santhaal vidroh

600 santhaalon ka dal 40vein rejiment ke 50 sipaahiyon par aakraman karta hua.

varsh 1855 mein Bengal ke murshidaabaad tatha Bihar ke Bhaagalpur jilon mein sthaaneeya jameenadaar, mahaajan aur angrej karmachaariyon ke anyaaya atyaachaar ke shikaar santaal janta ne ekabaddh hokar unke viruddh vidroh ka bigul fooaink diya tha. ise santhaal vidroh ya santhaal hul kehte hain. santaali bhaasha mein 'hool' shabd ka shaabdik arth hai 'vidroh'hota hai. yeh angrejon ke viruddh pratham sashastr janasangraam tha. sidhu-kaanhoo, chaaaind-bhairo bhaaiyon aur foolo-jhaano judva bahanon ne santaal hal ka netrutv, shaam tudoo (paragana) ke maargadarshan mein kiya . 1852 mein Lord kaarnavaalis dvaara aarambh kiye gaye sthaai bandobast ke kaaran janta ke oopar badhe hue atyaachaar is vidroh ka ek pramukh kaaran tha.

anukram

parichay

unneesaveen shataabdi ke praarambhik varshon mein, bukaanan ne raajamahal ki pahaadiyon ka daura kiya tha. uske varnan ke anusaar ye pahaadiyaaain abhedya lagti theen. yeh ek aisa khatanaak ilaaka tha jahaaain bahut kam yaatri jaane ki himmat karte the. bukaanan jahaaain kaheen bhi gaya, vahaaain usane nivaasiyon ke vyavahaar ko shatrutaapoorn paaya. ve log company ke adhikaariyon ke prati aashankit the aur unase baatcheet karne ko taiyaar naheen the. kai udaaharanon mein to ve apne ghar-baar aur gaaainv chhodkar bhaag gaye the. ye pahaadi log kaun the? ve bukaanan ke daure ke prati itne aashaankit kyon the? bukaanan ki patrika mein hamein unneesaveen shataabdi ke praarambhik varshon mein in logon ki jo taras khaane waali haalat thi usaki jhalak milti hai. un sthaanon ke baare mein usane daayari likhi thi, jahaaain-jahaaain usane bhraman kiya tha, logon se mulaakaat ki thi aur unke reeti-rivaajon ko dekha tha.

pahaadi vaasi

athaarahaveen shataabdi ke paravarti dashakon ke raajasv abhilekhon par drushtipaat karein to pata lagta hai ki in pahaadi logon ko 'pahaadiya' kyon kaha jaata tha. ve raajamahal ki pahaadiyon ke ird-gird raha karte the. ve jungle ki upaj se apni gujar-basar karte the aur jhoom kheti kiya karte the. ve jungle ke chhote-se hisse mein jhaadiyon ko kaatkar aur ghaas-fooains ko jalaakar jameen saaf kar lete the aarai raakh ki potaash se upajaai bani jameen par ye pahaadiya log apne khaane ke liye tarah-tarah ki daalein aur jvaar-baajara uga lete the. ve apne kudaal se jameen ko thoda khurach lete the kuchh varsho tak us saaf ki gayi jameen me kheti karte the aarai fir use kuchh varsho ke liye parati chhod kar nae ilaake me chale jaate the jisse ki us jameen mein khoi hui urvarata fir se utpann ho jaati thi.

un jangalon se pahaadiya log khaane ke liye mahuaa ke fool ikattha karte the, bechne ke liye resham ke koya aur raal aur kaathakoyala banaane ke liye lakadiyaaain ikattha karte the. pedon ke neeche jo chhote-chhote paudho ug aate the ya parati jameen par jo ghaas-foos ki hari chaadar-si bichh jaati thi vah pashuon ke liye charaagaah ban jaati thi. shikaariyon, jhoom kheti karne vaalon, khaadya batorane vaalon, kaathakoyala banaane vaalon, resham ke keede paalne vaalon ke roop mein pahaadiya logon ki jindagi is prakaar jungle se ghanishth roop se judi hui thi. ve imali ke pedon ke beech bani apni jhopadiyon mein rahate the aur aam ke pedon ki chhaaainh mein aaraam karte the. ve poore pradesh ko apni niji bhoomi maanate the aur yeh bhoomi unki pehchaan aur jeevan ka aadhaar thi. ve baahari logon ke pravesh ka pratirodh karte the. unke mukhiya log apne samooh mein ekta banaae rakhate the, aapasi ladaai-jhagade nipta dete the aur anya janajaatiyon tatha maidaani logon ke saath ladaai chhidne par apni janajaati ka netrutv karte the.

