.NHS vels, vels mein saarvajanik svaasthya seva pradaan karta hai aur 90000 karmachaariyon ko rojagaar pradaan karke vels ka sabse bada niyokta bana hai.[203] svaasthya aur samaaj sevaao ka velsh vidhaanasabha sarkaar ka ek sadasya hota hai jo vels mein svaasthya aur saamaajik dekhbhaal donon ke liye mantrimandal ki jimmedaariyon ko dhaaran karta hai.

uttari aayaraleind mein svaasthya seva mukhyat: svaasthya vibhaag, saamaajik sevaaon aur saarvajanik suraksha dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai.

parivhan

heethro terminal 5. landan heethro havaai adde mein duniya ke kisi bhi havaai adde ki tulana mein sabse adhik antararaashtreeya yaatri yaataayaat hai.[189][190]
forth railway pul, Scotland, rel network ki ek pratiroop aakruti hai.

raajamaarg agency kaaryakaari agency hai jo niji svaamitv aur sanchaalit M6 tol ke alaava England mein trank sadkon aur motor raaston ke liye jimmedaar.[204] parivhan vibhaag ka kehna hai ki yaataayaat sankulan sabse gambhir parivhan samasyaaon mein se ek hai aur yadi yeh aniyantrit chhoda gaya to 2025 tak yeh England ko faalatoo £a2200 karod ki laagat laga sakta hai.[205] sarkaar praayojit 2006 ke edingtan report ke anusaar, sankulan arthavyavastha ko nuksaan pahuainchaane ke khatre mein hai, jab tak sadak moolya aur parivhan network vistaar karne ki koshish na ki jaae.

Scotland ka parivhan network skautish sarkaar ki udyam, parivhan aur aajeevan adhyayan vibhaag ki jimmedaari hai, jismein parivhan Scotland ek kaaryapaalika agency hai jo cabinet sachiv ke liye vitt aur Scotland ki truck sadkon aur rel network ke satat vikaas ke liye uttaradaayi hai.[206] Scotland ke rel network mein lagbhag 340 railway station hain aur 3000 kilometer ki doori tak track jismein pratyek varsh lagbhag 620 lakh yaatri yaatra karte hain.[207] 2008 mein, skautish sarkaar ne agale 20 varshon ke liye nivesh yojanaaon ko nirdhaarit kiya, nai chauthi road brij aur rel line ke vidyuteekaran ki praathamiktaaon ke saath.[208]

UK bhar mein, ek rediyl sadak network hai 46,904 kilometer (29,145 meal) mukhya sadkon ke 3,497 kilometer (2,173 meal) motor maarg network ke saath.2,13,750 kilometer (1,32,818 meal) pakki sadkein bhi hain. great Britain mein 16116 kimi (10072 meal) ki rel network aur uttari Ireland mein 303 kimi maarg (189 maarg meal) 18000 se adhik yaatri trainon aur 1000 maal gaadiyaaain dainik ka vahan karta hai. London aur anya shaharon mein shahari rel network achhi tarah se viksit hain. UK mein kisi samay 48000 maarg kimi (30000 maarg meal) se adhik rel network tha, lekin 1955 se 1975 ke beech samay ke saath kam hota gaya, jyaadaatar 1960 ke dashak ke madhya mein richrd beeching ki report ke baad (beeching aiks jaana jaata hai).2025 tak nae uchch gati laainon ke nirmaan ki yojanaaen abhi vichaar mein hain.[209]

landan heethro havaai adda, rajdhani ke 15 meal (24 kimi) pashchim mein sthit, UK ka vyastatam havaai adda hai aur duniya ke kisi bhi havaai adde ki tulana mein sabse adhik antararaashtreeya yaatri yaataayaat hai.[210][211]

khel

british khel ko aksar angreji, skautish, velsh aur uttari aayarish aur/ya aayarish nikaayon mein raashtra dvaara vibhaajit kiya jaata hai.

pramukh khel jismein association football, ragbi football, mukkebaaji, badminton, cricket, tennis aur golf saamil hain, ye United kingadam aur uske pehle ke raajyon sahit udbhav hue hain ya viksit kiye gaye hain. ek 2006 janamat se pata chala ki United kingadam mein football sabse lokapriya khel hai.[212]

antararaashtreeya pratiyogitaaon mein, England, Scotland, vels aur uttari Ireland ko jyaadaatar khelon mein tatha raashtramandal khelon mein alag teemon dvaara pratinidhitv karte hain. (khel ke sandarbhon mein, in teemon ko saamoohik taur se gruh raashtron ke roop mein prastut kiya jaata hai.) haalaanki, kuchh avsaron hain jahaaain ek khel team United kingadam ka pratinidhitv karta hai, olanpik sahit jahaaain UK ko great Britain ki team pratinidhitv karti hai.

cricket

cricket ko aksar ek sarvotkrusht angreji gatividhiyon ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. haalaanki yeh UK ke adhikaansh bhaagon mein khela jaata hai, lekin England ke baahar sirf dakshin vels ke glaamorgan mein ek pramukh khel ka darja haasil karne mein kaamayaab raha hai. keval England mein ek mahatvapoorn raashtreeya team hai.

England mein cricket ke aavishkaar ka daava kiya jaata hai (yadyapi haal ke anusandhaan ka kehna hai ki vaastav mein Belgium mein iska aavishkaar kiya gaya tha)[213] aur England aur vels cricket board dvaara niyantrit England cricket team,[214] test darje ke saath UK ki ekamaatr raashtreeya team hai. mukhya County pakshon se team ke sadasyon ko taiyaar kiya jaata hai aur ismein donon hi angreji aur velsh khilaadiyon mein shaamil hain. football aur ragbi se cricket alag hai jahaaain vels aur England alag raashtreeya teemon ki tarah khelte hain, haalaanki ateet mein vels ki apni team thi. Ireland ke aur Scotland ke khilaadeeyon se England ke liye khela hai kyonki na hi Scotland ya Ireland test darja hai aur ek divseeya antarraashtreeya cricket mein haal hi mein khelna shuroo kiya hai. Scotland, England (aur vels) aur Ireland ne (uttari Ireland sahit) cricket vishv cup mein antim mein teen baar pahuainchane ke saath England se baraabari ki hai. vahaaain ek peshevar league championship hai jismein 17 angreji deshon ke club aur 1 velsh County pratiyogita karte hain.

