sanskruti

sanskruti kisi samaaj mein gaharaai tak vyaapt gunon ke samagr roop ka naam hai, jo us samaaj ke sochane, vichaarane, kaarya karne, khaane-peene, bolne, nrutya, gaayan, saahitya, kala, vaastu aadi mein parilkshit hoti hai.[1] sanskruti ka vartamaan roop kisi samaaj ke deergh kaal tak apanaayi gayi paddhatiyon ka parinaam hota hai.

'sanskruti' shabd sanskrut bhaasha ki dhaatu 'kru' (karna) se bana hai. is dhaatu se teen shabd bante hain 'prakruti' (mool sthiti), 'sanskruti' (parishkrut sthiti) aur 'vikruti' (avanati sthiti). jab 'prakrut' ya kachcha maal parishkrut kiya jaata hai to yeh sanskrut ho jaata hai aur jab yeh bigad jaata hai to 'vikrut' ho jaata hai. angreji mein sanskruti ke liye 'kalchar' shabd prayog kiya jaata hai jo laitin bhaasha ke 'kalt ya kaltas' se liya gaya hai, jiska arth hai jotana, viksit karna ya parishkrut karna aur pooja karna. sankshep mein, kisi vastu ko yahaaain tak sanskaarit aur parishkrut karna ki iska antim utpaad hamaari prashansa aur sammaan praapt kar sake. yeh theek usi tarah hai jaise sanskrut bhaasha ka shabd 'sanskruti'.

sanskruti ka shabdaarth hai - uttam ya sudhari hui sthiti. manushya svabhaavat: pragatisheel praani hai. yeh buddhi ke prayog se apne chaaron or ki praakrutik paristhiti ko nirntar sudhaarata aur unnat karta rahata hai. aisi pratyek jeevan-paddhati, reeti-rivaaj rahan-sahan aachaar-vichaar naveen anusandhaan aur aavishkaar, jisse manushya pashuon aur jangaliyon ke darje se ooaincha uthata hai tatha sabhya banta hai, sabhyata aur sanskruti ka ang hai. sabhyata (Civilization) se manushya ke bhautik kshetr ki pragati soochit hoti hai jabki sanskruti (Culture) se maanasik kshetr ki pragati soochit hoti hai. manushya keval bhautik paristhitiyon mein sudhaar karke hi santusht naheen ho jaata. vah bhojan se hi naheen jeeta, shareer ke saath man aur aatma bhi hai. bhautik unnati se shareer ki bhookh mit sakti hai, kintu iske baavajood man aur aatma to atrupt hi bane rahate hain. inhein santusht karne ke liye manushya apna jo vikaas aur unnati karta hai, use sanskruti kehte hain. manushya ki jijnyaaasa ka parinaam dharm aur darshan hote hain. saundarya ki khoj karte hue vah sangeet, saahitya, moorti, chitr aur vaastu aadi anek kalaaon ko unnat karta hai. sukhapoorvak nivaas ke liye saamaajik aur raajaneetik sanghatanon ka nirmaan karta hai. is prakaar maanasik kshetr mein unnati ki soochak usaki pratyek samyak kruti sanskruti ka ang banti hai. inmein pradhaan roop se dharm, darshan, sabhi gyaan-vijnyaaanon aur kalaaon, saamaajik tatha raajaneetik sansthaaon aur prathaaon ka samaavesh hota hai.

anukram

sanskruti ki avadhaarana

sanskruti jeevan ki vidhi hai. jo bhojan ham khaate hain, jo kapde pahanate hain, jo bhaasha bolte hain aur jis Bhagwan ki pooja karte hain, ye sabhi sanskruti ke paksh hain. saral shabdon me ham kah sakte hain ki sanskruti us vidhi ka prateek hai jismein ham sochate hain aur kaarya karte hain. ismein ve cheejein bhi sammilit hain jo humne ek samaaj ke sadasya ke naate uttaraadhikaar mein praapt ki hain. ek saamaajik varg ke sadasya ke roop mein maanavon ki sabhi upalabdhiyaaain sanskruti kahi ja sakti hain. kala, sangeet, saahitya, vaastuvijnyaaan, shilpakala, darshan, dharm aur vigyaan sabhi sanskruti ke paksh hain. tathaapi sanskruti mein reetirivaaj, paramparaaeain, parv, jeene ke tareeke, aur jeevan ke vibhinn pakshon par vyakti vishesh ka apna drushtikon bhi sammilit hain.

