sant ravidaas

sant kulabhooshan kavi raidaas un mahaan santon mein agrani the jinhonne apni rachanaaon ke maadhyam se samaaj mein vyaapt buraaiyon ko door karne mein mahatvapoorn yogadaan kiya. inki rachanaaon ki visheshata lok-vaani ka adbhut prayog rahi hai jisse janamaanas par inka amit prabhaav padta hai. madhur evam sahaj sant raidaas ki vaani jnyaaanaashrayi hote hue bhi jnyaaanaashrayi evam premaashrayi shaakhaaon ke madhya setu ki tarah hai.

praacheenakaal se hi Bhaarat mein vibhinn dharmon tatha maton ke anuyaayi nivaas karte rahe hain. in sabamein mel-jol aur bhaaichaara badhaane ke liye santon ne samay-samay par mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya hai. aise santon mein raidaas ka naam agraganya hai. ve sant kabeer ke guroobhaai the kyonki unke bhi guru svaami raamaanand the.

anukram

jeevan

raidaas ka janm kaashi mein charmakaar (chamaar) kul mein hua tha. unke pita ka naam santokh das (ragghu) aur maata ka naam karma devi bataaya jaata hai. raidaas ne saadhu-santon ki sangati se paryaapt vyaavahaarik gyaan praapt kiya tha. joote banaane ka kaam unka Patrick vyavasaaya tha aur unhonne ise saharsh apnaaya. ve apna kaam poori lagan tatha parishram se karte the aur samay se kaam ko poora karne par bahut dhyaan dete the.

unki samayaanupaalan ki pravruti tatha madhur vyavahaar ke kaaran unke sampark mein aane vaale log bhi bahut prasann rahate the.

praarambh se hi raidaas bahut paropakaari tatha dayaalu the aur doosaron ki sahaayata karna unka svabhaav ban gaya tha. saadhu-santon ki sahaayata karne mein unako vishesh aanand milta tha. ve unhein praaya: moolya liye bina joote bheint kar diya karte the. unke svabhaav ke kaaran unke maata-pita unase aprasann rahate the. kuchh samay baad unhonne raidaas tatha unki patni ko apne ghar se alag kar diya. raidaas pados mein hi apne liye ek alag jhopadi banaakar tatparata se apne vyavasaaya ka kaam karte the aur shesh samay ishvar-bhajan tatha saadhu-santon ke satsang mein vyateet karte the.

svabhaav

unke jeevan ki chhoti-chhoti ghatnaaon se samay tatha vachan ke paalan sambandhi unke gunon ka pata chalta hai. ek baar ek parv ke avsar par pados ke log ganga-snaan ke liye ja rahe the. raidaas ke shishyon mein se ek ne unase bhi chalne ka aagrah kiya to ve bole, ganga-snaan ke liye main avashya chalta kintu ek vyakti ko joote banaakar aaj hi dene ka mainne vachan de rakha hai. yadi main use aaj joote naheen de saka to vachan bhang hoga. ganga snaan ke liye jaane par man yahaaain laga rahega to punya kaise praapt hoga ? man jo kaam karne ke liye ant:karan se taiyaar ho vahi kaam karna uchit hai. man sahi hai to ise kathaute ke jal mein hi gangaasnaan ka punya praapt ho sakta hai. kaha jaata hai ki is prakaar ke vyavahaar ke baad se hi kahaavat prachalit ho gayi ki - man changa to kathauti mein ganga.

raidaas ne ooainch-neech ki bhaavana tatha ishvar-bhakti ke naam par kiye jaane vaale vivaad ko saaraheen tatha nirrthak bataaya aur sabko paraspar miljul kar premapoorvak rahane ka upadesh diya.

ve swayam madhur tatha bhaktipoorn bhajanon ki rachana karte the aur unhein bhaav-vibhor hokar sunaate the. unka vishvaas tha ki Ram, Krishna, kareem, raaghav aadi sab ek hi parameshvar ke vividh naam hain. ved, Quraan, puraan aadi granthon mein ek hi parameshvar ka gunagaan kiya gaya hai.

krusn, kareem, Ram, hari, raaghav, jab lag ek na pekha. ved kateb Quraan, puraanan, sahaj ek nahin dekha..

unka vishvaas tha ki ishvar ki bhakti ke liye sadaachaar, parahit-bhaavana tatha sadvyavahaar ka paalan karna atyaavashyak hai. abhimaan tyaag kar doosaron ke saath vyavahaar karne aur vinmrata tatha shishtata ke gunon ka vikaas karne par unhonne bahut bal diya. apne ek bhajan mein unhonne kaha hai-

kah raidaas teri bhagati doori hai, bhaag bade so paavai. taji abhimaan meti aapa par, pipilk havai chuni khaavai.

unke vichaaron ka aashay yahi hai ki ishvar ki bhakti bade bhaagya se praapt hoti hai. abhimaan shoonya rahakar kaam karne wala vyakti jeevan mein safal rahata hai jaise ki vishaalakaaya haathi shakkar ke kanon ko chunane mein asamarth rahata hai jabki laghu shareer ki pipeelika (cheenti) in kanon ko saralataapoorvak chun leti hai. isi prakaar abhimaan tatha badppan ka bhaav tyaag kar vinmrataapoorvak aacharan karne wala manushya hi ishvar ka bhakt ho sakta hai.

raidaas ki vaani bhakti ki sachchi bhaavana, samaaj ke vyaapak hit ki kaamna tatha maanav prem se ot-prot hoti thi. isliye usaka shrotaaon ke man par gahra prabhaav padta tha. unke bhajanon tatha upadeshon se logon ko aisi shiksha milti thi jisse unki shankaaon ka santoshajanak samaadhaan ho jaata tha aur log svat: unke anuyaayi ban jaate the.

unki vaani ka itna vyaapak prabhaav pada ki samaaj ke sabhi vargon ke log unke prati shraddhaalu ban gaye. kaha jaata hai ki meeraabaai unki bhakti-bhaavana se bahut prabhaavit huin aur unki shishya ban gayi theen.

varnaashram abhimaan taji, pad raj bandahijaasu ki. sandeh-granthi khandan-nipn, baani vimul raidaas ki..

aaj bhi sant raidaas ke upadesh samaaj ke kalyaan tatha utthaan ke liye atyadhik mahatvapoorn hain. unhonne apne aacharan tatha vyavahaar se yeh pramaanit kar diya hai ki manushya apne janm tatha vyavasaaya ke aadhaar par mahaan naheen hota hai. vichaaron ki shreshthata, samaaj ke hit ki bhaavana se prerit kaarya tatha sadvyavahaar jaise gun hi manushya ko mahaan banaane mein sahaayak hote hain. inheen gunon ke kaaran sant raidaas ko apne samay ke samaaj mein atyadhik sammaan mila aur isi kaaran aaj bhi log inhein shraddhaapoorvak smaran karte hain.

dohe

  • jaati-jaati mein jaati hain, jo ketan ke paat.

raidaas manush na jud sake jab tak jaati na jaat..

  • man changa to kathauti mein ganga ||

baahari kadiyaaain