football

England ke nae vembali stadium.yeh ab tak ka sabse mahainga stadium hai.[199]
haimpaden park, glaasago - Scotland ki raashtreeya football stadium.
kaardif ka mileniym stadium, vels ka raashtreeya stadium

pratyek gruh raashtron ki apni football association, raashtriya team aur sanyog pranaali hoti hai, haalaanki kuchh club aitihaasik aur sahaaya-sahakaar sambandhi kai kaaranon se apne desh ke sambandhit pranaaliyon ke baahar khelte hain.

antararaashtreeya pratiyogitaaon mein England, Scotland, vels aur uttari Ireland alag deshon ke roop mein mukaabala karte hain aur iske parinaam svarup, olanpik khelon ke football khel mein UK ek team ki tarah mukaabala naheen karta hai. UK ki ek team ko 2012 ke greeshmakaaleen olanpik mein bhaag dilvaane ka prastaav hai lekin skautish, velsh aur uttari Ireland ke football sanghon ne bhaag lene se mana kar diya hai, darate hue ki unka svatantr darja kam ho jaaega - FIFA ke adhyaksh sepp blaitr dvaara is dar ki pushti ki gayi.[215] gruh raashtron mein England sabse safal raha hai, 1966 mein apni maatr bhoomi mein vishv cup jeeta, halaaainki itihaas mein England aur Scotland ke beech nikat pratidvandvita rahi hai.

angreji football league pranaali mein hajaaron prabhaagon samet sainkadon antar league shaamil hain.premiyeraship at the top, duniya ka sabse jyaada dekhe jaane wala football league hai[216] aur khaaskar Asia mein lokapriya hai.[217] iske neeche, football league ke teen prabhaag hain aur fir football sammelan ka ek raashtreeya prabhaag aur do feedar kshetreeya league hai. iske baad sanrachana ka vistaar kshetreeya ho jaata hai. England, vishv vikhyaat football club aarasenal, livrapool, Manchester United aur Chelsea ka ghar hai. angreji team Europeeya pratiyogitaaon mein safal rahi hai jismein kuchh yooropiyn cup/UEFA champions league vijeta shaamil hain: livrapool (paaainch baar), Manchester United (teen baar), nautingham faurest (do baar) aur eston villa.anya desh ki tulana mein England ke adhik clubon ne yooropiyn cup jeeta hai (Italy, Germany aur Netherland ki tulana mein chaar).iske alaava, England ne 35 jeet se Europeeya club traafiyon ka doosra pad haasil kiya hai, Italy ke 36 se ek peechhe.yooropiyn cup pratiyogita, doosare angreji club vaulvarahaimptan vaandarars ki safalta ke parinaamasvarup bana, 1950 mein sheersh Europeeya pakshon ke khilaaf[218].90000 ki kshamata wala vembale stadium, England ka pramukh khel stadium hai.

skautish football sanyog pranaali ke do raashtreeya league hain: sheersh prabhaag skautish premiyr league aur skautish football league jiske teen prabhaag hain. iske neeche, lekin raashtreeya league se alag, teen kshetreeya league hain; haailaind football league, poorv Scotland football league aur dakshin Scotland football league.ek angreji club, barkavik reinjars, skautish pranaali mein khelta hai. Scotland vishv prasiddh football club keltik aur reinjars ki puraani farm ka ghar hai. Europeeya pratiyogitaaon mein safal skautish team mein keltik (1967 ke yooropiyn cup), reinjars (1972 ke yooropiyn cup vijeta cup) aur abaradeen (yooropiyn cup vijeta cup aur 1983 ke Europeeya super cup) shaamil hain. keltik, yooropiyn cup jeetne wala pehla british club tha.

velsh football league pranaali mein velsh premiyr league aur kshetreeya league shaamil hain. velsh preemiyraship club the new seint osavesatri mein seema ke angreji paksh se apne deshi match khelte hain.kaardif city F.C., kolavin be F.C., merathur tadafil F.C., nyooport County A.F.C, svaanasi city A.F.C. aur vareksahaim F.C. ke velsh club angreji pranaali mein khelte hain. kaardif ka 76250 seaton wala mileniym stadium vels ka pramukh khel stadium hai.

uttari Ireland football league pranaali mein IFA premiyership shaamil hai. ek uttari Ireland ka club, deri city, UK ke baahar Ireland ganaraajya football league pranaali mein football khelta hai.

ragbi league

UK bhar mein ragbi league ko ek alpasankhyak khel ke roop mein khela jaata hai, lekin uttari England mein, kai kshetron mein yeh ek mukhya khel hai, vishesh roop se yaurkashaayar audyogik aur lankaashaayar kasbon mein jaise ki vigaan aur seint helens.London mein bhi iski paryaapt upasthiti hai.

yeh uttari England mein janma aur khela gaya hai aur ekal 'great Britain' team ne ragbi league vishv cup mein hissa liya lekin yeh 2008 mein badal jaaega jab England, Scotland aur Ireland alag raashtron ke roop mein pratispardha kareinge.[219]

ragbi union

ragbi union England, Scotland, vels aur Ireland ke liye ek alag aadhaar par aayojit kiya jaata hai, jismein pratyek ki ek league pranaali hai aur ek sheersh antararaashtreeya team pad hai.

ragbi union UK bhar mein khela jaata hai, lekin uske kai khaas kshetr hain, vishesh roop se dakshin vels, skautish seema, angreji pashchim desh ityaadi.uttari Ireland (ragbi union ko ek akhil Ireland ke aadhaar par aayojit kiya jaata hai), edinbarg, London, laaisestar aadi mein iski ek mahatvapoorn upasthiti hai.

jabki England ne 2003 mein ragbi union vishv cup jeeta hai, vels teesare sthaan mein sarvashreshth hai aur Scotland chauthe sthaan mein sarvashreshth hai. Ireland ki quarter final se aage pragati naheen hui hai.

anya khel

Wimbledon pratiyogitaaon, Wimbledon mein aayojit ek grand slam tournament, London, har June/July.
seint endrayooj ka royal aur praacheen golf club, aamtaur par duniya ka "golf gruh" maana jaata hai.

snooker bhi Britain ke khel ke niryaat mein se ek hai.shefeeld mein vishv pratiyogitaaeain prativrsh aayojit ki jaati hain jabki cheen mein bhaari vruddhi ke saath, is khel ka vistaar karne duniya bhar mein jaari hai.