is prakaar sanskruti maanav janit paryaavaran se sambandh rakhati hai jismein sabhi bhautik aur abhautik utpaad ek peedhi se doosari peedhi ko pradaan kiye jaate hain. sabhi samaaj-vaigyaaniko mein ek saamaanya sahamati hai ki sanskruti mein manushyon dvaara praapt sabhi aantarik aur baahya vyavahaaron ke tareeke samaahit hain. ye chihnon dvaara bhi sthaanaantarit kiye ja sakte hain jinmein maanavasamoohon ki vishisht upalabdhiyaaain bhi samaahit hain. inhein shilpakalaakrutiyon dvaara moort roop pradaan kiya jaata hai. at: sanskruti ka mool kendrabindu un sookshm vichaaron mein nihit hai jo ek samooh mein aitihaasik roop se unase sambaddh moolyon sahit vivechit hote rahe hain. sanskruti vah hai jiske maadhyam se log paraspar sampreshan karte hain, vichaar karte hain aur jeevan ke vishay mein apni abhivruttiyon aur gyaan ko viksit karte hain.

sanskruti hamaare jeene aur sochane ki vidhi mein hamaari prakruti ki abhivyakt hai. yeh hamaare saahitya mein, dhaarmik kaaryon mein, manoranjan aur aanand praapt karne ke tareekon mein bhi dekhi ja sakti hain. sanskruti ke do bhinn up-vibhaag hote hain- bhautik aur abhautik. bhautik sanskruti un vishyon se judi hai jo hamaare jeevan ke bhautik pakshon se sambaddh hain, jaise hamaari veshabhoosha, bhojan, ghareloo saamaan aadi. abhautik sanskruti ka sambadh vichaaron, aadarshon, bhaavanaaon aur vishvaason se hai.

sanskruti ek sthaan se doosare sthaan tatha ek desh se doosare desh mein badalti rahati hai. iska vikaas ek sthaaneeya, kshetreeya athva raashtreeya sandarbh mein vidyamaan aitihaasik prakriya par aadh sharit hota hai. udaaharan ke liye hamaare abhivaadan ki vidhiyon mein, hamaare vastrein mein, khaane ki aadaton mein, saamaajik aur dhaarmik reetirivaajon aur maanyataaon mein parichm se bhinnata hai. doosare shabdon mein, kisi bhi desh ke log apni vishisht saanskrutik paramparaaon ke dvaara pahachaane jaate hain.

sanskruti aur sabhyata

sanskruti aur sabhyata donon shabd praay: paryaaya ke roop mein prayukt kiye jaate hain. fir bhi donon mein bhinnata hote hue donon ke arth alag-alag hain.

praarambh mein manushya aaaindhi-paani, sardi-garmi sab kuchh sahata hua jangalon mein rahata tha, shanai:-shanai: usane in praakrutik vipdaaon se apni raksha ke liye pehle gufaaon aur fir kramash: lakdi, int ya patthar ke makaanon ki sharan li. ab vah lohe aur seement ki gaganachumbi attaalikaaon ka nirmaan karne laga hai. praacheen kaal mein yaataayaat ka saadhan sirf maanav ke do pair hi the. fir usane ghode, ooaint, haathi, rath aur bahali ka aashray liya. ab motor aur relagaadi ke dvaara thode samay mein bahut lambe faasale tay karta hai, havaai jahaaj dvaara aakaash mein bhi udne laga hai. pehle manushya jungle ke kand, mool aur fal tatha aakhet se apna nirvaah karta tha. baad mein usane pashu-paalan aur krushi ke aavishkaar dvaara aajeevika ke saadhanon mein unnati ki. pehle vah apne sab kaaryon ko shaareerik shakti se karta tha. peechhe usane pashuon ko paalatoo banaakar aur sadhaakar unki shakti ka hal, gaadi aadi mein upayog karna seekha. ant mein usane hava paani, vaashp, bijli aur anu ki bhautik shaktiyon ko vash mein karke aisi masheenein banaain, jinse uske bhautik jeevan mein kaaya-palat ho gayi. manushya ki yeh saari pragati sabhyata kahalaati hai.

