sanskrut bhaasha

sanskrut
sanskrutam
uchchaaran [səaãaaskɹaa̩aat̪aaəaam]
boli jaati hai Bhaarat, Nepal
kul bolne vaale 14,135 (Bhaarat ki 2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar.)[1]
bhaasha parivaar
lekhan pranaali devanaagari (vastut:), anya braahmee–lipi aur kabhi kabhi roman
aadhikaarik star
aadhikaarik bhaasha ghoshit bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein anusoochit 22 bhaashaaon me se ek.
niyaamak koi aadhikaarik niyman naheen
bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 sa
ISO 639-2 san
ISO 639-3 san

sanskrut (sanskrutam) Bhaarat ki ek shaastreeya bhaasha hai. ise devavaani athva surabhaarati bhi kaha jaata hai. yeh vishv ki sabse puraani ullikhit bhaashaaon mein se ek hai. sanskrut hind-Europeeya bhaasha-parivaar ki hind-Irani shaakha ki hind-aarya upashaakha mein shaamil hai. ye aadim-hind-Europeeya bhaasha se bahut adhik mel khaati hai. aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaeain jaise maithili, hindi, urdoo, Kashmiri, udiya, baangla, maraathi, sindhi, punjabi, (nepaali), aadi isi se utpann hui hain. in sabhi bhaashaaon mein Europeeya banjaaron ki romaani bhaasha bhi shaamil hai. sanskrut mein hindu dharm se sambandhit lagbhag sabhi dharmagranth likhe gaye hain. bauddh dharm (visheshakar mahaayaan) tatha jain dharm ke bhi kai mahattvapoorn granth sanskrut mein likhe gaye hain. aaj bhi hindu dharm ke adhiktar yagya aur pooja sanskrut mein hi hoti hain.
sanskrut ko sabhi uchch bhaashaaon ki janani maana jaata hai. iska kaaran hain iski sarvaadhik shuddhata aur iseeliye yeh computer software ke liye ek upayukt bhaasha hai (forbs patrika July 1987 ki ek report mein).

anukram

itihaas

sanskrut ka itihaas bahut puraana hai. vartamaan samay mein praapt sabse praacheen sanskrut granth riagved hai jo kam se kam dhaai hajaar isaapoorv ki rachana hai.

vyaakaran

sanskrut bhaasha ka vyaakaran atyant parimaarjit evam vaigyaanik hai. bahut praacheen kaal se hi anek vyaakaranaachaaryon ne sanskrut vyaakaran par bahut kuchh likha hai. kintu paanini ka sanskrut vyaakaran par kiya gaya kaarya sabse prasiddh hai. unka ashtaadhyaayi kisi bhi bhaasha ke vyaakaran ka sabse praacheen granth hai.

sanskrut mein sanjnyaa, sarvanaam, visheshan aur kriya ke kai tarah se shabd-roop banaaye jaate hain, jo vyaakaranik arth pradaan karte hain. adhikaansh shabd-roop moolashabd ke ant mein pratyaya lagaakar banaaye jaate hain. is tarah ye kaha ja sakta hai ki sanskrut ek bahirmukhi-ant-shlishtayogaatmak bhaasha hai. sanskrut ke vyaakaran ko vaageesh shaastri ne vaigyaanik svaroop pradaan kiya hai.

dhvani-tantr aur lipi

sanskrut Bhaarat ki kai lipiyon mein likhi jaati rahi hai, lekin aadhunik yug mein devanaagari lipi ke saath iska vishesh sambandh hai. devanaagari lipi vaastav mein sanskrut ke liye hi bani hai, isaliye ismein harek chinh ke liye ek aur keval ek hi dhvani hai. devanaagari mein 13 svar aur 34 vyanjan hain. devanaagari se roman lipi mein lipyantaran ke liye do paddhatiyaaain adhik prachalit hain : IAST aur ITRANS. shoonya, ek ya adhik vyanjanon aur ek svar ke mel se ek akshar banta hai.