1859 aur 1865 ke beech tennis khel pehle Birmingham shahar mein utpann hua. championship, vimbaldan antararaashtreeya tennis ghatanaaeain hain jo har garmiyon mein dakshin London mein Wimbledon mein aayojit hota hai aur vishv tennis calendar ka sabse pratishthit samaaroh ke roop mein maana jaata hai.[tathya vaanchhit]nasali ghodon ki daud, jo "raajaaon ke khel" ke roop mein England ke Charles II ke adheen udbhav hua, duniya ke prasiddh daud ke liye UK bhar mein lokapriya hai jismein grand national, epsom darbi aur royal eskot shaamil hai. semashahoor nyoomaarket daud ka maidaan ki vajah se nyoomaarket shahar angreji resing ka kendra maana jaata hai.

UK naukaayan mein antararaashtreeya khel kshetr mein apni safalta ko saabit kar diya hai. yeh vyaapak roop se maana jaata hai ki is khel ka sabse safal naavak Steve redagrev hai jo lagaataar paaainch olympic khelon mein paaainch svarn padak aur ek kaansya padak jeeta saath hi vishv khena championship aur henale royal regeta mein kai jeet haasil kar chuka hai.

UK mein, bhaageedaari dvaara, golf chhathi sabse lokapriya khel hai. haalaanki the royal aur seint endrayooj ki praacheen golf club, deshi khel hai,[220] musselabargh links puraana golf course duniya ka sabse puraana golf course hai.[221]

shinti (ya kaamaanaachd) skautish paarvatya desh mein lokapriya hai, kabhi kabhi UK ki kam aabaadi vaale kshetr mein hajaaron ki sankhya mein bheed ikattha karti hai, khaaskar iske pramukh tournament ke final dekhne ke liye, kaamaanaachd cup.[222]

uttari Ireland mein GAA - bhaageedaari aur darshakon ke hisaab se gaaelik football aur harling lokapriya team khel hain.UK mein aayarish log bhi ise khelte hain. paramparaagat roop se, GAA ka british sena ke prati shatrutaapoorn ravaiya tha.

UK niktata se motarasport ke saath juda hua hai.UK mein base faurmoola van (F1) ki kai teemein aur driver aur Britain se draaivaron ne kisi bhi desh ke mukaabale adhik vishv khitaab jeeta hai. yeh desh kai F1 aur world rally championship aayojit karta hai aur iska apna paryatan car resing championship hai, Britain bhraman car championship (BTCC).british grand priks pratyek July silvaraston mein sampann hota hai.

nrutya khel ya pratispardhi baalaroom nrutya UK mein tab utpann hua jab us samay ke lokapriya nrutya 1920 ke dashak ke baad se british nrutya schoolon dvaara sanhitaabaddh hote the.UK khel aur baalaroom nrutya ke maamale mein ek mukhya kendra raha hai, blaikapool mein winter garden ke empares baalaroom ke saath jo badi pratiyogitaaon ke liye ek lokapriya sthaan hai.

sanskruti

United kingadam ki sanskruti-british sanskruti-ko itihaas ki jaankaari ke hisaab se ek viksit dweep desh, mukhya shakti aur chaar deshon ke raajaneetik sangh ke roop mein, pratyek ke vishisht paranparaaon, seema shulk aur prateekon ke tatvon ke sanrakshan ke saath, bhi varnit kiya ja sakta hai.british saamraajya ke parinaam ke roop mein, british prabhaav ko Canada, Australia, Bhaarat aur sanyukt raajya America jaise poorv upaniveshon ke bhaasha, sanskruti aur kaanooni vyavastha mein dekha ja sakta hai.

cinema

United kingadam cinema ke vikaas mein prabhaavashaali rahi hai, jahaaain eling studio duniya mein sabse puraana studio hone ka daava karta hai. mahatvapoorn aur safal prastutiyon ke ek itihaas ke baavajood, is udyog ki pehchaan aur American tatha yooropiyn cinema ke prabhaav ko lekar bahas chal rahi hai. khaaskar british aur ameriki film ke beech, kai filmein sah-nirmit hoti hain ya kai british kalaakaaron ke saath abhinetaaon ko baanta jaata hai jo ab niyamit roop se Hollywood ki filmon mein darshaae jaate hain. BFI uchtam 100 british filmein, british film sansthaan dvaara sanchaalit ek sarvekshan hai jo sabhi samay ka 100 sabse mahaan british filmon ko pad deta hai.

saahitya

chandos chitr, William sheksapiyr ko chitrit karne mein vishvaas rakhate the.
Robert barns - Scotland ke raashtreeya kavi maane gaye

'british saahitya' United kingadam se jude saahitya ka ullekh karta hai, aail of main aur channel dweep samooh saath hi England, vels aur Scotland ke saahitya se, United kingadam ke gathan se pehle.jyaadaatar british saahitya angreji bhaasha mein hai.

angreji naatakakaar aur kavi William sheksapiyr ko vyaapak roop se sabhi sadi ka sabse mahaan naatakakaar maana jaata hai.[212][213][214] kuchh pehle angreji lekhakon mein monamaauth ke jeffri(12 veen sadi), jeffri chausar(14 veen sadi) aur Thomas malori (15 veen sadi) hain. 18 veen sadi mein, saimuel Richardson ko aksar aadhunik upanyaas ki khoj karne ka shreya diya jaata hai. 19 veen sadi mein, jen ostan dvaara aur navapravartan kiya gaya, bronte bahne, saamaajik prachaarak Charles dikkens, prakrutivaad Thomas haardi, dooradarshi kavi William blek aur romantic kavi William vardsavarth.beesaveen sadi ke lekhakon mein vigyaan galp upanyaasakaar H.ji.vels, vivaadaaspad di. H. laureins, aadhuniktaavaadi varjeeniya vulf, vyangyakaar evalin vau, bhavishyadvaktaaon upanyaasakaar George orvel, lokapriya upanyaasakaar Graham green aur kavi ted hyooghas aur John bejemain shaamil hain. haal hi mein, J. ke. roling dvaara bachchon ki kalpana Harry pautar shrrunkhala ne J. aar. aar. tokiyen lokapriyta doharaai.