'sabhyata' ka arth hai jeene ke behtar tareeke aur kabhi-kabhi apni aavashyakataaon ko poora karne ke liye apne samaksh prakruti ko bhi jhuka dena. iske antargat samaajon ko raajanaitik roop se suparibhaashit vargon mein sangathit karna bhi sammilit hai jo bhojan, vastr, sanpreshan aadi ke vishay mein jeevan star ko sudhaarane ka prayatn karte rahate hain. is prakaar kuchh varg apne aap ko adhik sabhya samajhte hain, aur doosaron ko heya drushti se dekhte hain. kuchh vargon ki is manovrutti ne kai baar sangharshon ko bhi janm diya hai jinka parinaam manushya ke vinaashakaari vidhvans ke roop mein hua hai.

iske vipreet, sanskruti aantarik anubhooti se sambaddh hai jismein man aur hrudaya ki pavitrata nihit hai. ismein kala, vigyaan, sangeet aur nrutya aur maanav jeevan ki uchchatar upalabdhiyaaain sammihit hain jinhein 'saanskrutik gatividhiyaaain' kaha jaata hai. ek vyakti jo nirdhan hai, saste vastr pahane hai, vah asabhya to kaha ja sakta hai parantu vah sabse adhik susanskrut vyakti bhi kaha ja sakta hai. ek vyakti jiske paas bahut dhan hai vah sabhya to ho sakta hai par aavashyak naheen ki vah susanskrut bhi ho. at: jab ham sanskruti ke vishay mein vichaar karte hain to hamein yeh samajhna chaahiye ki yeh sabhyata se alag hai. sanskruti maanav ke antarman ka uchchatam star hai. maanav keval shareeramaatr naheen hain. ve teen staron par jeete hain aur vyavahaar karte hain - bhautik, maanasik aur aadhyaatmik. jabki saamaajik aur raajanaitik roop se jeevan jeene ke uttarottar uttam tareekon ko tatha chaaron or ki prakruti ka behtar upayog 'sabhyata' kaha ja sakta hai parantu susanskrut hone ke liye yeh paryaapt naheen hai. jab ek vyakti ki buddhi aur antaraatma ke gahan staron ki abhivyakti hoti hai tab ham use 'sanskrut' kah sakte hain.

sanskruti aur viraasat

saanskrutik vikaas ek aitihaasik prakriya hai. hamaare poorvajon ne bahut si baatein apne purakhon se seekhi hai. samay ke saath unhonne apne anubhavon se usamein aur vruddhi ki. jo anaavashyak tha, usako unhonne chhod diya. humne bhi apne poorvajon se bahut kuchh seekha. jaise-jaise samay beetata hai, ham unamein nae vichaar, nai bhaavanaaeain jodte chale jaate hain aur isi prakaar jo ham upayogi naheen samajhte use chhodte jaate hain. is prakaar sanskruti ek peedhi se doosari peedhi tak hastaantarik hoti jaati hai. jo sanskruti ham apne poorvajon se praapt karte hain use saanskrutik viraasat kehte hain. yeh viraasat kai staron par vidyamaan hoti hai. maanavata ne sampoorn roop mein jis sanskruti ko viraasat ke roop mein apnaaya use 'maanavata ki viraasat' kehte hain . ek raashtra bhi sanskruti ko viraasat ke roop mein praapt karta hai jise 'raashtreeya saanskrutik viraasat' kehte hain. saanskrutik viraasat mein ve sabhi paksh ya moolya sammilit hain jo manushyon ko peedhi dar peedhi apne poorvajon se praapt hue hain. ve moolya pooje jaate hain, sanrakshit kiye jaate hain aur atoot nirntarata se surakshit rakhe jaate hain aur aane waali peedhiyaaain is par garv karti hain.

viraasat ke sanpratyaya ko spasht karne ke liye kuchh udaaharan sahaayak siddh honge. Tajmahal, svaami Narayan mandir (Gandhi nagar aur Delhi), aagare ka laal kila, Delhi ki kutub meenaar, Mysore mahal, dilvaade ka jain mandir (Rajasthan), nijaamuddeen-auliya ki dargaah, amrutasar ka svarn mandir. Delhi ka sheeshaganj gurudvaara, saanchi stoop, goaa mein krishchiyn church, India gate aadi hamaari viraasat ke mahattvapoorn sthaan hain aur ye kisi bhi prakaar sanrakshit kiye jaane chaahiye.

