sanskrut vyaakaran ka itihaas

sanskrut ka vyaakaran vaidik kaal mein hi svatantr vishay ban chuka tha. naam, aakhyaat, upasarg aur nipaat - ye chaar aadhaarbhoot tathya yaask (E. poo. lagbhag 700) ke poorv hi vyaakaran mein sthaan pa chuke the. paanini (E. poo. lagbhag 550) ke pehle kai vyaakaran likhe ja chuke the jinmein keval aapishli aur kaashakrutsn ke kuchh sootr aaj upalabdh hain. kintu sanskrut vyaakaran ka kramabaddh itihaas paanini se aarambh hota hai.

vyaakaran shaastr ka vruhad itihaas hai kintu mahaamuni paanini aur unke dvaara praneet ashtaadhayaayi hi iska kendra bindu hain. paanini ne ashtaadhayaayi mein 3995 sootrein ki rachanaakar bhaasha ke niyamon ko vyavasthit kiya jismein vaakyon mein padon ka sankalan, padon ka prakruti, pratyaya vibhaag evam padon ki rachana aadi pramukh tattv hain. in niyamon ki poortti ke liye dhaatu paath, gan paath tatha unaadi sootr bhi paanini ne banaaye. sootron mein ukt, anukt evam durukt vishyon ka vichaar kar kaatyaayan ne vaarttik ki rachana ki. baad mein mahaamuni patanyajali ne mahaabhaashya ki rachana kar sanskrut vyaakaran ko poornata pradaan ki. inheen teenon aachaaryon ko 'trimuni' ke naam se jaana jaata hai. praacheen vyaakaran mein inka anivaaryat: adhayayan kiya jaata hai.

navya vyaakaran ke antargat prakriya kram ke anusaar shaastron ka adhayayan kiya jaata hai jismein bhattojeedeekshit, naagesh bhatt aadi aachaaryon ke granthon ka adhayayan mukhya hai. praacheen vyaakaran evam navya vyaakaran do svatantr vishay hain.

anukram

paanineeya vyaakaran

paanini ne vaidik sanskrut aur laukik sanskrut donon ke liye ashtaadhyaayi ki rachana ki. apne lagbhag chaar hajaar sootron mein unhonne sada ke liye sanskrut bhaasha ko parinishthit kar diya. unke pratyaahaar, anubandh aadi ganit ke niyamon ki tarah sookshm aur vaigyaanik hain. unke sootron mein vyaakaran aur bhaashaashaastr sambandhi anek mahatvapoorn tathyon ka samaavesh hai.

kaatyaayan (E. poo. lagbhag 300) ne paanini ke sootron par lagbhag 4295 vaartik likhe. paanini ki tarah unka bhi gyaan vyaapak tha. unhonne lokajeevan ke anek shabdon ka sanskrut mein samaavesh kiya aur nyaayon tatha paribhaashaaon dvaara vyaakaran ka vichaarakshetr vistrut kiya.

kaatyaayan ke vaartikon par patanjali (E. poo. 150) ne mahaabhaashya ki rachana ki. mahaabhaashya aakar granth hai. ismein praaya: sabhi daarshanik vaadon ke beej hain. iski shaili anupam hai. ispar anek teekaaeain milti hain jinmein bhartruhari ki tripdi, kaiyat ka pradeep aur sheshanaaraayan ka "sooktirtnaakar" prasiddh hain. sootron ke arth, udaaharan aadi samajhaane ke liye kai vruttigranth likhe gaye the jinmein kaashika vrutti (chhathi shataabdi) mahatvapoorn hai. jayaaditya aur vaaman naam ke aachaaryon ki yeh ek ramaneeya kruti hai. ispar jineindrabuddhi (lagbhag 650 E.) ki kaashikaavivranapanjika (nyaas) aur haradatt (E. 1200) ki padamanjari uttam teekaaeain hain. kaashika ki paddhati par likhe gaye granthon mein bhaagavrutti (anupalabdh), purushottamadev (gyaarahaveen shataabdi) ki bhaashaavrutti aur bhattoji Dixit (E. 1600) ka shabdakaustubh mukhya hain.

paanini ke sootron ke kram badalkar kuchh prakriyaagranth bhi likhe gaye jinmein dharmakeerti (gyaarahaveen shataabdi) ka roopaavataar, raamachandr (E. 1400) ki prakriyaakaumudi, bhattoji Dixit ki siddhaantakaumudi aur Narayan bhatt (solahaveen shataabdi) ka prakriyaasarvasv ullekhaneeya hain. prakriyaakaumudi par vitthalakrut "prasaad" aur sheshakrushnarachit "prakriya prakaash" pathaneeya hain. siddhaantakaumudi ki teekaaon mein praudhamanorama, tatvabodhini aur shabdeindushekhar ullekhaneeya hain. praudhamanorama par hari Dixit ka shabdaratn bhi prasiddh hai.