Scotland ke yogadaan mein jaasoos lekhak aarthar kaunan doyal, sar vaultar Scott dvaara romantic saahitya aur Robert luis steevenasan ki mahaakaavya romaanch.isne prasiddh kavi Robert barns prastut kiya hai, saath hi William maikagonaagal, jo duniya ka nikrusht maana jaata hai.[223]?haal hi mein, aadhuniktaavaadi aur raashtravaadi hyoog maikadiarmid aur neel M. gan ne skautish navajaagaran mein yogadaan kiya. Ian rainkin ki kahaaniyon aur Ian bainks ki manovaigyaanik kanpakanpi-haasya mein ek aur adhik gambhir drushtikon paaya jaata hai. Scotland ki rajdhani, edinbarg, UNESCO ka pehla vishv vyaapak saahitya ka shahar hai.[224]

praarambhik madhyayugeen kaal mein, velsh ke lekhakon ne mabeenogion ki rachana curry.aadhunik samay mein, kavi aar. aar. Thomas aur dailan Thomas antararaashtreeya darshakon ke liye velsh sanskruti laae.

anya raashtreeyataayon se lekhak, vishesh roop se Ireland ya raashtramandal deshon se, UK mein rahe aur kaam kiya. sadiyon ke mahatvapoorn udaaharanon mein jonaathan svift, oscar wild, braim stokar, George barnaard shau, Joseph kaunaraid, ti. S. eliyt aur ejra pound shaamil hain aur haal hi mein videsh mein janmein british lekhak jaise ki kaajuo ishiguro aur sar Salman rushdi.

theatre mein, sheksapiyr ke samakaaleen kristofr maaralo aur ben jonsan ne gaharaai badaai.haal hi mein elan ekborn, herold pintar, Michael fren, Tom stoppard aur David edgar ne atiythaarthavaad, yathaarthavaad aur kattarpanth ke sanyukt tatvon ka mishran kiya.

media

angreji bhaasha ki pramukhata UK media ko ek vyaapak antararaashtreeya aayaam deti hai.

prasaaran

BBC dooradarshan kendra.BBC, duniya ki sabse badi aur puraani prasaaranakarta hai.[217]
channel 4 ki imaarat.

UK mein paaainch pramukh raashtreeya television channel hain: BBC One, BBC Two, ITV, Channel 4 aur Five - filhaal rekheeya kshetreeya dvaara paareshit, muft prasaaran sanket jismein baad ke teen channel vaanijyik vigyaapan ke dvaara vitt poshit hain. vels mein, velsh ka chautha channel S4C ne Channel 4 ki jagah li, jo velsh ke bhaasha kaaryakram pramukh samay par chalaata hai. yeh Channel 4 ke kaaryakramon ko anya samay bhi prasaarit karta hai.

BBC Britain ka saarvajanik vitt poshit radio, television aur Internet prasaaran nigam hai aur duniya mein sabse puraana aur sabse bada prasaarak hai. yeh kai television channelon aur radio stationon ko UK aur videshon mein sanchaalit karta hai.BBC ka antararaashtreeya television samaachaar seva, BBC world nyoos, duniya bhar mein prasaarit hota hai aur BBC world service radio network taintees bhaashaaon mein vishv star par prasaarit hota hai, saath hi BBC radio kymroo mein velsh mein sevaaon aur Scotland mein BBC radio naan gaidheel par gaaelik mein kaaryakram aur uttari Ireland mein aairish.

BBC ke deshi sevaaeain television license dvaara vitt poshit hoti hain. BBC world service radio videsh aur raashtramandal kaaryaalaya ke dvaara vitt poshit hai aur BBC varldavaaid dvaara television station kebal aur upagrah sevaaon ke mukaabale ek vaanijyik sadasyata ke aadhaar par sanchaalit hai. yeh BBC ki vyaavasaayik bhuja maani jaati hai, jo varjin media ke saath UKTV ka aadha hissa hai.

UK mein ab badi sankhya mein kshetreeya digital channel hain, BBC ke chhah ko jodkar, ITV se paaainch aur channel 4 se teen, aur S4C se ek jo keval velsh mein hai, anya ke beech.

digital kebal television sevaaon ka vishaal bahumat varjin media dvaara pradaan kiya jaata hai jismein freesait ya british skaai prasaaran dvaara upagrah television aur freevyoo dvaara dijeetal kshetreeya telivijn muft prasaaran upalabdh hai. 2012 tak poora UK digital mein badal jaaega.

UK mein radio BBC radio varchasv karta hai, jo das raashtreeya network aur lagbhag chaalees sthaaneeya radio station chalaata hai. shrotaaon ki sankhya ke hisaab se BBC radio 2 sarvaadhik lokapriya radio station hai, BBC radio 1 bhi kaafi najadeek hai. desh bhar mein saikadon mukhya roop se sthaaneeya vyaavasaayik radio station hain jo sangeet ya baat praaroopon ko pesh karte hain.

Internet

Internet desh code sheersh star domen (ccTLD) United kingadam ke liye .uk hai. haalaanki, ek skautish sarkaari kaam samooh ek skautish web domen banaane ke liye boli lagaane ki taiyaari kar raha hai - ".sco" ya ".scot" - 2009 mein.[225]

mudrit

paramparaagat roop se, british samaachaar patra ko gunavatta, gambhir-maanasikta akhbaar (uske bade aakaar ke kaaran aamtaur par "braudasheets" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai) aur adhik lokalubhaavan, patrika kismein.padhne ki suvidha ke liye, kai paramparaagat braudasheets ko adhik sanhat-praaroop aakaar mein badla gaya hai, paaramparik roop se patrika mein istemaal kiya gaya hai.UK mein the san ka kisi bhi dainik samaachaar patra mein uchchatam parisancharan hai: 31 lakh, lagbhag baajaar ki ek chauthaai hissa.[226] usaki sahayogi patrika, news of the varlad ka ravivaar ke akhbaar baajaar mein uchchatam parisancharan hai aur paaramparik roop se hasti netrutv kahaaniyon par keindrit hota hai.[227] the daily teleegraaf, ek adhikaar dakshinpanthi braudasheet, uchchatam bikne wala "gunavatta" samaachaar patra hai.[226]the gaardiyn ek adhik udaar "gunavatta" braudasheet hai aur financial times mukhya kaarobaari akhbaar hai, vishisht saaman-gulaabi braudasheet kaagaj par mudrit hai.

pehle 1737 mein mudrit, belafaast se the news letar, angreji bhaasha ke dainik samaachaar patra sabse puraana maana jaata hai jo aaj bhi prakaashit hai. usaki ek sahayogi uttari aayarish pratiyogi, the aayarish news, 2006 aur 2007 mein United kingadam mein sarvashreshth kshetreeya samaachaar patra ke roop mein do baar kramit hui hai.[228]

akhbaaron ke alaava, british patrikaaon aur journal ne duniya bhar mein sanchalan haasil kiya the ikonomist aur nechar sahit.