santhaal

in pahaadiyon ko apna moolaadhaar banaakar, pahaadiya log baraabar un maidaanon par aakraman karte rahate the jahaaain kisaan ek sthaan par bas kar apni kheti-baadi kiya karte the. pahaadiyon dvaara ye aakraman jyaadaatar apne aapko vishesh roop se abhaav ya akaal ke varshon mein jeevit rakhane ke liye kiye jaate the. saath hi, ye hamle maidaanon mein base hue samudaayon par apni taakat dikhlaane ka bhi ek tareeka tha. iske alaava, aise aakraman baahari logon ke saath apne raajaneetik sanbandho banaane ke liye bhi kiye jaate the. maidaanon mein rahane vaale jameendaaron ko aksar in pahaadi mukhiyaaon ko niyamit roop se kharaad dekar unase shaanti khareedani padti thi. isi prakaar, vyaapaari log bhi in pahaadiyon dvaara niyantrit raaston ka istemaal karne ki anumati praapt karne hetu unhein kuchh pathakar diya karte the. jab aisa pathakar pahaadiya mukhiyaaon ko mil jaata tha to ve vyaapaariyon ki raksha karte the aur yeh bhi aashvaasan dete the ki koi bhi unke maal ko naheen lootega. is prakaar kuchh le-dekar ki gayi shaanti sandhi adhik lambe samay tak naheen chali. yeh athaarahaveen shataabdi ke antim dashakon mein us samay bhang ho gayi jab sthir kheti ke kshetr ki seemaaeain aakraamak reeti se poorvi Bhaarat mein badhaai jaane lageen.

angrejon ne jangalon ki kataai-safaai ke kaam ko protsaahit kiya aur jameendaaron tatha jotadaaron ne parati bhoomi ko dhaan ke kheton mein badal diya. angrejon ke liye sthaayi kॄshi ka vistaar aavashyak tha kyonki usase raajasv ke sronton mein vruddhi ho sakti thi, niryaat ke liye fsal paida ho sakti thi aur ek sthaayi, suvyavasthit samaaj ki sthaapana ho sakti thi. ve jangalon ko ujaad maanate the aur vanavaasiyon ko asabhya, barbar, upadravi aur kroor samajhte the jin par shaasan karna unke liye kathin tha. isliye unhonne yahi mahasoos kiya ki jangalon ka safaaya karke, vahaaain sthaayi kॄshi sthaapit karni hogi aur jangali logon ko paalatoo va sabhya banaana hoga unase shikaar ka kaam chhudvaana hoga aur kheti ka dhandha apnaane ke liye unhein raaji karna hoga. jyon-jyon sthaayi kॄshi ka vistaar hota gaya, jangalon tatha charaagaahon ka kshetr sankuchit hota gaya. isse pahaadi logon tatha sthaayi kheteeharon ke beech jhagada tej ho gaya. pahaadi log pehle se adhik niyamit roop se base hue gaaainvon par hamle bolne lage aur graamavaasiyon se anaaj aur pashu chheen-jhapat kar le jaane lage. aupaniveshik adhikaariyon ne uttejit hokar in pahaadiyon par kaaboo ki bharsak koshishein keen parantu unke liye aisa karna aasaan naheen tha.

kroor neetiyaaain

1770 ke dashak mein british adhikaariyon ne in pahaadiyon ko nirmool kar dene ki kroor neeti apna li aur unka shikaar aur sanhaar karne lage. tadoparaant, 1780 ke dashak mein Bhaagalpur ke collector ogastas kleevalaind ne shaanti sthaapana ki neeti prastaavit ki jiske anusaar pahaadiya mukhiyaaon ko ek vaarshik bhatta diya jaana tha aur badle mein unhein apne aadamiyon ka chaal-chalan theek rakhane ki jimmedaari leni thi. unase yeh bhi aasha ki gayi thi ki ve apni bastiyon mein vyavastha banaae rakheinge aur apne logon ko anushaasan mein rakheinge. lekin bahut se pahaadiya mukhiyaaon ne bhatta lene se mana kar diya. jinhonne ise sveekaar kiya unamein se adhikaansh apne samudaaya mein apni satta kho baithe. aupaniveshik sarkaar ke vetanabhogi ban jaane se unhein adheenasth karmachaari ya vaitanik mukhiya maana jaane laga.