naagesh bhatt (E. 1700) ke baad vyaakaran ka itihaas dhoomil ho jaata hai. teekaagranthon par teekaaeain milti hain. kisi kisi mein nyaayashaili dekh padti hai. paaninisanpradaaya ke pichhle do sau varsh ke prasiddh teekaakaaron mein vaidyanaath paayugund, vishveshvar, oramabhatt, bhairav mishr, raadhaveindraachaarya gajeindragadakar, krushnamitr, nityaanand parvateeya evam jayadev mishr ke naam ullekhaneeya hain.

a-paanineeya vyaakaran

paanineeya vyaakaran ke atirikt sanskrut ke jo anya vyaakaran is samay upalabdh hain ve sabhi paanini ki shaili se prabhaavit hain. avashya aindr vyaakaran ko kuchh log paanini ke poorv ka maanate hain. kintu yeh mat asandigdh naheen hai. barnal ke anusaar aindr vyaakaran ka sambandh kaatantr se aur tamil ke praacheenatam vyaakaran tolkaappiym se hai. aindr vyaakaran ke aadhaar par saatavaahan yug mein sharv varma ne kaatantr vyaakaran ki rachana ki. iske doosare naam kaalaapak aur kaumaar bhi hain. ispar durgasinh ki teeka prasiddh hai. chaandr vyaakaran chandragomi (E. 500) ki rachana hai. ispar unki vrutti bhi hai. iski shaili se kaashikaakaar prabhaavit hain. jaineindr vyaakaran jain aachaarya devanandi (lagbhag chhathi shataabdi) ki rachana hai. ispar abhayanandi ki vrutti prasiddh hai. udaaharan mein jain sanpradaaya ke shabd milte hain. jaineindr vyaakaran ke aadhaar par kisi jain aachaarya ne 9veen shataabdi mein shaakataayan vyaakaran likha aur usapar amoghavrutti ki rachana ki. ispar prabhaavachandraachaarya ka nyaas aur yaksh varma ki vrutti prasiddh hain. bhoj (gyaarahaveen shataabdi ka poorvaardh) ka sarasvati kanthaabharan vyaakaran mein vaartikon aur ganapaathon ko sootron mein mila diya gaya hai. paanini ke aprasiddh shabdon ke sthaan par subodh shabd rakhe gaye hain. ispar dandanaath Narayan ki hrudayahaarini teeka hai. siddh hem athva hem vyaakaran aachaarya hemachandr (gyaarahaveen shataabdi) rachit hai. ismein sanskrut ke saath saath praakrut aur apabhransh vyaakaran ka bhi samaavesh hai. ispar granthakaar ka nyaas aur Devendra soori ka laghunyaas ullekhaneeya hain. saarasvat vyaakaran ke karta anubhootisvaroopaachaarya (terahaveen shataabdi) hain. ispar saarasvat prakriya aur raghunaath ka laghubhaashya dhyaan dene yogya hain. iska prachaar Bihar mein pichhli peedhi tak tha. bopadev (terahaveen shataabdi) ka mugdhabodh vyaakaran nitaant saral hai. iska prachaar abhi haal tak Bengal mein raha hai. padmanaabh datt ne (15veen shataabdi) supadya vyaakaran likha hai. shesh shreekrushn (16veen shataabdi) ki padachandrika ek svatantr vyaakaran hai. is par unki padachandrikaavrutti ullekhaneeya hai. kramadoshvar ka sankshiptasaar (jaumaar) aur roopagosvaami ka harinaamaamrut bhi svatantr vyaakaran hain. kaveendraachaarya ke sangrah mein brahmavyaakaran, yamavyaakaran, varunavyaakaran, saumyavyaakaran aur shabdatarkavyaakaran ke hastalekh the jinke baare mein aaj vishesh gyaan naheen hai. prasiddh kintu anupalabdh vyaakaranon mein vaamanakrut vishraantavidyaadhar ullekhaneeya hai.

ganapaath evam dhaatupaath

pramukh sanskrut vyaakaranon ke apne apne ganapaath aur dhaatupaath hain. ganapaath sambandhi svatantr granthon mein vardhamaan (12veen shataabdi) ka ganaratnamahodadhi aur bhatt yajnyaeshvar rachit ganaratnaavali (E. 1874) prasiddh hain. unaadi ke vivranakaaron mein ujjavaladatt pramukh hain. kaashakrutsn ka dhaatupaath kannad bhaasha mein prakaashit hai. bheemasen ka dhaatupaath tibbati (bhot) mein prakaashit hai. poornachandr ka dhaatupaaraayan, maitreyarakshit (dasveen shataabdi) ka dhaatupradeep, ksheerasvaami (dasveen shataabdi) ki ksheeratarangini, saayan ki maadhaveeya dhaatuvrutti, shreeharshakeerti ki dhaatutarangini, bopadev ka kaviklpadrum, bhattamall ki aakhyaatachandrika vishesh ullekhaneeya hain. lingabodhak granthon mein paanini, vararuchi, vaaman, hemachandr, shaakataayan, shaantanavaachaarya, harshavardhan aadi ke lingaanushaasan prachalit hain. is vishay ki praacheen pustak "lingakaarika" anupalabdh hai.