Scotland mein akhbaar ke paathakon ki ek vishisht parampara hai (Scotland ke samaachaar patron ki soochi dekhein).daily record patrika kisi bhi dainik samaachaar patra mein uchchatam parisancharan hai jo skautish san se chaar guna zyaada bikta hai jabki sahayogi akhbaar, the sanade mel isi tarah ravivaar akhbaar baajaar mein aage hai.the heraald skautlaind ka agrani "gunavatta" dainik samaachaar patra hai, halaaainki yeh the skautsamain ka sahayogi akhbaar hai, Scotland on sande, jo ravivaar ke akhbaar baajaar mein aage hai.[229]

sangeet

sangeet ke itihaas mein beetals ek sabse vaanijyik aur sameekshakon bahuprashansit safal band the, jinhonne antararaashtreeya star par 100 karod record becha tha.[223]

sangeet ki vibhinn shailiyaaain lokapriya hain, England, uttari Ireland, Scotland aur vels ke deshi lok sangeet se lekar bhaari dhaatu tak.glaasago ka sangeet abhinay ke liye yogadaan ko 2008 mein sammaanit kiya gaya tha jab vah sangeet ka ek sanyukt raashtra shahar kahalaaya gaya, duniya ke teen shaharon mein se ek jinhein yeh maanyata mili hai.[230]

1960 aur 1970 ke dashak mein rock sangeet ke vikaas ke liye Britain yogadaanakartaaon ke beech pramukh the the beetals, roling stons, the kinks, erik klaipatan, eltan John, pink floid, jenesis, states kuo,[231] sled,[232] led jeppalin, the hoo, kuin, David bauvi, road steevart, sting, deep parpal aur black sabbaath.UK ke kalaakaaron ne anya shaileeyon ko mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya hai jaise ki bhaari dhaatu, hard rock, pank rock, new vev, new romantic, indi rock, tekno aur ilektraunika.sex pistals, the klaish, kalchar club, doorain doorain, hyooman league, the smiths, Kate bush, oesis, blar, rediyohed, maissiv ataik aur the prodiji ullekhaneeya kalaakaar the. vahaaain kai lokapriya sangeet shaili hain jo UK mein ubhare aur duniya ke anya hisson mein niryaat hue.inke udaaharan hain 2-ton, trip hope, indi paup, britpaup, shoogejing, hard house aur dabastep.haal hi mein antararaashtreeya star par lokapriya sangeet kalaakaaron mein rediyohed, spaais girls, koldaple, Amy vaainahaaus aur liona luis shaamil hue hain.

United kingadam aur uske pehle ke deshon se shaastreeya sangeet ki ullekhaneeya sangeet mein shaamil hain William bird, henari parsel, sar Edward elgar, gustav holst, sar aarthar suliven (sangeetika paath lekhak sar dablyoo. S. gilbart ke saath kaam karne ke liye sabse mashahoor), raalf vaun Williams aur binyaameen breeten, aadhunik british opera ke agradoot.sar Peter Maxwell Davis ek agrani vidyamaan sangeetakaar aur kuin sangeet ke maujooda master hain. UK mein bhi vishv-prasiddh svar samata vaadak samooh aur gaayak-dal base hain jismein shaamil hain BBC simfani orakestra aur landan simfani koras. ullekhaneeya aayojakon mein sar saaiman raittal, John baarbirolli aur maalkaum saarajeint shaamil hain.

darshanashaastr

United kingadam "british anubhavavaad" ki parampara ke liye prasiddh hai, gyaan ke darshan ki ek shaakha jiske hisaab se anubhav dvaara satyaapit gyaan hi vaidh hai. John lok, George Berkeley aur David hyoom, is parampara ke sabse prasiddh daarshanik hain. naitik darshan ke siddhaant, atileeteriynism, mein Britain ullekhaneeya hai, jise sabse pehle jeremi bentham ne upayog kiya aur baad mein John stuart mil ne apne sankshipt kaam atileeteriynism mein prayog kiya.UK aur uske pehle ke raajyon mein anya prakhyaat daarshanikon mein shaanil hain, dans skautas, okaham ka William, Thomas hobbs, bartreind rasal, aidam smith aur alfred air.videshi janme daarshanik jo Britain mein base hain uname isaiah barlin, kaarl maarks, kaarl poppar aur ludavig vitgenasteen shaamil hain.

vigyaan, abhiyaantriki aur navapravartan

mahodaya aaijaik nyootan
Charles daarvin

United kingadam aur isse pehle ke deshon ne vaigyaaniko aur engineer diye hain jinhein mahatvapoorn pragati ka shreya mila hai, jismein shaamil hain:

ullekhaneeya jaanapad abhiyaantriki pariyojanaaen ne, jinki agradooton mein isaamabaard kingadam brunei shaamil the, vishv ke pehle raashtreeya rel parivhan vyavastha mein yogadaan diya.UK mein anya agrim vishisht mein shaamil hain samudri kaalamaapi, jet engine, aadhunik cycle, vidyut ghatak, vidyut motor, skroo propelar, aantarik dahan engine, sainya radaar, electronic computer, teekaakaran aur enteebaayotik.

