sanskrut ke aadhunik kosh

Bhaarat mein aadhunik paddhati par bane sanskrut koshon ki do vargon mein rakha ja sakta hai

  • (1) inmein ek vidha vah thi jismein angreji athva jarman aadi bhaashaaoain ke maadhyam se sanskrut ke kosh bane. is paddhati ke pravartak athva aadi nirmaata paashchaatya vidbaan the. koshavidya ki nootan drushti se sampann navakosh ki rachanaashaili ke anusaar se kosh bane.
  • doosari aur naveen paddhati ke anusaar nootan preranaaon ko lekar sanskrut mein aise kosh bane jiska maadhyam bhi saskrut hi tha. is prakaar ke koshon mein vishesh roop se do ullekhaneeya hai: (1) 'shabdakalpadrum' aur (2) 'vaachaspatyam'.

sukhaanandanaath ne bhi chaar jildon mein ek bruhadaakaar sanskrutakosh Agra aur Udaipur se (i0 1873-83 mein) prakaashit kiya jispar 'shabdakalpadrum' ka paryaapt prabhaav hai.

sanskrut ke maadhyam se chhote-bade anek sanskrutakosh bane. parantu kosh-vikaas ke itihaas mein unka mahatva naheen maana ja sakta. sanskrut ke anek kosh aise bhi bane jo bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke maadhyam se sanskrut shabdon ka arthaparichya dete hain. parantu unamein koi apni svatantr visheshata naheen dikhaai deti. 'bilsan' athva 'vilyams', 'mekadonaald', 'aapte' ke koshon se ya to inhonne udhaar liya athva thodee bahut sahaayata 'shabdakalpadroom' 'vaachaspatyam' se li. maraathi-sanskrut-kosh, sanskrut-taamil-kosh, sanskrut-telagoo-kosh, sanskrut-baingala-kosh, sanskrut-gujaraati-kosh, sanskrut-hindi-kosh aadi bhaarateeya aadhunik bhaashaaon ke tattat naamavaale—aasaikadon ki sankhya mein kosh bane hain aur aaj ye kosh upalabdh bhi hain. yahaaain par dhyaan rakhane ki ek aur baat yeh hai ki sanskrut ke ukt donon mahaakosh Bengal ki bhoomi mein hi bane.

bangala vishvakosh bhi sambhavat: usi parampara se prabhaavit 'shabdakalpadrum' aur 'vaachaspatyam' ka hi ek roop hai. ismein yadyapi aadhunik vishvakosh ki rachanaapaddhati ko apnaane ki cheshta hui hai tathaapi vah bhi mishrit shaili ka hi vishvakosh hai. usaka ek hindi sanskaran bhi hindi vishvakosh ke naam se prakaashit kiya gaya hai. bangala vishvakosh ka poora-poora aadhaar lekar chalne par bhi hindi ka yeh pratham vishvakosh nae sire se taiyaar kiya gaya.

shabdakosh aur vishvakosh ke mishrit roop ki yeh paddhati keval sanskrut aur bangala ke koshon mein hi naheen apitu bhaarateeya bhaasha ke anya koshon mein bhi lakshit hoti hai. angreji aadi bhaasha ke anek bade koshon me yeh sarani hai—avisheshat: praacheen sanskaranon mein. poornachandr ka udiya kosh bhi isi paddhati ka ek granth hai. 'hindi shabdasaagar' bhi apne pratham sanskaran mein aanshik roop se isi paddhati par chala. dviteeya sanshodhit aur parivrdhit sanskaran mein bhi uske poorvarup ko surakshit rakhane ki cheshta hui hai. parantu lambe lambe pauraanik, shaastriya athva daarshanik uddharanon ka bhaar ismein na aane dene ki cheshta hui hai. sanbanddh vastu athva padaarthajnyaaan ke liye upayogi vivran ko yathaasanbhav dene ki cheshta ki gayi hai.

aadhunik koshakala (lexicography) ke aadhaar par vaaman shivraam aapte ne san 1889 mein a practical sanskrut-english dikshanari naam se ek shabdakosh sankalit kiya. ise bahut hi saraaha gaya.