sanskrut vyaakaran ka daarshanik vivechan

sanskrut vyaakaran ke daarshanik paksh ka vivechan vyaadi (lagbhag E. poo. 400) ke "sangrah" se aarambh hota hai jiske kuchh vaakya hi aaj avashesh hain. bhartruhari (lagbhag E. 500) ka vaakyapadeeya vyaakaranadarshan ka sarvotkrusht granth hai. svopajnyaavrutti ke atirikt ispar vrushabhadev (chhathi shataabdi), punyaraaj (naveen shataabdi) aur helaaraaj (dasveen shataabdi) ki teekaaeain vishrut hain. kaundabhatt (E. 1600) ka vaiyaakaranabhooshan aur naagesh ki vaiyaakaran siddhaantamanjoosha ullekhaneeya hain. naagesh ka sfotavaad, krushnabhattamauni ki sfotachandrika aur bharatamishr ki sfotasiddhi bhi is vishay ke laghukaaya granth hain. seeradev ki paribhaashaavrutti, purushottamadev ki paribhaashaavrutti, vishnushesh ka paribhaashaaprakaash aur naagesh ka paribhaasheindushekhar pathaneeya hain. pichhle dedh sau varshon mein paribhaasheindushekhar par lagbhag 25 teekaaeain likhi gayi hain jinmein gada, bhairavi, bhaavaarthadeepika ke atirikt taatya shaastri patavardhan, ganapati shaastri mokaate, bhaaskar shaastri, vaasudev abhyankar, manyudev, chidroopaashraya aadi ki teekaaeain hain.

Europe ke vidvaanon ka yogadaan

sanskrut vyaakaran ke itihaas mein Europe ke vidvaanon ka bhi yog hai. pi. saaseti ne, jo 1583 se 1588 tak Bhaarat mein tha, sanskrut aur Italy ki bhaasha ka saamya dikhlaaya tha. kintu sanskrut ka niymabaddh vyaakaran jarman-yahoodi J. E. haakseleden ne likha. usaki aprakaashit kruti ke aadhaar par jarman paadari paulins ne 1790 mein sanskrut ka vyaakaran prakaashit kiya jiska naam "siddh rubam" syoo graamaatika sanskrudaamika" tha. fort William kaalej ke adhyaapak dau॰ William kaire ne 1802 mein sanskrut ka vyaakaran aaingareji mein prakaashit kiya. William kolabruk ne 1805 mein, vilkins ne 1808 mein, forestar ne 1810 mein, sanskrut ke vyaakaran likhe. 1823 mein othamaar fraank ne laitin bhaasha mein sanskrut vyaakaran likha. 1834 mein bopp ne jarman bhaasha mein sanskrut vyaakaran likha jiska naam "kritishe graamaatik de sanskrut spraakh" hai. benafi ne 1863 mein, keelahaarnan ne 1870 mein, mauniar Williams ne 1877 mein aur amareeka ke hvitni ne 1879 mein apne sanskrut vyaakaran prakaashit kiye. L. reno ne French bhaasha mein sanskrut vyaakaran (1920) aur vaidik vyaakaran (1952) prakaashit kiye. ganapaath aur dhaatupaath ke sambandh mein vestaragaard ka redisej lingva sanskruta (1841), botalink ka paanini graamaatik (1887), leebish ka dhaatupaath (1920) or raabartan birve ka "dar ganapaath" (1961) ullekhaneeya hain. Europe ke vidvaanon ki krutiyon mein maikadonel ka "vaidik graamar" (1910) aur vaakaranaagel ka "aaltindish graamatik" (3 bhaag, 1896-1954) utkrusht granth hain. angreji mein likhit shri kaale ka "haayar sanskrut graamar" bhi prasiddh hai.

sanskrut vyaakaran ka itihaas pichhle dhaai hajaar varsh se teeka tippani ke maadhyam se avichhinn roop mein agrasar hota raha hai. ise sajeev rakhane mein un gyaat agyaat sahasron vidvaanon ka sahayog raha hai jinhonne koi granth to naheen likha, kintu apna jeevan vyaakaran ke adhyaapan mein bitaaya.

