sant tukaaraam

tukaaraam

sant tukaaraam
guru/shikshak baabaaji chaitanya
darshan vaarakari, vaishnav sanpradaaya
khitaab/sammaan sant maraathi mein jiska arth hai "sant"
saahityik kaarya abhang bhakti kavita

sant tukaaraam (1608-1650), jinhein tukaaraam ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai satrahaveen shataabdi ek mahaan sant kavi the jo Bhaarat mein lambe samay tak chale bhakti aandolan ke ek pramukh stambh the.

anukram

tukaaraam ka jeevan charit

tukaaraam ka janm Pune jile ke antargat dehoo naamak gram mein shake 1520; san‌ 1598 mein hua. inki janmatithi ke sambandh mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai tatha sabhi drushtiyon se vichaar karne par shake 1520 mein janm hona hi maanya prateet hota hai. poorv ke aathavein purush vishvanbhar Baba se inke kul mein vitthal ki upaasana baraabar chali aa rahi thi. inke kul ke sabhi log pandharapur ki yaatra (vaari) ke liye niyamit roop se jaate the. dehoo gaaainv ke mahaajan hone ke kaaran vahaaain inka kutoonb pratishthit maana jaata tha. inki baalyaavastha maata kanakaai va pita baheba (bolhoba) ki dekharekh mein atyant dulaar se beeti, kintu jab ye praaya: 18 varsh ke the inke maataapita ka svargavaas ho gaya tatha isi samay desh mein pad bheeshan akaal ke kaaran inki pratham patni va chhote baalak ki bhookh ke kaaran tadpate hue mrutyu ho gayi. vipttiyon ki jvaalaaon mein jhulase hue tukaaraam ka man prapanch se oob gaya. inki doosari patni jeeja baai badi hi karkasha thi. ye saansaarik sukhon se virkt ho gaye. chitt ko shaanti mile, is vichaar se tukaaraam pratidin dehoo gaaainv ke sameep bhaavanaath naamak pahaadi par jaate aur bhagavaan‌ vitthal ke naamasmaran mein din vyateet karte.

prapachaparaadmukh ho tanmayata se parameshvar praapti ke liye utkanthit tukaaraam ko Baba ji chaitanya naamak saadhu ne maagh shuddh 10 shake 1541 mein 'raamakrushn hari' mantra ka svapn mein upadesh diya. iske uparaant inhonne 17 varsh sansaar ko samaan roop se upadesh dene mein vyateet kiye. sachche vairaagya tatha kshamaasheel ant:karan ke kaaran inki ninda karanevaale nindak bhi pashchataap karte hooe inke bhakt ban gaye. is prakaar bhagavat dharm ka sabko upadesh karte va paramaarth maarg ko aalokit karte hue adharm ka khandan karanevaale tukaaraam ne faalgun badi (Krishna) dvaadashi, shake 1571 ko devavisrjan kiya.

tukaaraam ke mukh se samay samay par sahaj roop se parisfutit honevaali 'abhang' vaani ke atirikt inki anya koi vishesh saahityik kruti naheen hai. apne jeevan ke uttaraardh mein inke dvaara gaae gaye tatha usi kshan inke shishyon dvaara likhe gaye lagbhag 4000 abhang aaj upalabdh hain.

sant jnyaaaneshvar dvaara likhi gayi 'jnyaaaneshravari' tatha shri ekanaath dvaara likhit 'ekanaathi Bhagwat' ke baarakari sanpradaayavaalon ke pramukh dharmagranth hain. is vaandmaya ki chhaap tukaaraam ke anbhangon par dikhlaai padti hain. tukaaraam ne apni saadhak avastha mein in poorvakaaleen santon ke granthon ka gaharaai tatha shraddha se adhyayan kiya. in teenon sant kaviyon ke sahitya mein ek hi aadhyaatm sootr piroya hua hai tatha teenon ke paaramaarthik vichaaron ka antarang bhi ekaroop hai. jnyaaanadev ki sumadhur vaani kaavyaalankaar se mandit hai, ekanaath ki bhaasha vistrut aur rasplaavit hai par tukaaraam ki vaani sootrabaddh, alpaakshar, ramaneeya tatha marmabhedak hain.

tukaaraam ka abhang vaadmaya atyant aatmapar hone ke kaaran usamein unke paaramaarthik jeevan ka sampoorn darshan hota hai. kautunbik aapattiyon se trust ek saamaanya vyakti kis prakaar aatmasaakshaatkaari sant ban saka, iska spasht roop unke abhangon mein dikhlaai padta hai. unamein unke aadhyaatmik charitra ki saakaar roop mein teen avasthaaeain dikhlaai padti hain.

pratham saadhak avastha mein tukaaraam man mein kiye kisi nishchayaanusaar sansaar se nivrut tatha paramaarth ki or pravrut dikhlaai padte hain.

doosari avastha mein ishvar saakshaatkaar ke prayatn ko asafal hote dekhkar tukaaraam atyadhik niraasha ki sthiti mein jeevan yaapan karne lage. unke dvaara anubhoot is chanam nairaashya ka jo savistaar chitran anbhang vaani mein hua hain usaki hrudayavedhakata maraathi bhaasha mein sarvatha adviteeya hai.