संस्कृत वाक्यांश.png
sanskrut, kshetreeya lipiyon mein likhi jaati rahi hai.

svar

ye svar sanskrut ke liye diye gaye hain. hindi mein inke uchchaaran thode bhinn hote hain.

varnaakshar “apa” ke saath maatra IPA uchchaaran "p" ke saath uchchaaran IAST samatulya angreji samatulya hindi mein varnan
a p / ə / / pə / a laghu ya deergh Schwa: jaise a, above ya ago mein madhya prasrut svar
aa pa / α: / / pα: / ā deergh Open back unrounded vowel: jaise a, father mein deergh vivrut pashv prasrut svar
i pi / i / / pi / i laghu close front unrounded vowel: jaise i, bit mein hrasv sanvrut agr prasrut svar
E pi / i: / / pi: / ī deergh close front unrounded vowel: jaise i, machine mein deergh sanvrut agr prasrut svar
u pu / u / / pu / u laghu close back rounded vowel: jaise u, put mein hrasv sanvrut pashv vartul svar
oo poo / u: / / pu: / ū deergh close back rounded vowel: jaise oo, school mein deergh sanvrut pashv vartul svar
A pe / e: / / pe: / e deergh close-mid front unrounded vowel: jaise a in game (sanyukt svar naheen) mein deergh ardhasanvrut agr prasrut svar
ai pai / ai / / pai / ai deergh diphthong: jaise ei, height mein deergh dvimaatrik svar
O po / ο: / / pο: / o deergh close-mid back rounded vowel: jaise o, tone (sanyukt svar naheen) mein deergh ardhasanvrut pashv vartul svar
au pau / au / / pau / au deergh diphthong: jaise ou, house mein deergh dvimaatrik svar

sanskrut mein ai do svaron ka yugm hota hai aur "a-i" ya "aa-i" ki tarah bola jaata hai. isi tarah au "a-u" ya "aa-u" ki tarah bola jaata hai.

iske alaava hindi aur sanskrut mein ye varnaakshar bhi svar maane jaate hain :

  • ri -- aadhunik hindi mein "ri" ki tarah, sanskrut mein ameriki angreji shabdaansh (American English syllabic) / r / ki tarah
  • ri -- keval sanskrut mein (deergh ri)
  • -- keval sanskrut mein (syllabic retroflex l)
  • an -- aadhe n, m, ङ, nya, n ke liye ya svar ka naasikeekaran karne ke liye
  • aain -- svar ka naasikeekaran karne ke liye (sanskrut mein naheen upayukt hota)
  • a: -- aghosh "h" (ni:shvaas) ke liye

vyanjan

jab koi svar prayog naheen ho, to vahaaain par 'a' maana jaata hai. svar ke na hone ko halant‌ athva viraam se darshaaya jaata hai. jaise ki k‌ kh‌ g‌ gh‌.

sparsh
alpapraan
aghosh
mahaapraan
aghosh
alpapraan
ghosh
mahaapraan
ghosh
naasikya
kanthya k / kə /
k; angreji: skip
kh / khə /
kh; angreji: cat
g / gə /
g; angreji: game
gh / gɦə /
gh; mahaapraan /g/
/ ŋaaə /
n; angreji: ring
taalavya ch / cə / or / tʃaaə /
ch; angreji: chat
chh / chə / or /tʃhə/
chh; mahaapraan /c/
j / ɟaaə / or / dʒaaə /
j; angreji: jam
jh / ɟɦə / or / dʒɦə /
jh; mahaapraan /ɟ/
nya / ɲaaə /
n; angreji: finch
moordhanya t / ʈaaə /
t; ameriki angreji:: hurting
th / ʈhə /
th; mahaapraan /ʈ/
d / ɖaaə /
d; ameriki angreji:: murder
dh / ɖɦə /
dh; mahaapraan /ɖ/
n / ɳaaə /
n; ameriki angreji:: hunter
dantya t / t̪aaə /
t; spainish: tomate
th / t̪hə /
th; mahaapraan /t̪/
the / d̪aaə /
d; spainish: donde
dh / d̪ɦə /
dh; mahaapraan /d̪/
na / nə /
n; angreji: name
oshthya p / pə /
p; angreji: spin
f / phə /
ph; angreji: pit
b / bə /
b; angreji: bone
bh / bɦə /
bh; mahaapraan /b/
m / mə /
m; angreji: mine
sparsharahit
taalavya moordhanya dantya/
vartsya
kanthoshthya/
kaakalya
antasth ya / jə /
y; angreji: you
r / rə /
r; skautish angreji: trip
l / lə /
l; angreji: love
va / ʋaaə /
v; angreji: vase
ooshm/
sangharshi
sh / ʃaaə /
sh; angreji: ship
sh / ʂaaə /
sh; moordhanya /ʃ/
s / sə /
s; angreji: same
h / ɦaaə / or / hə /
h; angreji: behind

not karein :