san 1886-94 ke beech Bengal ke raadhaakaant deb ne "shabd-kalpadrum:" naam seekabhaasheeya shabdakosh banaaya jo paaainch khandon mein thi. san 1890 mein vishvabandhu ne 16 bhaagon mein "vaidikpad anukramakosh" ki rachana ki jo ek vaidik 'kannakaardens' (concordance) hai.

poona mein kaindreeya sarkaar dvaara pradatt aarthik anudaan se dau॰ S M katre ke nideshan mein sanskrut ka ek vishaal kosh (An encyclopedic Dictionary of Sanskrit on Historical Principles) banana aarambh hua jo ab A M ghatage ke nirdeshan mein aagabadh raha hai. usaki aadhaarbhoot saamagri ka bhi svatantr reeti se vaigyaanik aur aalochanaatmak paddhati par aalochan aur paathanirdhaaran kiya ja raha hai. ukt kosh ke liye shabdon ka jo praamaanik sankalan ho raha hai vah praay: sarvaashat: yathaasanbhav aalochanaatmak dhang se sanpaadit ya sankalit hai. dau॰ 'katre' sanskrut ke saath saath aadhunik bhaashaavijnyaaan ke bade vidvaan the. is kosh ke shabdasankalan or arthanirdhaaran mein tattat vishyon ke sanskrutajnya, praudh pandeeton ki poori sahaayata lene ka prayatan ho raha hai. sanpaadanavijnyaaan ki paddhati par sanpaadin praamaanik aur aalochit aadhaaragranthon se hi yathaasanbhav shabdasankalan ki cheshta ho rahi hai. bhaarateevidya (indolaaji) mein abatak jo bhi mahatvapoorn anusheelan vishv ki kisi bhaasha mein hua hai uske sarvaanshat: upayog aur viniyog ka prayaas ho raha hai. vigat kai varshon se yeh prayaas chal raha hai jismein kaafi samay, shram aur dhanaraashi vyaya ho rahi hai tatha vishyajnya vidvajjanon ka adhik se adhik sahayog paane ki cheshta ki ja rahi hai. bhaashaavijnyaaan ki nyoonatam upalabdhiyon ka sahaara lekar vyutpattinirdhaarinaadi ki vyavastha ho rahi hai. at: aasha hai, yeh kosh nishchaya hi uchchatar star ka hoga. angreji, jarman, fraaseesi, roosi aadi bhaashaaon ke samast sampann sanskrut koshon ki vishaal saamagri ka pareekshaapoorvak grahan ho raha hai. at: nishchaya hi ukt kosh, abatak ke samast sanskrut-angreji koshon mein shreshthatam hoga.

shri veneedhar Joshi evam harinaaraayan Joshi ne san 1968 mein do kandon mein aayurvedeeya mahaakosh sankalit kiya. yeh sanskrut ka medical shabdakosh hai.

videshi vidvaanon dvaara nirmit sanskrut shabdakosh

Bhaarat mein videshi vidvaanon, dharmaprachaarakon aur sarkaari shaasakon dvaara aadhunik dhang se koshanirmaan ka kaarya praarambh hua.