vaastu sambandhit in rachanaaon, imaaraton, shilpakrutiyon ke alaava bauddhik upalabdhiyaaain, darshan, gyaan ke granth, vaigyaanik aavishkaar aur khoj bhi viraasat ka hissa hain. bhaarateeya sandarbh mein ganit, khagol vidya aur jyotish ke kshetr mein baudhaayan, aaryabhatt aur bhaaskaraachaarya ka yogadaan, bhautikshaastr ke kshetr mein kanaad aur varaahamihir ka, rasaayanashaastr ke kshetr mein naagaarjun, aushadhi ke kshetr mein sushrut aur charak, yog ke kshetr mein patanyajali hamaari bhaarateeya saanskrutik viraasat ke pragaadh khajaane hain. sanskruti parivrtanasheel hai lekin hamaari viraasat parivrtaneel naheen hai.

sanskruti ki saamaanya visheshataayein

  • 1- sanskruti seekhi jaati hai aur praapt ki jaati hai, arthaat maanav ke dvaara sanskruti ko praapt kiya jaata hai is arth mein ki kuchh nishchit vyavahaar hain jo janm se ya anuvaanshikta se praapt hote hain, vyakti kuchh gun apne maata-pita se praapt karta hai lekin saamaajik-saanskrutik vyavahaaron ko poorvajon se praapt naheen karta hain. ve paarivaarik sadasyon se seekhe jaate hain, inhein ve samooh se aur samaaj se jismein ve rahate hain unase seekhate hain. yeh spasht hai ki maanav ki sanskruti shaareerik aur saamaajik vaataavaran se prabhaavit hoti hai. jinke maadhyam se ve kaarya karte hain.
  • 2- sanskruti logon ke samooh dvaara baaainti jaati hai- ek soch ya vichaar ya kaarya ko sanskruti kaha jaata hai yadi yeh logon ke samooh ke dvaara baaainta aur maana jaata ya abhyaas mein laaya jaata hai.
  • 3- sanskruti sanchayi hoti hai- sanskruti mein shaamil vibhinn gyaan ek peedhi se doosari peedhi tak hastaantarit kiya ja sakta hai. jaise-jaise samay beetata jaata hai, jyaada se jyaada gyaan us vishisht sanskruti mein judta chala jaata hai, jo jeevan mein pareshaaniyon ke samaadhaan ke roop mein kaarya karta hai, peedhi dar peedhi aage badhta rahata hai. yeh chakr badalate samay ke saath ek vishisht sanskruti ke roop mein bana rahata hai.
  • 4- sanskruti parivrtanasheel hoti hai- gyaan, vichaar aur paramparaayein nayi sanskruti ke saath adyatan hokar judte jaate hain. samay ke beetane ke saath hi kisi vishisht sanskruti mein saanskrutik parivartan sambhav hote jaate hain.
  • 5- sanskruti gatisheel hoti hai- koi bhi sanskruti sthir dasha mein ya sthaayi naheen hoti hai. jaise samay beetata hai sanskruti nirantar badalti hai aur usamein naye vichaar aur naye kaushal judte chale jaate hain aur puraane tareekon mein parivartan hota jaata hai. yeh sanskruti ki visheshata hai jo sanskruti ki sanchayi pravrutti se utpann hoti hai.
  • 6- sanskruti hamein anek prakaar ke sveekruti vyavahaaron ke tareeke pradaan karti hai- yeh bataati hai ki kaise ek kaarya ko sanpaadit kiya jaana chaahiye, kaise ek vyakti ko samuchit vyavahaar karna chaahiye.
  • 7- sanskruti bhinn hoti hai- yeh aisi vyavastha hai jismein vibhinn paarasparik bhaag ek-doosare par aashrit hain. yadyapi ye bhaag alag hote hain, ve sanskruti ko poorn roop pradaan karne mein ek doosare par aashrit hote hain.
  • 8- sanskruti aksar vaichaarik hoti hai- ek vyakti se un vichaaron ka paalan karne ki aasha ki jaati hai jisse praay: yeh ek aadarsh tareeka prastut karti hai jisse usi sanskruti ke anya logon se saamaajik sveekruti praapt ki ja sake.