jab shaanti sthaapana ke liye abhiyaan chal rahe the tabhi pahaadiya log apne aapko shatrutaapoorn sainyabalon se bachaane ke liye aur baahari logon se ladaai chaaloo rakhane ke liye pahaadon ke bheetari bhaagon mein chale gaye. isliye jab 1810-11 ki sardiyon mein bukaanan ne is kshetr ki yaatra ki thi to yeh svaabhaavik hi tha ki pahaadiya log bukaanan ko sandeh aur avishvaas ki drushti se dekhte. shaanti sthaapana ke abhiyaanon ke anubhav aur kroorataapoorn daman ki yaadon ke kaaran unke man mein yeh dhaarana ban gayi thi ki unke ilaako british logo ki ghuspaith ka kya asar hone wala hai unhe aise prateet hota tha ki pratyek gora aadmi ek aisi shakti ka pratinidhitv kar raha hai jo unase unke jungle aur jameen chheen kar unki jeevan shaili aur jeevit rahane ke saadhanon ko nasht karne par utaaroo hain. vastut: inheen dinon unhein ek nae khatre ki soochanaaeain milne lagi theen aur vah tha santhaal logon ka aagaman.

santhaal log vahaaain ke jangalon ka safaaya karte hue, imaarati lakdi ko kaatate hue, jameen jotate hue aur chaaval tatha kapaas ugaate hue us ilaako mein badi sankhya mein ghuse chale aa rahe the. chooainki santhaal baashindon ne nichli pahaadiyon par apna kabja jama liya tha, isliye pahaadiyon ko raajamahal ki pahaadiyon mein aur bheetar ki or peechhe hatna pada. pahaadiya log apni jhoom kheti ke liye kudaal ka prayog karte the isliye yadi kudaal ko pahaadiya jeevan ka prateek maana jaae to hal ko nae baashindon ;santhaalon ki shakti ka pratinidhi maanana hoga. hal aur kudaal ke beech ki yeh ladaai bahut lambi chali.

santhaal aguaa - bukaanan

san‌ 1810 ke ant mein, bukaanan ne ganjuriya pahaad, jo ki raajamahal shrankhalaaon ka ek bhaag tha, ko paar kiya aur aage ke chat‌aataani pradesh ke beech se nikalkar vah ek gaaainv mein pahuainch gaya. vaise to yeh ek puraana gaaainv tha par uske aas-paas ki jameen kheti karne ke liye abhi-abhi saaf ki gayi thi. vahaan ke bhoodॄshya ka dekhkar use pata chala ki 'maanav shram ke samuchit prayog se' us kshetr ki to kaaya hi palat gayi hai. usane likha, ganjuriya me abhi-abhi kaafi jutaai ki gayi hai jisse yeh pata chalta hai ki ise kitne shaanadaar ilaake badla ja sakta hai mai sochata hooain, iski sundarata aur samruddh vishv ke kisi bhi kshetr jaisi viksit ki ja sakti hai. yahaaain ki jameen alabatta chat‌aataani hai lekin bahut hi jyaada badhiya hai aur bukaanan ne utani badhiya tanbaakoo aur sarason aur kaheen naheen dekheen. poochhane par use pata chala ki vahaaain santhaalon ne kॄshi kshetr ki seemaaeain kaafi badha li thi. ve is ilaake me 1800 ke aas-paas aae the unhaanein vahaaain rahane vaale pahaadi logon ko neeche ke dhaalon par bhaga diya, jangalon ka safaaya kiya aarai fir vahaaain bas gaye.