  • inmein se l (moordhanya paarvik antasth) ek atirikt vayanjan hai jiska prayog hindi mein naheen hota hai. maraathi aur vaidik sanskrut mein iska prayog kiya jaata hai.
  • sanskrut mein sh ka uchchaaran aise hota tha : jeebh ki nonk ko moordha (muainh ki chhat) ki or uthaakar sh jaisi aavaaj karna. shukl yajurved ki maadhyandini shaakha mein kuchh vaakyon mein sh ka uchchaaran kh ki tarah karna maanya tha. aadhunik hindi mein sh ka uchchaaran poori tarah sh ki tarah hota hai.
  • hindi mein n ka uchchaaran jyaadaatar dain ki tarah hota hai, yaani ki jeebh muainh ki chhat ko ek joradaar thokar maarati hai. hindi mein kshanik aur kshadink mein koi antar naheen hai, parantu sanskrut mein n ka uchchaaran na ki tarah bina thokar maare hota tha, antar keval itna ki jeebh n ke samay muainh ki chhat ko komalata se chhooti hai.

sanskrut bhaasha ki visheshataaeain

  • (1) sanskrut, vishv ki sabse puraani pustak (ved) ki bhaasha hai. isaliye ise vishv ki pratham bhaasha maanane mein kaheen kisi sanshaya ki sambhaavana naheen hai[krupaya uddharan jodein].
  • (2) iski suspasht vyaakaran aur varnamaala ki vaijnyaaanikta ke kaaran sarvashreshthata bhi swayam siddh hai.
  • (3) sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn saahitya ki dhani hone se iski mahatta bhi nirvivaad hai.
  • (4) ise devabhaasha maana jaata hai.
  • (5) sanskrut keval svaviksit bhaasha naheen balki sanskaarit bhaasha bhi hai at: iska naam sanskrut hai. keval sanskrut hi ekamaatr bhaasha hai jiska naamakaran uske bolne vaalon ke naam par naheen kiya gaya hai. sanskrut ko sanskaarit karne vaale bhi koi saadhaaran bhaashaavid naheen balki maharshi paanini, maharshi kaatyaayan aur yog shaastr ke praneta maharshi patanjali hain. in teenon maharshiyon ne badi hi kushalata se yog ki kriyaaon ko bhaasha mein samaavisht kiya hai. yahi is bhaasha ka rahasya hai.
  • (6) shabd-roop - vishv ki sabhi bhaashaaon mein ek shabd ka ek ya kuchh hi roop hote hain, jabki sanskrut mein pratyek shabd ke 27 roop hote hain.
  • (7) dvivchan - sabhi bhaashaaon mein ek vachan aur bahu vachan hote hain jabki sanskrut mein dvivchan atirikt hota hai.
  • (8) sandhi - sanskrut bhaasha ki sabse mahatvapoorn visheshata hai sandhi. sanskrut mein jab do akshar nikat aate hain to vahaaain sandhi hone se svaroop aur uchchaaran badal jaata hai.
  • (9) ise computer aur krutrim buddhi ke liye sabse upayukt bhaasha maana jaata hai.
  • (10) shodh se aisa paaya gaya hai ki sanskrut padhne se smaran shakti badhti hai.
  • (11) sanskrut vaakyon mein shabdon ko kisi bhi kram mein rakha ja sakta hai. isse arth ka anarth hone ki bahut kam ya koi bhi sambhaavana naheen hoti. aisa isaliye hota hai kyonki sabhi shabd vibhkti aur vachan ke anusaar hote hain aur kram badalne par bhi sahi arth surakshit rahata hai. jaise - ahan gruhan gachhaami ya gachhaami gruhan aham dono hi theek hain.
  • (13)sanskrut hi ek maatr saadhan hain jo kramash: anguliyon evam jeebh ko lacheela banaate hain. iske adhyayan karne vaale chhaatron ko ganit, vigyaan evam anya bhaashaaeain grahan karne mein sahaayata milti hai.
  • (14) sanskrut bhaasha mein saahitya ki rachana kam se kam chhah hajaar varshon se nirntar hoti aa rahi hai. iske kai lakh granthon ke pathan-paathan aur chintan mein bhaaratavarsh ke hajaaron pusht tak ke karodon sarvottam mastishk din-raat lage rahe hain aur aaj bhi lage hue hain. pata naheen ki sansaar ke kisi desh mein itne kaal tak, itni doori tak vyaapt, itne uttam mastishk mein vichran karne waali koi bhaasha hai ya naheen. shaayad naheen hai.
  • (15) sanskrut keval ek maatr bhaasha naheen hai apitu sanskrut ek vichaar hai sanskrut ek sanskruti hai ek sanskaar hai sanskrut mein vishv ka kalyaan hai shaanti hai sahayog hai vasudaiv kutumbakam ki bhaavana hai |