1819 mein dau॰ 'vilsan' ka 'sanskrut english kosh' prakaashit hua. angreji ke maadhyam se prakaashit honevaale is sanskrut kosh ko prastut disha mein mahatvapoorn par aaranbhik kaarya kaha ja sakta hai. is kruti ki bhoomika se pata chalta hai ki us samay puraani paddhati ke kuchh sanskrut kosh vartamaan the. kolabruk dvaara anudit amarakosh bhi vartamaan tha. vastut: 'vilsan' ka yeh granth paryaayavaachi dvibhaashi kosh kaha ja sakta hai. moniyr Williams ki do krutiyaaain— sanskrut angreji kosh aur english sanskrut kosh mahatvapoorn kosh hain. unka prakaashan 1851 i0 mein hua. is kosh ki prerana vilsan ke granth se mili. vilsan ne apne kosh ke naveen sanskaran ki bhoomika mein apna mantavya prakat kiya hai. ve yeh chaahate the ke sanskrut ke sabhi shabdon ka vaigyaanik dhang se aisa aakalan ho jisse sanskrut ki lagbhag do hajaar dhaatuon ke antargat samast sanskrut shabdon ka samaavesh ho jaaya. is disha mein unhonne thoda prayatn bhi kiya. in donon ke baad mahatvapoorn granth aapte ka kosh aata hai jo sanskrut angreji aur angreji sanskrut donon roopon mein sanpaadit kiya gaya. Williams ke kosh mein dhaatumoolak vyutpatti ke saath saath shabdaprayog ka sandarbh-sanket bhi diya gaya. parantu aapate ke kosh mein sanketamaatr hi naheen, uddharan bhai diye gaye hain. poorv kosh ki apeksha vah adhik upayogi dikhaai padaa. kuchh varshon poorv teen khandon mein unke kosh ka sanshodhit sanbardhit aur vistrut sanskaran prakaashit hua hai jo kadaachit tabatak ke samast 'sanskrut angreji' koshon mein sarvaadhik praamaanik evam upayoga kaha ja sakta hai.

inke atirikt bhi alp mahatva ke anek sanskrut-angreji-kosh bante rahe jinmein kuchh prasiddh koshon ke naam aage diye ja rahe hain -

  • (1) sanskrut angreji kosh (sanpaadaka— dablyoo0 yeets: 1846)
  • (2) sanskrut angreji dikshanari (Lakshman raamachandr vaidya— 1889)
  • (3) sanskrut dikshanari (thiyodor benfe, 1866),
  • (4) graasamain leksikn tu di rigved, aur
  • (5) practical sanskrut dikshanari vid traanaslitreshan, ekseinchueshan end etimaalaajikl enaalasis throoaaut (maikdaanald, 1924 i0).

moniyr Williams ke baad anek sanskrut angreji kosh bane. parantu vilsan ke naveen sanskaran aur Williams ke kosh ke saamane unka vishesh prachaar naheen ho paaya. vilsan ke kosh ka ek sankshipt sanskaran bhi 1870 i0 mein raamajasan ne sanpaadit kiya jiska kaafi prachaar hua. mekdaanak ki 'practical sanskrut-english dikshanari' avashya hi atyant mahatvapoorn kosh hai. usamein sanskrut shavdon ke arth ka kaalaavadhik parichay bhi diya gaya hai, shabd ke adhik prachalit aur svalp prachalit arthon ko soochit karne ka bhi prayaas hua hai. 'bainfe' ki bhi 'sanskrut-english dikshanari' prakaashit hui. aur bhi anek chhote bade sanskrut kosh nirmit hue. parantu vilsan, Williams aur aapte - inki sanskrut english koshatrayi ko sarvaadhik safalta evam prasiddhi mili.

yahaaain raath aur bothalinkg dvaara prakaashit sanskrut-jarman kosh ke ullekh ke bina samast vivran apoorn hi rah jaayaga. oto bothalinkg tatha 'rudolf raath' ke sanyakt sanpaadakatv mein sanskrut ka jarmaanabhaashi yeh kosh sanskrut borterabukh 1858 i0 se praarambh hokar 1875 i0 mein poorn hua. yeh kosh bhaarateevidya ka mahaajnyaaanakosh hai. atyant vishaal aur saat jildon ke is kosh mein prabhoot saamagri bhari padi hai. iska ek sankshipt sanskaran bhi 1879 se lekar 1889 i0 tak prakaashit hota raha. vah bhi saat jildon mein hai par usaki prushthasankhya aadhi se bhi kam hi. seint peetarasbarg se prakaashit yeh sanskrut-jarman kosh vyaavahaarik upayogita se poorn hokar bhi atyant praamaanik hai. iske pehle anek chhote-bade sanskrut kosh jarman, fraanseesi, itaalavi aadi bhaashaaon mein ban chuke the. 1849 i0 mein0 'thiyodor benfe ' ka kosh bana tha jiska angreji roopaantar 1856 mein maiksamyoolar ke sanpaadakatv mein prakaashit hua.

inmein se anek kosh aise the jo Bhaarat mein aur anek videshon mein prakaashit hue.

inhein bhi dekhein