santhaal- raajamahal ki pahaadiyon mein

santhaal 1780 ke dashak ke aas-paas Bengal mein aane lage the. jameendaar log kheti ke liye nayi bhoomi taiyaar karne aur kheti ka vistaar karne ke liye unhein bhaade par rakhate the aur british adhikaariyon ne unhein jungle mahaalon mein basane ka nimantran diya. jab british log pahaadiyon ko apne bas mein karke sthaayi kॄshi ke liye ek sthaan par basaane mein asafal rahe to unka dhyaan santhaalon ki or gaya. pahaadiya log jungle kaatne ke liye hal ko haath lagaane ko taiyaar naheen the aur ab bhi upadravi vyavahaar karte the. jabki, iske vipreet, santhaal aadarsh baashinde prateet hue, kyonki unhein jangalon ka safaaya karne mein koi hichk naheen thi aur ve bhoomi ko poori taakat lagaakar jotate the.

santhaalon ko jameenein dekar raajamahal ki talahati mein basane ke liye taiyaar kar liya gaya. 1832 tak, jameen ke ek kaafi bade ilaako ko daamin-i-koh ke roop mein seemaankit kar diya gaya. ise santhaalon ki bhoomi ghoshit kar diya gaya. unhein is ilaake ke bheetar rahana tha, hal chalaakar kheti karni thi aur sthaayi kisaan banana tha. santhaalon ko di jaane waali bhoomi ke anudaan-patra mein yeh shart thi ki unako di gayi bhoomi ke kam-se-kam dasvein bhaag ko saaf karke pehle das varshon ke bheetar jotana tha. is poore kshetr ka sarvekshan karke usaka naksha taiyaar kiya gaya. iske chaaron or khanbe gaadkar iski pariseema nirdhaarit kar di gayi aur ise maidaani ilaake ke sthaayi kॄshakon ki duniya se aur pahaadiya logon ki pahaadiyon se alag kar diya gaya.

daamin-i-koh ke seemaankan ke baad, santhaalon ki bastiyaaain badi teji se badheen, santhaalon ke gaaainvon ki sankhya jo 1838 mein 40 thi, teji se badhkar 1851 tak 1,473 tak pahuainch gayi. isi avadh mein, santhaalon ki janasankhya jo keval 3,000 thi, badhkar 82,000 se bhi adhik ho gayi. jaise-jaise kheti ka vistaar hota gaya, vaise-vaise company ki tijoriyon mein raajasv raashi mein vruddhi hoti gayi. unneesaveen shataabdi ke santhaal geeton aur mithkon mein unki yaatra ke lambe itihaas ka baar-baar ullekh kiya gaya hai: unamein kaha gaya hai ki santhaal log apne liye basane yogya sthaan ki khoj mein baraabar bina thake chalte hi rahate the. ab yahaaain daamin-i-koh mein aakar maano unki is yaatra ko poorn viraam lag gaya.

jab santhaal raajamahal ki pahaadiyon par base to pehle pahaadiya logon ne iska pratirodh kiya par antatogatva ve in pahaadiyon mein bheetar ki or chale jaane ke liye majaboor kar diye gaye. unhein nichli pahaadiyon tatha ghaatiyon mein neeche ki or aane se rok diya gaya aur E pari pahaadiyon ke chattaani aur adhik banjar ilaakon tatha bheetari shushk bhaagon tak seemit kar diya gaya. isse unke rahan-sahan tatha jeevan par bura prabhaav pada aur aage chalakar ve gareeb ho gaye. jhoom kheti nayi-se-nayi jameenein khojane aur bhoomi ki praakॄtik urvarata ka upayog karne ki kshamata par nirbhar rahati hai. ab sarvaadhik urvar jameenein unke liye durlabh ho gain kyonki ve ab daamin ka hissa ban chuki theen. isliye pahaadiya log kheti ke apne tareeke ;jhoom kheti ko aage safalataapoorvak naheen chala sake.

jab is kshetr ke jungle kheti ke liye saaf kar diye gaye to pahaadiya shikaariyon ko bhi samasyaaon ka saamana karna pada. iske vipreet santhaal logon ne apni pehle waali khaanabadosh jindagi ko chhod diya tha. ab ve ek jagah bas gaye the aur baajaar ke liye kai tarah ke vaanijyik fsalon ki kheti karne lage the aur vyaapaariyon tatha saahookaaron ke saath len-den karne lage the. kintu, santhaalon ne bhi jaldi hi yeh samajh liya ki unhonne jis bhoomi par kheti karni shuroo ki thi vah unke haathon se niklati ja rahi hai. santhaalon ne jis jameen ko saaf karke kheti shuroo ki thi us par sarkaar ;raajya bhaari kar laga rahi thi, saahookaar ;dikoo log bahut oonchi dar par byaaj laga rahe the aur karj ada na kiye jaane ki soorat mein jameen par hi kabja kar rahe the aur jameendaar log daamin ilaake par apne niyantran ka daava kar rahe the. 1850 ke dashak tak, santhaal log yeh mahasoos karne lage the ki apne liye ek aadarsh sansaar ka nirmaan karne ke liye, jahaaain unka apna shaasan ho, jameendaaron, saahookaaron aur aupaniveshik raaj ke viruddh vidroh karne ka samay ab aa gaya hai.