(16) 6th aaur 7th generation super computers sanska‍arut bhaasha par aaadhaarit hogein. *naasa

Bhaarat aur vishv ke liye sanskrut ka mahattv

  • sanskrut kai bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ki janani hai. inki adhikaansh shabdaavali ya to sanskrut se li gayi hai ya sanskrut se prabhaavit hai. poore Bhaarat mein sanskrut ke adhyayan-adhyaapan se bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein adhikaadhik ekaroopata aayegi jisse bhaarateeya ekta balavati hogi. yadi ichha-shakti ho to sanskrut ko hibroo ki bhaaainti pun: prachalit bhaasha bhi banaaya ja sakta hai.
  • hindu, bauddh, jain aadi dharmon ke praacheen dhaarmik granth sanskrut mein hain.
  • hinduon ke sabhi pooja-paath aur dhaarmik sanskaar ki bhaasha sanskrut hi hai.
  • hinduon, bauddhon aur jainon ke naam bhi sanskrut par aadhaarit hote hain.
  • sanskrut, Bhaarat ko ekta ke sootr mein baaaindhati hai.
  • sanskrut ka praacheen saahitya atyant praacheen, vishaal aur vividhtaapoorn hai. ismein adhyaatm, darshan, gyaan-vigyaan aur saahitya ka khajaana hai. iske adhyayan se gyaan-vigyaan ke kshetr mein pragati ko badhaava milega.
  • sanskrut ko computer ke liye (krutrim buddhi ke liye) sabse upayukt bhaasha maana jaata hai.

sanskrut ka anya bhaashaaon par prabhaav

sanskrut bhaasha ke shabd moolat roop se sabhi aadhunik bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein hain. sabhi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein ekta ki raksha sanskrut ke maadhyam se hi ho sakti hai. malayalam, kannad aur telugu aadi dakshinaatya bhaashaaen sanskrut se bahut prabhaavit hain.

tatsam-tadbhav-samaan-shabd
sanskrut shabd hindi malayalam kannad telugu greek laitin angreji jarman
maatru maata maater mothar muter
pitru pita paater faathar faater
duhitru daahtar
bhraatru bhaai bradar bruder
pattanam pattanam
vaidooryam vaidooryam vaidooryam
saptan saat septam sevhen jeeben
ashtau aath hokto okto aiy‌aat aakht
navan nau henea novem naayan noen
dvaaram dwaar dor tor
naaliker: naariyl naalikeram kokosnuss

shiksha evam prachaar-prasaar

sandarbh

  1. "Comparative speaker's strength of scheduled languages -1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Census of India, 2001. Office of the Registrar and Census Commissioner, India. http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement5.htm. abhigman tithi: 31 December 2009.

yeh bhi dekhiye

baahari kadiyaaain

sanskrut sansaadhan

sanskrut saamagri

shabdakosh

  • aandhrabhaarati ka sanskrut kosh gapeshanam : aanalaain sanskrut kosh shodhan ; kai koshon mein ekasaath khoj ; devanaagari, bangala aadi kai bhaarateeya lipiyon mein aautaput; kai praaroopon mein input ki suvidha

daaunalod yogya shabdakosh

  • SanDic - Sanskrit-English Dictionary based on V. S. Apte's 'The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary', Arthur Anthony Macdonell's 'A practical Sanskrit dictionary' and Monier Williams 'Sanskrit-English Dictionary'.
  • mudagalakosh - software, which searches an offline version of the monier-williams dictionary, and integrates with several online tools
  • stardict-mw-Sanskrit-English-2.4.2.tar.bz2 MW Sanskrit-English Dictionary in StarDict format. (can be used with GoldenDict also)
  • Monier-Williams: DICT & HTML

sanskrut vishyak lekh

sanskrut saaftaveyar evam upakaran

sanskrut jaalasthal