maanav jeevan mein sanskruti ka mahattv

sanskruti jeevan ke nikat se judi hai. yeh koi baahya vastu naheen hai aur na hi koi aabhooshan hai jise manushya prayog kar sakein. yeh keval rangon ka sparsh maatr bhi naheen hai. yeh vah gun hai jo hamein manushya banaata hai. sanskruti ke bina manushya hi naheen raheinge. sanskruti paramparaaon se, vishvaason se, jeevan ki shaili se, aadhyaatmik paksh se, bhautik paksh se nirntar judi hai. yeh hamein jeevan ka arth, jeevan jeene ka tareeka sikhaati hai. maanav hi sanskruti ka nirmaata hai aur saath hi sanskruti maanav ko maanav banaati hai.

sanskruti ka ek maulik tattv hai, dhaarmik vishvaas aur usaki prateekaatmak abhivyakti. hamein dhaarmik pehchaan ka sammaan karna chaahiye, saath hi saamayik prayatnon se bhi parichit hona chaahiye jinse ant:dhaarmik vishvaason ki baatcheet ho sake, jinhein praay: 'ant: saanskrutik vaartaalaap' kaha jaata hai. vishv jaise-jaise judta chala ja raha hai, ham adhik se adhik vaishvik ho rahe hain aur adhik vyaapak vaishvik star par ji rahe hain. ham yeh naheen soch sakte ki jeene ka ek hi tareeka hota hai aur vahi satya maarg hai. sah-astitv ki aavashyakta ne vibhinn sanskrutiyon aur vishvaason ke sah-astitv ko bhi aavashyak bana diya hai. isliye isse pehle ki ham is prakaar ki koi galati karein, achha hoga ki ham anya sanskrutiyon ko bhi jaanein aur saath hi apni sanskruti ko bhi bhali prakaar samajhein . ham doosari sanskrutiyon ke vishay mein kaise charcha kar sakte hain jab tak ham apni sanskruti ke moolyon ko bhi bhali prakaar na samajh lein.

satya, Shiv aur sundar ye teen shaashvat moolya hain jo sanskruti se nikat se jude hain. yeh sanskruti hi hai jo hamein darshan aur dharm ke maadhyam se satya ke nikat laati hai. yeh hamaare jeevan mein kalaaon ke maadhyam se saundarya pradaan karti hai aur saundaryanubhootiprak maanav banaati hai. yeh sanskruti hi hai jo hamein naitik maanav banaati hai aur doosare maanavon ke nikat sampark mein laati hai aur isi ke saath hamein prem, sahishnuta aur shaanti ka paath padhaati hai.

sanskruti ka nirmaan

kisi desh ki sanskruti usaki sampoorn maanasik nidhi ko soochit karti hai. yeh kisi khaas vyakti ke purushaarth ka fal naheen, apitu asankhya gyaat tatha agyaat vyaktiyon ke bhageerath prayatn ka parinaam hoti hai. sab vyakti apni saamarthya aur yogyata ke anusaar sanskruti ke nirmaan mein sahayog dete hain. sanskruti ki tulana Australia ke nikat samudra mein pai jaane waali mooainge ki bheemakaaya chattaanon se ki ja sakti hai. mooainge ke asankhya keede apne chhote ghar banaakar samaapt ho gaye. fir nae keedon ne ghar banaaye, unka bhi ant ho gaya. iske baad unki agali peedhi ne bhi yahi kiya aur yeh kram hajaaron varsh tak nirntar chalta raha. aaj un sab moogon ke nanhe-nanhe gharon ne paraspar judte hue vishaal chattaanon ka roop dhaaran kar liya hai. sanskruti ka bhi isi prakaar dheere-dheere nirmaan hota hai aur unke nirmaan mein hajaaron varsh lagte hain. manushya vibhinn sthaanon par rahate hue vishesh prakaar ke saamaajik vaataavaran, sansthaaon, prathaaon, vyavasthaaon, dharm, darshan, lipi, bhaasha tatha kalaaon ka vikaas karke apni vishisht sanskruti ka nirmaan karte hain. bhaarateeya sanskruti ki rachana bhi isi prakaar hui hai.