UK mein utpaadan vaigyaanik patrikaaon mein shaamil hain nechar, british chikitsa patrika aur the lainaset .2006 mein, yeh prativedit hua ki UK ne vishv ke vaigyaanik shodh patra ka 9% aur prashansa patra ka 12% hissa pradaan kiya, yeh US ke baad duniya mein doosra sarvochch hai.[233]

aabhaasi kala

royal academy London mein sthit hai. kala ke anya pramukh vidyaalayon mein shaamil hain, sled school of faain Art; chh: school kala ka vishvavidyaalaya London, jismein shaamil hain central seint maartins college of Art end design aur Chelsea college of Art end design; glaasago school of Art aur goldasmith, London vishvavidyaalaya.yeh vaanijyik udyam Britain ki agrani drushya kalaaon ke sangathanon mein se ek hai. pramukh british kalaakaaron mein shaamil hain, sar jaushuaa renaulds, Thomas geinsaboro, John kaunastebal, William black, J. M. dablyoo. turner, William mauris, L. S. lauri, Francis bekan, lusian freeud, David hokkni, gilbart aur George, richrd haimiltan, Peter black, hauvard hodkin, aintoni gormle aur aneesh Kapoor.1980 aur 1990 ke dashak ke ant dauraan, landan ki saatchi gailari ne bahushaili kalaakaaron ke ek samooh ki aur logon ka dhyaan aakarshit kiya jo yuva british kalaakaaron ke roop mein jaane gaye. is shithil sambaddh aandolan ke behtar gyaat sadasyon mein daimiyen hirst, kris ofili, rechel vaaitareedad, tresi emin, mark vaullingar, Steve mekveen, saim teylar-vud aur chaipamain bhaai hain.

prateek

plaaimauth mein britaaniya ka pratima.britaaniya, UK ka ek raashtreeya avataar hai.

United kingadam ka jhanda ek sangh jhanda hai. England ka jhanda, Scotland ka jhanda aur seint paitrik ka jhanda milaakar 1801 mein yeh jhanda banaaya gaya tha. sangh jhande mein vels ka pratinidhitv naheen hai kyonki England dvaara vels par vijay praapt hui thi aur poorv United kingadam ke gathan se pehle kabja kiya gaya tha. haalaanki, vels ke pratinidhiyon ko shaamil karne ke liye sangh ke jhande ki pun: rachana ki sambhaavana ko poori tarah se inkaar naheen kiya gaya hai.[234] United kingadam ke raashtreeya gaan "Bhagwan sahejein raaja ko" mein "raaja" ke badle "raani" bola jaata hai jab bhi ek mahila adheeshvar banti hain. gaane ka naam vahi rahata hai "Bhagwan sahejein raaja ko".

britaaniya United kingadam ka ek raashtreeya avataar hai, jo roman Britain se utpann hua hai.[235] britaaniya ko bhoore ya sunahare baalon waali ek javaan aurat ke roop mein prateek kiya gaya hai, jisne ek korinthiyn helamet aur safed vastr pahane hue hain. vah posaaidan ka teen-aayaami trishool aur ek dhaal dhaaran karti hai, jismein sangh ka jhanda bana hai. kabhi kabhi vah ek sher ke peechhe savaari karti hui darshaai jaati hai. british saamraajya ki oonchaai mein aur uske baad, britaaniya ko aksar samudri prabhutv ke saath sambandhit kiya jaata hai, jaise ki uske deshbhakti geet britaaniya shaasan mein.british pachaas paise ke sikke mein britaaniya ke peechhe sher prateek hai aur british das paise ke sikke ke peechhe taaj pahana hua dikhaaya gaya hai. yeh british sena ki anu samaarohik jhande par ek prateek ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai.buladaug kabhi United kingadam ke prateek ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai aur vinstan charchil ke naaji Germany ki avajnyaa se sambandhit hai.[236]

United kingadam ke bheetar

jhanda desh sanrakshak sant fool
इंग्लैण्ड England seint George tudor gulaab
स्कॉटलैण्ड Scotland seint Andrew theesal
वेल्स vels seint David leek/defodil
uttari Ireland seint paitrik san/tiptiya

uttari Ireland samvidhaan adhiniyam 1973 ke baad uttari Ireland ka koi aadhikaarik raashtreeya jhanda ya uttari Ireland ke samarthan mein koi bhi anaupachaarik jhanda saarvabhaumik nahi hai. uttari Ireland mein vibhinn jhande ka istemaal vivaadaaspad hai. tathaapi, aksar khel dikhne ke liye alsatar banner ka prayog kiya jaata hai. uttari Ireland jhande ka mudda aur sangh ke jhande aur United kingadam ke jhande dekhein.

yeh bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/other' not found.