sanskrut ke vyaakaran granth aur unke rachayita

  1. sangrah -- vyaadi (lagbhag E. poo. 400 ; vyaakaran ke daarshanik vivechan ka aadi granth)
  2. ashtaadhyaayi -- paanini
  3. mahaabhaashya -- patanyajali
  4. vaakyapadeeya -- bhartruhari (lagbhag E. 500, vyaakaranadarshan ka sarvotkrusht granth)
  5. tripaadi (ya, mahaabhaashyadeepika) -- bhartruhari (mahaabhaashya ki teeka)
  6. kaashikaavrutti -- jayaaditya tatha vaaman (chhathi shati)
  7. vaartik -- kaatyaayan
  8. pradeep -- kaiyat
  9. sooktirtnaakar -- sheshanaaraayan
  10. bhattikaavya (ya, raavanavadh) -- bhatti (saataveen shati)
  11. chaandravyaakaran -- chandragomin‌
  12. kachchaan vyaakaran -- kachchaan (paali ka praacheenatam upalabdh vyaakaran)
  13. mukhamattadeepani -- vimlabuddhi (kachchaan vyaakaran ki teeka tatha nyaas, 11veen sadi)
  14. kaashikaavivranapanjika (ya, nyaas) -- jineindrabuddhi (lagbhag 650 E., kaashikaavrutti ki teeka)
  15. shabdaanushaasan -- hemachandraachaarya
  16. padamanjari -- haradatt (E. 1200, kaashikaavrutti ki teeka)
  17. saarasvataprakriya -- svaroopaachaarya anubhooti
  18. bhaagavrutti (anupalabdh, kaashika ki paddhati par likhit)
  19. bhaashaavrutti -- purushottamadev (gyaarahaveen shataabdi)
  20. siddhaantakaumudi -- bhattoji Dixit (prakriyaakaumudi par aadhaarit)
  21. praudhamanorama -- bhattoji Dixit (svarachit siddhaantakaumudi ki teeka)
  22. vaiyaakaranabhooshanakaarika -- bhattoji Dixit
  23. shabdakaustubh -- bhattoji Dixit (E. 1600, paanineeya sootron ki ashtaadhyaayi kram se ek apoorn vyaakhya)
  24. baalamanororama -- vaasudev Dixit (siddhaantakaumudi ki teeka)
  25. roopaavataar -- dharmakeerti (gyaarahaveen shataabdi)
  26. mugdhabodh -- vopadev
  27. prakriyaakaumudi -- raamachandr (E. 1400)
  28. madhyasiddhaantakaumudi -- varadaraaj
  29. laghusiddhaantakaumudi -- varadaraaj
  30. saarasiddhaantakaumudi -- varadaraaj
  31. prakriyaasarvasv -- Narayan bhatt (solahaveen shataabdi)
  32. prasaad -- vitthal
  33. prakriyaaprakaash -- sheshakrushn
  34. tatvabodhini -- jnyaaanendr sarasvati (siddhaantakaumudi ki teeka)
  35. shabdaratn -- hari Dixit (praudhamanorama ki teeka)
  36. manoramaakuchamardan -- jagannaath panditraaj (bhattoji Dixit ke "praudhmanorama" naamak vyaakaran ke teekaagranth ka khandan)
  37. svopajnyaavrutti -- (vaakyapadeeya ki teeka)
  38. vaiyaakaranabhooshanasaar -- kaundabhatt (E. 1600)
  39. vaiyaakaranasiddhaantamanjoosha -- naagesh bhatt (vyaakaranadarshanagranth)
  40. paribhaashendushekhar -- naagesh bhatt (is yashasvi granth par anek teekaaeain upalabdh hain.)
  41. laghushabdendushekhar -- naagesh bhatt (siddhaantakaumudi ki vyaakhya)
  42. bruhachhabdendushekhar -- naagesh bhatt (siddhaantakaumudi ki vyaakhya)
  43. shabdendushekhar -- naagesh bhatt
  44. vaiyaakaranasiddhaantalaghumanjoosha -- naagesh bhatt
  45. vaiyaakaranasiddhaantaparamalaghumanjoosha -- naagesh bhatt
  46. mahaabhaashya-pratyaakhyaan-sangrah -- naagesh bhatt
  47. udyot -- naagesh bhatt (patanjalikrut mahaabhaashya par teekaagranth)
  48. sfotavaad -- naagesh bhatt
  49. sfotachandrika -- krushnabhattamauni
  50. sfotasiddhi -- bharatamishr
  51. paribhaashaavrutti -- seeradev
  52. paribhaashaavrutti -- purushottamadev
  53. paribhaashaaprakaash -- vishnushesh
  54. gada -- paribhaasheindushekhar ki teeka
  55. bhairavi -- paribhaasheindushekhar ki teeka
  56. bhaavaarthadeepika -- paribhaasheindushekhar ki teeka
  57. harinaamaamrutavyaakaran -- jeev Goswami
  58. pariml -- amarachand

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