sabhyata, sanskruti, samaaj, desh-kaal

sanskruti saamaajik ant:kriyaaon evam saamaajik vyavahaaron ke utprerak pratimaanon ka samuchchaya hai. is samuchchaya mein gyaan, vigyaan, kala, aastha, naitik moolya evam prathaaeain samaavisht hoti hain. sanskruti bhautik, aarthik, saamaajik evam raajaneetik tatha aadhyaatmik abhyudaya ke upayukt manushya ki shreshth saadhanaaon aur samyak cheshtaaon ki samashtigt abhivyakti hai. yeh manushya ke vaiyaktik evam saamaajik jeevan ke svaroop ka nirmaan, nirdeshan, niyman aur niyantran karti hai. at: sanskruti manushya ki jeevanapaddhati, vaichaarik darshan evam saamaajik kriyaakalaap mein use samashtivaadi drushtikon ki abhivyanjana hai. ismein prateekon dvaara arjit tatha sapreshit maanavavyavahaaron ke sunishchit pratimaan sannihit hote hain. sanskruti ka aparihaarya abhyantar kaalakram mein praadurbhoot evam sanchit paramparaagat vichaaron aur tatsanbaddh moolyon dvaara nirmit hota hai. iska ek paksh maanav vyavahaar ke nirdhaaran aur doosra paksh katipya vidhivihit vyavahaaron ki praamaanikta tatha auchityapratipaadan se sambaddh hota hai. pratyek sanskruti mein chayanakshamata evam varanaatmakata ke saamaanya siddhaanton ka sannivesh hota hai, jinke maadhyam se saanskruti aadheya ke naana roop kshetron mein maanavavyavahaar ke pratimaan saamaanyeekaran dvaara avakaraneeya hote hain.

saanskrutik maan, prathaaon ke saamaanyeekrut evam susangathit samavaaya ke roop mein sthirta ki or unmukh hote hain, yadyapi sanskruti ke vibhinn tatvon mein parivartan ki prakriya shaashvat chalti rahati hai. kisi avayavavishesh mein parirvan saanskrutik pratimaanon ke anuroop sveekaran evam asveekaran ka parinaam hota hai. saanskrutik pratimaan swayam bhi parivrtanasheel hote hain. samaaj ki paristhiti mein parivartan ki shaashvat prakriya pratimaanon ko prabhaavit karti hai. saamaajik vikaas ki prakriya saanskrutik pratimaanon ke parivartan ki prakriya hai.

sanskruti prakrutipradatt naheen hoti. yeh saamaajeekaran ki prakriya dvaara arjit hoti hai. at: sanskruti un sanskaaron se sambaddh hoti hai, jo hamaari vanshapanrapara tatha saamaajik viraast ke sanrakshan ke saadhan hai. inke maadhyam se saamaajik vyavahaar ki vishishtataaon ka ek peedhi se doosari peedhi mein nigman hota hai. nigman ke is nairantarya mein hi sanskruti ka astitv nihit hota hai aur iski sanchayi pravrutti iske vikaas ko gati pradaan karti hai, jisse naveen aadarsh janm lete hain. in aadarshon dvaara baahya kriyaaon aur manovaigyaanik drushtikonon ka samaanayan hota hai tatha saamaajik sanrachana aur vaiyaktik jeevanapaddhati ka vyavasthaapan hota rahata hai.

sanskruti ke do paksh hote hain-

  • (1) aadhibhautik sanskruti,
  • (2) bhautik sanskruti.

saamaanya arth mein aadhibhautik sanskruti ko sanskruti aur bhautik sanskruti ko sabhyata ke naam se abhihit kiya jaata hai. sanskruti ke ye donon paksh ek doosare se bhinn hote hai. sanskruti aabhyantar hai, ismein paramparaagat chintan, kalaatmak anubhooti, vistrut gyaan evam dhaarmik aastha ka samaavesh hota hai. sabhyata baahya vastu hai, jismein manushya ki bhautik pragati mein sahaayak saamaajik, aarthik, raajaneetik aur vaigyaanik upalabdhiyaaain sammilit hoti hain. sanskruti hamaare saamajik jeevanapravaah ki udgamasthali hai aur sabhyata is pravaah mein sahaayak upakaran. sanskruti saadhya hai aur sabhyata saadhan. sanskruti sabhyata ki upayogita ke moolyaankan ke liye pratimaan upasthit karti hai.