  • United kingadam ki soochi-vishyon se sambandhit
  • rekhaankit Britain ki

sandarbh

  1. yahi [[en:de facto|]] raashtragaan hai aur kai anya deshon ka shaahi gaan bhi hai.
  2. rojamarra ke kaaryon mein angreji hi sthaapit bhaasha ban chuki hai. (velsh mein velsh bhaasha parishad par rojmarra ke prashaashakeeya kaaryon aur vyaapaar mein mein angreji ur velsh bhaasha ko baraabari ke istemaal ki kaanooni jimmedaari di gayi hai.". "Welsh Language Act 1993". janasoochana kaaryaalaya. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1993/Ukpga_19930038_en_2.htm. abhigman tithi: 3 September 2007. . isi tarah gailik parishad ko skautish gailik ko Scotland mein angreji ke baraabar sthaan aur sammaan dilaane ki jimmedaari mili hui hai. "Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005". janasoochana kaaryaalaya. http://www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/scotland/acts2005/asp_20050007_en_1. abhigman tithi: 9 March 2007.
  3. mein UK ki sarkaar ke dvaara velsh, skautish gaaelik, kaurnish, aayarish, alstar skauts aur skauts ko aadhikaarik roop se sthaaneeya bhaashaal ya alpasankhyak bhaasha ka darja haasil hai.("European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Scottish Executive. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/ArtsCulture/gaelic/gaelic-english/17910/europeancharter. abhigman tithi: 23 August 2007. ) inhein bhi dekhein Languages in the United Kingdom.
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  5. "Eurostat estimate". http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/pls/portal/docs/PAGE/PGP_PRD_CAT_PREREL/PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2008/PGE_CAT_PREREL_YEAR_2008_MONTH_12/3-15122008-EN-AP.PDF. abhigman tithi: 16 October 2008.
  6. Population Estimates at www.statistics.gov.uk
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  10. Euro adhikaansh dukaanon mein sveekar kiya jaata hai.
  11. British dependencies drive on the left except for british hind mahaasaagar kshetr and jibraaltar.
  12. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 kehta hai ki yeh GB hona chaahiye, lekin saamaanyata: .gb ka prayog naheen hota hai. .eu domen ka prayog Europeeya sangh ke sadasya deshon ke saath milkar kiya jaata hai.
  13. yoonaaited kingadam aur nirbharata mein, kshetreeya ya alpasankhyak bhaashaaon ke liye Europeeya praadhikaar dvaara anya bhaashaaon ko aadhikaarik taur par asal svadesheeya (kshetreeya) bhaashaaoain ke roop mein maanyata di gayi hai. inmein se pratyek mein Britain ke aadhikaarik naam nimnalikhit hain:
    • saaaincha:Lang-kw;
    • aayarish : Ríaocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móaire agus Thuaisceart Éaaireann;
    • skauts : Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Irland;
    • gailik : Rìaoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn Mhòair agus Èaireann a Tuath;
    • velsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
  14. dekhein
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  31. gulaami ke khilaaf bahana.
  32. jo loosamor dvaara
  33. SR&O 1921, 3 May 1921 ka nu. 533
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  41. vestaminstar sansadeeya chunaav kshetr
  42. fir bhi, vartamaan paaainch sin fein MP 2002 se vestaminstar mein upalabdh kaaryaalaya aur suvidhaaon ka prayog kar rahe hain.
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  88. skautish dweep samooh ka poorn maargadarshika
  89. "Ben Nevis Weather". www.bennevisweather.co.uk. http://www.bennevisweather.co.uk/index.asp. abhigman tithi: 2008.
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  100. aapravaasan aur gair british maataaon se janm british aabaadi uchch record karne ke liye dhakelata hai
  101. rahane aur kaam karne ka adhikaar
  102. sangh naagrikon aur unke parivaar ke sadasyon ko sadasya raajyon ke raajyakshetr ke bheetar sthaanaantarit hokar aur aajaadi se rahane ka adhikaar
  103. Doward, Jamie; Temko, Ned (2007-09-23). "Home Office shuts the door on Bulgaria and Romania". The Observer: p. 2. http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/sep/23/immigration.eu. abhigman tithi: 2008-08-23.
  104. teesare duniya pravaasi hamaare 23 lakh janasankhya uchhaal ke peechhe
  105. torees aapravaas ki mushkil niyantran sunaate hain
  106. aapravaasan: fil voolas shram ko viflataaon ki soochi ke liye jimmedaar maanate hain
  107. mantri pravaasi yojana khaarij karte hain
  108. "Immigration 'far higher' than figures say". The Telegraph. 2007-01-05. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1538598/Immigration-%27far-higher%27-than-figures-say.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-20.
  109. UK ka kul aapravaas 237000
  110. Rainer Muenz (June 2006). "Europe: Population and Migration in 2005". Migration Policy Institute. http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=402. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-02.
  111. "Britain to have '9.1 m immigrants by 2030'". Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1577120/Britain-to-have-'9.1m-immigrants-by-2030'.html.
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  115. John freelav mensaah,
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  118. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; ONS naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  119. Naomi Pollard, Maria Latorre and Dhananjayan Sriskandarajah (2008-04-30). "Floodgates or turnstiles? Post-EU enlargement migration flows to (and from) the UK". Institute for Public Policy Research. http://www.ippr.org/members/download.asp?f=%2Fecomm%2Ffiles%2Ffloodgates%5For%5Fturnstiles%2Epdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-04-30.
  120. "Half EU migrants 'have left UK'". BBC News. 2008-04-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7372025.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-04-30.
  121. "One in every four Poles in Britain plan to stay for life, says survey". http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-509042/One-Poles-Britain-plan-stay-life-says-survey.html.
  122. ghar ke liye paiking: UK ki aarthik giraavat se dande prabhaavit
  123. "UK gets 2.5 m new foreign workers". 24 July 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6913296.stm.
  124. '
  125. mainne kyon Poland mein vaapas jaane ke liye Britain chhoda'
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  130. "Schools and Pupils in England" (PDF). January 2007. http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000744/UPDATEDSFR30_2007.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-17.
  131. Graeme Paton (2007-10-01). "One fifth of children from ethnic minorities". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1564365/One-fifth-of-children-from-ethnic-minorities.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-28.
  132. Jacques Melitz (1999). "English-Language Dominance, Literature and Welfare". Centre for Economic Policy Research. http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=2055. abhigman tithi: 2006-05-26.
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  134. raashtreeya saankhyiki online
  135. "Differences in estimates of Welsh Language Skills" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2004-07-22. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20040722055520/http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_compendia/fow/WelshLanguage.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-30.
  136. velsh aaj pro॰ Peter vyaan Thomas
  137. Scotland ki janaganana 2001 - gaaelik report
  138. anivaarya bhaasha mein sabak gira
  139. vels mein maata pita ke liye school gate
  140. "Tearfund Survey 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2009-03-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20090318014531/http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/Website/News/Final%20churchgoing%20report.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-05.
  141. British Social Attitudes Survey, National Centre for Social Research, 2004 (published 2006-02-20), http://www.data-archive.ac.uk/findingData/snDescription.asp?sn=5329, abhigman tithi: 2008-02-25
  142. "UK Census 2001". http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=293. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-22.
  143. "
  144. british daan dvaara prakaashit tiyrafand ka yeh shodh sarvekshan, church ke netaaon/paadariyon ke liye kaafi niraashaajanak hai.
  145. isse pata chalta hai ki United kingadam ke prati das logon mein se keval ek vyakti church mein saaptaahik roop se upasthit hota hai, yadyapi 53% log isaai dharmaavalanbi ke roop mein khud ki pehchaan karte hain."
  146. dharm: 2001 ki janaganana
  147. Eurobarometer poll conducted in 2005peedeeऍf (1.64 MB)
  148. England ke church ka itihaas
  149. England aur vels ka church
  150. '
  151. 'anushangi church vishvaasiyon ko jeetne'
  152. 2001 ki janaganana mein dharm ka vishleshan
  153. uttari Ireland ke samudaaya
  154. KS07 dharm: shahari kshetron ki mukhya saankhyiki, shahari kshetr ki janasankhya ke aakaar ke hissaab se parinaam
  155. 2001 ki janaganana mein vishleshan dharm: saaraansh report
  156. uttari Ireland ki janaganana ke 2001 kunji saankhyiki
  157. muslim janasankhya 'baaki samaaj ki tulana mein 10 guna teji se badhti hai'
  158. "Census 2001 - Profiles". Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/uk.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-27.
  159. "Hinduism in Britain today". International Society for Krishna Consciousness. http://hinduism.iskcon.com/tradition/1212.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-22.
  160. jain center, laaisestar.
  161. UK
  162. "Census 2001 - Profiles". Office for National Statistics. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/uk.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-12-02.
  163. Patricia Hewitt (2004-07-15). "TUC Manufacturing Conference". Department for Trade and Industry. http://www.dti.gov.uk/ministers/speeches/hewitt150704b.html. abhigman tithi: 2006-05-16.
  164. "Defense News Top 100". www.DefenseNews.com. http://www.defensenews.com/index.php?S=07top100. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-31.
  165. "The Pharmaceutical sector in the UK". Department of Trade and Industry. http://www.dti.gov.uk/sectors/biotech/pharmaceutical/page10219.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-27.
  166. "Index of Services (experimental)". Office for National Statistics. 2006-04-26. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/statbase/Product.asp?vlnk=9333. abhigman tithi: 2006-05-24.
  167. Sassen, Saskia (2001). The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo (2nd san॰). Princeton University Press.
  168. vishesh report - the global 2000
  169. HSBC ne duniya ka sabse badi companiyon par Forbes 2000 ki soochi mein sarvottam pad haasil kiya
  170. Lazarowicz (Labour MP), Mark (2003-04-30). "Financial Services Industry". United Kingdom Parliament. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200203/cmhansrd/vo030430/halltext/30430h05.htm#30430h05_spnew0. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-17.
  171. International Tourism Receiptspeedeeऍf (1.10 MB)
  172. Bremner, Caroline (2007-10-11). "Top 150 city destinations: London leads the way". Euromonitor International. http://www.euromonitor.com/Top_150_City_Destinations_London_Leads_the_Way. abhigman tithi: 2008-08-28.
  173. "From the Margins to the Mainstream - Government unveils new action plan for the creative industries". DCMS. 2007-03-09. Archived from the original on 2012-06-28. http://archive.is/72Dk. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-09.
  174. "The architecture of UK offshore oil production in relation to future production models". The Oil Drum. 2006-11-30. http://europe.theoildrum.com/story/2006/11/19/135819/75. abhigman tithi: 2008-08-27.
  175. a aa UK Coal (2007). "Coal Around the World". UK Coal website. UK Coal. http://www.ukcoal.com/coal-around-the-world. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-23.
  176. UK Coal (2008). "Chapter 2: Long term trends Solid fuels and derived gases" (PDF). BERR website. Department for Business Enterprise & Regulatory Reform. http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file19261.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-23.
  177. The Coal Authority (2007). "Coal Reserves in the United Kingdom" (PDF). Response to Energy Review. The Coal Authority. Archived from the original on 2007-10-23. http://web.archive.org/20071023220443/www.coal.gov.uk/media//860AD/Response%20to%20Energy%20Review%20-%20Appendix%202.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-23.
  178. BBC. "BBC News England Expert predicts 'coal revolution'". BBC News website. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/7046981.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-09-23.
  179. bank ke baare mein adhik jaankaari
  180. uk ka bajat ghaata aur bada
  181. "Puritanism comes too naturally for 'Huck' Brown". Times Online. 2007-07-24. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/politics/article2127640.ece. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-24.
  182. "EMU Entry and EU Constitution". MORI. 2005-02-28. http://www.ipsos-mori.com/content/polls-05/emu-entry-and-eu-constitution.ashx. abhigman tithi: 2006-05-17.
  183. "UK in recession as economy slides". BBC. 2009-01-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7846266.stm. abhigman tithi: 2009-01-23.
  184. "Local Authorities". DCSF. http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/localauthorities/index.cfm. abhigman tithi: 2008-12-21.
  185. "United Kingdom". Humana. http://www.humana.org/Article.asp?TxtID=223&SubMenuItemID=183&MenuItemID=43. abhigman tithi: 2006-05-18.
  186. "Private school pupil numbers in decline". Guardian. 2007-11-09. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2007/nov/09/schools.uk.
  187. "More state pupils in universities". BBC News. 2007-07-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/6905288.stm.
  188. "The top 200 world universities". Times Higher Education. 2008-10-09. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/hybrid.asp?typeCode=243&pubCode=1. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-14.
  189. vaishvik sheersh 10 mein England ke chhaatr
  190. SQA ke baare mein
  191. adhyayan aur adhyaapan Scotland ke baare mein
  192. ulta palaayan
  193. "Increase in private school intake". BBC News. 2007-04-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/6563167.stm.
  194. dharmaada shulk samaapt karne ke liye MSP ke vote
  195. hamaare baare mein - ham kya karte hain
  196. hastaantaran NHS mein 'vishaal vipreet'
  197. NHS mein ab chaar vibhinn pranaaliyaaain hain
  198. svaasthya vibhaag ke baare mein
  199. "NHS workforce 'falls by 11,000'". BBC News,. 2007-03-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6450303.stm.
  200. paarvatya desh aur dweep samooh ki chikitsa seva (HIMS)
  201. Scotland mein NHS ke baare mein
  202. NHS vels 1960 ka parichay
  203. NHS vels ka parichay - karmachaari
  204. M6Toll aksar poochhe jaane vaale prashn
  205. "Tackling congestion on our roads". Department for Transport. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/roads/introtoroads/roadcongestion/.
  206. parivhan Scotland - Scotland ka parichaalan karta hai
  207. parivhan Scotland - rel
  208. parivhan mool yojana-ek-nazar mein
  209. pramukh nae rel laainon par vichaar
  210. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; bbc1 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  211. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; airport naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  212. "Crowded Summer Of Sport". Ipsos Mori. http://www.ipsospublicaffairs.co.uk/content/crowded-summer-of-sport.ashx. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-17.
  213. cricket ka 'Belgium mein aavishkaar hua'
  214. ECB ke baare mein
  215. "Blatter against British 2012 team". BBC News. 2008-03-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics/football/7286011.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-04-02.
  216. Premier aur chainpiyans league itihaas
  217. "Chinese phone maker's fancy footwork". BBC News. 2003-10-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3207829.stm. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-09.
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