kinkartavyamoodhta ke andhakaar mein tukaaraam ji ki aatma ko tadpaanevaali ghor tamasvini ka sheegra hi ant hua aur aatm saakshaatkaar ke soorya se aalokit tukaaraam brahmaanand mein vibhor ho gaye. unke aadhyaatmik jeevanapath ki yeh antim evam chirvaanchhit safalta ki avastha thi.

is prakaar ishvarapraapti ki saadhana poorn hone ke uparaant tukaaraam ke mukh se jo upadeshavaani prakat hui vah atyant mahatvapoorn aur arthapoorn hai. svabhaavat: spashtavaadi hone ke kaaran inki vaani mein jo kathorata dikhlaai padti hai, uske peechhe inka pramukh uddeshya samaaj se dushton ka nirdalan kar dharm ka sanrakshan karna hi tha. inhone sadaiv satya ka hi avalanban kiya aur kisi ki prasannata aur aprasannata ki or dhyaan na dete hue dharmasanrankshan ke saath saath paakhandakhandan ka kaarya nirantar chalaaya. daabhik sant, anubhavashoonya potheepandit, duraachaari dharmaguru ityaadi samaajakantakon ki unhone atyant teevr aalochna ki hai.

tukaaraam man se bhaagyavaadi the at: unke dvaara chitrit maanavi sansaar ka chitr niraasha, vifalta aur udveg se rainga hua hai, tathaapi unhone saansaarikon ke liye 'sansaar ka tyaag karo' is prakaar ka upadesh kabhi naheen diya. inke upadesh ka yahi saar hai ki sansaar ke kshanik sukh ki apeksha paramaarth ke shaashvat sukh ki praapti ke liye maanav ka prayatn hona chaahiye.

kaavya drushti se bhaagyavaadi the at: unke dvaara chitrit maanavi sansaar ka chitr niraash, vifalta aur udveg se rainga hua hai, tathaapi unhonein saansaarikon ke liye 'sansaar ka tyaag karo' is prakaar ka upadesh kabhi naheen diya. inke upadesh ka yahi saar hai ki sansaar ke kshanik sukh ki apeksha paramaarth ke shaashvat sukh ki praapti ke liye maanav ka prayatn hona chaahiye.

tukaaraam ki adhikaansh kaavyarachana kaibal abhang chhand mein hi hai, tathaapi unhonne roopakaatmak rachanaaeain bhi ki hain. sabhi roopak kaavya ki drushti se utkrusht hain. inki vaani shrotaaon ke kaan par padte hi unke hrudaya ko pakad lene ka adbhut saamarthya rakhati hai. inke kaavyon mein alankaaron ka ya shabdachamatkaar ka praachurya naheen hai. inke abhang sootrabaddh hote hain. thode shabdon mein mahaan‌ arthon ko vyakt karne ka inka kaushal maraathi saahitya mein adviteeya hai.

tukaaraam ki aatmanishth abhangavaani janasaadhaaran ko bhi param priya lagti hai. iska pramukh kaaran hai ki saamaanya maanav ke hrudaya mein udbhoot honevaale sukh, du:kh, aasha, niraasha, raag, lobh aadi ka prakateekaran ismein dikhlaai padta hai. tukaaraam ke vaadmanya ne janaka ke hrudaya mein dhruv sthaan praapt kar liya hai. jnyaaaneshvar, naamadev aadi santon ne Bhagwat dharm ki pattaaka ko apne kandhon par hi liya tha kintu tukaaraam ne use apne jeevanakaal hi mein adhik ooainche sthaan par fahara diya. unhone adhyaatmajnyaaan ko sulabh banaaya tatha bhakti ka danka bajaate hue aavaal vruddho ke liye sahaj sulabh saadhya aise bhakti maarg ko adhik ujval kar diya.

tukaaraam ki mool shikshaaeain

== jagat guru sant tukaaraam mahaaraaj [chhatrapati shivaaji mahaaraaj ke guru the sant tukaaraam ne is baat par bal diya hai ki sabhi manushya paramapita ishvar ki santaan hain aur is kaaran samaan hain. sant tukaaraam dvaara 'Maharashtra dharm' ka prachaar hua jiske siddhaant bhakti aandolan se prabhaavit the. Maharashtra dharm ka tatkaaleen saamaajik vichaaradhaara par bahut gahra prabhaav paङaa. yadyapi ise jaati aur varnavyavastha par kuthaaraaghaat karne mein safalta praapt naheen hui, kintu isse inkaar naheen kiya ja sakta hai ki samaanata ke siddhaant ke pratipaadan dvaara iske praneta varnavyavastha ko lacheela banaane mein avashya safal hue. Maharashtra dharm ka upayog shivaaji ne uchchavargeeya maraathon tatha kunbiyon bahujan shudr ko ekasootr mein baaaindhane ke liye kiya.

yeh bhi dekhein

  • hindu dhaarmik sudhaar aandolan
  • dalit sant
  • sant mat

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