in bhinnataaon ke hote hue bhi sanskruti aur sabhyata ek doosare se ant:sambaddh hain aur ek doosare ko prabhaavit karti hain. saanskrutik moolyon ka spasht prabhaav sabhyata ki pragati ki disha aur svaroop par padta hai. in moolyon ke anuroop jo sabhyata nirmit hoti hai, vahi samaaj dvaara gruheet hoti hai. sabhyata ki naveen upalabdhiyaaain bhi vyavahaaron, hamaari maanyataaon ya doosare shabdon mein hamaari sanskruti ko prabhaavit karti rahati hai. samanvayan ki prakriya anvarat chalti rahati hai.

sampark mein aanevaali bhinn sanskrutiyaaain bhi ek doosare ko prabhaavit karti hain. bhinn sanskrutiyon ka sampark unamein sahayog athva asahayog ki prakriya ki udbhaavana karta hai. par donon prakriyaaon ka lakshya vishmata ko samaapt kar samata sthaapan hi hota hai. sahayog ki sthiti mein vyavasthaapan tatha aatmasaatkaran samata sthaapan ke saadhan hote hain aur asahayog ki sthiti mein pratispardha, virodh evam sangharsh ki shaktiyaaain kriyaasheel hoti hain aur antat: sabal sanskruti nirbal sanskruti ko samaapt kar samata sthaapit karti hai.

sanskruti ke bhautik tatha aadhibhautik pakshon ka vikaas samaanaantar naheen hota. sabhyata ke vikaas ki gati sanskruti ke vikaas ki gati se teevr hoti hai. falasvaroop sabhyata vikaasakram mein sanskruti se aage nikal jaati hai. sabhyata aur sanskruti ke vikaas ka yeh asantulan saamaajik vightan ko janm deta hai. at: is prakaar praadurbhoot sanskruti vilbanna dvaara samaaj mein utpann asantulan aur avyavastha ke niraakaran hetu aadhibhautik sanskruti mein prayatnapoorvak sudhaar aavashyak ho jaata hai. vishleshan, pareekshan evam moolyaankan dvaara sabhyata aur sanskruti ka niyman maanav ke bhautik aur aadhyaatmik abhyutthaan ke anupam sahayog pradaan karta hai.

sanskruti yadyapi kisi desh ya kaalavishesh ki upaj naheen hoti, yeh ek shaashvat prakriya hai, tathaapi kisi kshetravishesh mein kisi kaal mein iska jo svaroop prakat hota hai use ek vishisht naam se abhihit kiya jaata hai. yeh abhidha kaal, darshan, kshetr, samudaaya athva satta se sambaddh hoti hai. madhyayugeen sanskruti, bhautik sanskruti, paashchaatya sanskruti, hindu sanskruti tatha mugal sanskruti aadi ki sanjnyaaaeain isi aadhaar par pradaan ki gayi hain. vishisht abhidhaan sanskruti ke vishisht svaroopabodh ke saath is tathya ko udbhaasit karta hai ki sanskruti ko visheshan pradaan karanevaale kaarak dvaara sanskruti ka sahaj svaroop anivaaryat: prabhaavit hua hai.

sandarbh

  1. "Meaning of "culture"". Cambridge English Dictionary. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/culture. abhigman tithi: July 26, 2015.

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baahari kadiyaaain

  • Бaaеaaлaaяaaеaaв, И. А. Кaaуaaлaaьaaтaaуaaрaaа, сaaуaaбaaкaaуaaлaaьaaтaaуaaрaaа, кaaоaaнaaтaaрaaкaaуaaлaaьaaтaaуaaрaaа / И. А. Бaaеaaлaaяaaеaaв, Н. А. Бaaеaaлaaяaaеaaвaaа // Дaaуaaхaaоaaвaaнaaоaaсaaтaaь и гaaоaaсaaуaaдaaаaaрaaсaaтaaвaaеaaнaaнaaоaaсaaтaaь. Сaaбaaоaaрaaнaaиaaк нaaаaaуaaчaaнaaыaaх сaaтaaаaaтaaеaaй. Вaaыaaпaaуaaсaaк 3; пaaоaaд рaaеaaд. И. А. Бaaеaaлaaяaaеaaвaaа. — Оaaрaaеaaнaaбaaуaaрaaг: Фaaиaaлaaиaaаaaл УaaрaaАaaГaaС в г. Оaaрaaеaaнaaбaaуaaрaaгaaе, 2002. — С. 5-18.