santhaal paragana

1855-56 ke santhaal vidroh ke baad santhaal paragane ka nirmaan kar diya gaya, jiske liye 5,500 vargameel ka kshetr Bhaagalpur aur beerabhoom jilon mein se liya gaya. aupaniveshik raaj ko aasha thi ki santhaalon ke liye naya paragana banaane aur usamein kuchh vishesh kaanoon laagoo karne se santhaal log santusht ho jaaeainge.

bukaanan ka vivran

vah british East India company ka ek karmachaari tha. usaki yaatraaeain keval bhoodrushyon ke pyaar aur agyaat ki khoj se hi prerit naheen theen. vah naksha naveeson, sarvekshakon, paalaki uthaane vaalon kuliyon aadi ke bade dal ke saath sarvatr yaatra karta tha. usaki yaatraaon ka kharch East India company uthaati thi kyonki use un soochanaaon ki aavashyakta thi jo bukaanan pratyaashit roop se ikat‌aathi karta tha. bukaanan ko yeh saaf-saaf hidaayat di jaati thi ki use kya dekhna, khojana aur likhna hai. vah jab bhi apne logon ki fauj ke saath kisi gaaainv mein aata to use tatkaal sarkaar ke ek agent ke roop mein hi dekha jaata tha.

jab company ne apni shakti ko sudrudh bana liya aur apne vyavasaaya ka vikaas kar liya to vah un praakॄtik saadhanon ki khoj mein jut gayi jin par kabja karke unka manachaaha upayog kar sakti thi. usane paridrushyon tatha raajasv sronton ka sarvekshan kiya, khoj yaatraaeain aayojit keen aur jaankaari ikat‌aathi karne ke liye apne bhoovijnyaaaniyon, bhoogolavettaaon, vanaspati vijnyaaaniyon aur chikitsakon ko bheja. nissandeh asaadhaaran prekshan shakti ka bukaanan aisa hi ek vyakti tha. bukaanan jahaaain kaheen bhi gaya, vahaaain usane pattharon tatha chat‌aataanon aur vahaaain ki bhoomi ke bhinn-bhinn staron tatha paraton ko dhyaanapoorvak dekha. usane vaanijyik drushti se moolyavaan pattharon tatha khanijon ko khojane ki koshish ki usane lauh khanij aur abarak, grenaait tatha saaltapeetar se sambandhit sabhi sthaanon ka pata lagaaya. usane saavadhaaneepoorvak namak banaane aur kachcha loha nikaalne ki sthaaneeya paddhatiyon ka nireekshan kiya.

jab bukaanan kisi bhoodrushya ke baare mein likhta tha to vah aksar itna hi naheen likhta tha ki usane kya dekha hai aur bhoodrushya kaisa tha, balki vah yeh bhi likhta tha ki usamein ferabadal karke use adhik utpaadak kaise banaaya ja sakta hai. vahaaain kaun-si fsalein boi ja sakti hain, kaun-se ped kaate ja sakte hain aur kaun-se ugaae ja sakte hain aur hamein yeh bhi yaad rakhana hoga ki usaki sookshm drushti aur praathamiktaaeain sthaaneeya nivaasiyon se bhinn hoti theen: kya aavashyak hai is baare mein usaka aakalan company ke vaanijyik sarokaaron se aur pragati ke sambandh mein aadhunik paashchaatya vichaaradhaara se nirdhaarit hota tha. vah anivaarya roop se vanavaasiyon ki jeevan-shaili ka aalochak tha aur yeh mahasoos karta tha ki vanon ko kॄshi bhoomi mein badalna hi hoga.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain