sankraman

rogon mein kuchh rog to aise hain jo peedit vyaktiyon ke pratyaksh athva aprayatksh sampark, ya unke rogotpaadak, vishisht tatvon se dooshit padaarthon ke sevan evam nikat sampark, se ek se doosare vyaktiyon par sankramit ho jaate hain. isi prakriya ko sankraman (Infection) kehte hain. saamaanya bolachaal ki bhaasha mein aise rogon ko chhutaha rog ya chhooaachhoot ke rog kehte hain. rogagrast ya rogavaahak pashu ya manushya sankraman ke kaarak hote hain. sankraamak rog tatha in rog ke sankramit hone ki kriya samaaj ki drushti se vishesh mahatva ki hai, kyonki vishisht upachaar evam anaagat baaghaapratishegh ki suvidhaaon ke abhaav mein inse mahaamaari (epidemic) fail sakti hai, jo kabhi-kabhi failakar saarvadeshik (pandemic) roop bhi dhaaran kar sakti hai.

anukram

itihaas

19veen shataabdi mein paashchaatya vaigyaanik looi paaschar ne apne prayogon dvaara yeh pramaanit kiya ki jeevaanuon (bacteria) dvaara vishisht vyaadhiyaaain utpann ho sakti hain. kauk naamak vaigyaanik ne baikteeriya adhyayan ki katipya prayogashaaleeya padvatiyon par bhi prakaash daala. tatpashchaat is prakaash se prerana lekar anek vaigyaanik sanhaarak rogon ke janak in jeevaanuon ki khoj mein lag gaye aur 19veen shataabdi ke antim charan mein vaigyaaniko ne rogajanak jeevaanuon ki khoj yatha pooyotpaadak, raajayakshma, rohini (diphtheria), aantr jvar (Typhoid), visoochika (cholera), dhanustanbh (tetanus), taaoon (plague) evam pravaahika (dysentery) aadi sankraamak rogon ke vishisht jeevaanuon ka pata lagaakar inke gunadharm, sankraman evam naidaanik paddhatiyon par bhi prakaash daala.

ab is disha mein atyadhik safalta praapt ki gayi hai tatha is prakaar ke adhikaansh rogon ke jeevaanuon ka nishchit roop se pata laga liya gaya hai. parinaamat: inke sankraman ki rokathaam ki tatha chikitsa mein bhi paryaapt safalta milne lagi hai. ye rogajanak jeevaanu atyant sookshm hote hain aur keval sookshmadarshi dvaara hi dekhe ja sakte hain. isliye inko jeevaanu kehte hain. sookshmaakaar ke hi kaaran inki lanbaai maaikron mein batalaai jaati hai. ye jeev varg ke ek koshikaavaale atisookshm jeev hote hain.

parichay

rogajanak, sankraman mein kisi na kisi jeevaanu ka praaya: haath hota hai. ye jeevaanu vaayu, jal, bhoomi tatha praaniyon ke shareer mein kaheen kam, kaheen adhik tatha samay vishesh evam vishesh jalavaayu kshetr mein nyoonaadhik sankhya mein paae jaate hain. praaya: ek vishisht prakaar ki vikruti tatha lakshan utpann karanevaale sankraman mein ek vishisht prakaar ka jeevaanu uttaradaayi hota hai, kintu kabhi-kabhi ek se adhik prakaar ke jeevaanuon ka sankraman ek saath bhi hota hai, jise mishr sankraman kehte hain aur kabhi ek hi prakaar ki vikruti anek bhinn prakaar ke jeevaanusankraman se bhi hoti hai.

sankraami vyakti se anya svasth vyakti ke shareer mein sankraman bhinn-bhinn prakaar se hota hai. firang (syphilis), soojaak (gonorrhoea) tatha visrp (erysipelas) evam masoorika aadi rogon ka sankraman mrut, sankraant ya vaahak manushya ya pashu ke pratyaksh sansarg se hota hai. kuchh sankraman, jaise jalasatraas aadi, kutte, syaar tatha choohe ke kaatne se hote hain. shvasanatantr ke kuchh rogon ka sankraman khaaainsane, chheenkane ya jor se bolte samay chhote chhote binduon ke baahar nikalne se sameep mein baithanevaalon ko ho jaata hai. ise bindook sankraman hona (Droplet infection) kehte hain. sankraant, vyaadhit ya vaahak vyakti ke dooshit vastr, paatr, khaadya, peya, haath, yantr, shastr, vaayu evam mukh sambandhi vastuon ke sevan se apratyaksh sankraman hota hai. paachan tantr ke sankraamak rogon ko failaane mein ghareloo makkhi ek pramukh yaantrik vaahak (machanical carrier) hai. kuchh rog jaise maleriya, kaalaajaar, shleepad, pleg aadi ka sankraman keetaanuon ke vaahak machhar, pissoo, bhunage, jooain aur kilni ke dansh se hota hai.

sankraman ke kuchh samay baad rogon ke lakshan utpann hote hain. is kaal ko udbhavan kaal (Incubation period) kehte hain. vibhinn rog-janak-jeevaanuon ke udbhavan kaal bhinn bhinn hote hain.

saprati adhikaansh rogajanak sankramanon ke vishisht nidaan evam chikitsa upalabdh hain aur aage is disha mein teevrataapoorvak kaarya ho raha hai.

jeevaanu-sankraman evam vishaanu-sankraman mein bhed

jeevaanu sankraman aur vishaanu-sankraman dono ke lakshan samaan ho sakte hain. kiske kaaran sankraman hua hai, yeh bataana kathin kaarya hai.[1] kintu sankraman ka kaaran baikteeriya hai ya vaairas, yeh pata karna bahut mahatva ka hai kyonki vishaanujanit sankraman ko pratijaivikon ke dvaara theek naheen kiya ja sakta.

vishaanujanit tatha jeevaanujanit sankraman ki tulana
vaishishtya vishaanujanit sankraman jeevaanujanit sankraman
saamaanya lakshan saamaanyat: vishaanu ke kaaran paida sankraman shareer ke kai angon ko prabhaavit karta hai. bahut kam vishaanujanit sankramanon ke hone par dard hota hai (jaise harpeej). vishaanu dvaara utpann sankramanon mein khujali ya 'jalan' hoti hai. jeevaanujanit sankraman mein kisi sthaan par laali, garmi, soojan aur dard hote hain. iska vishesh lakshan hai ki shareer ke kisi ek bhaag ya sthaan par dard hota hai, vistrut bhaag par naheen.
kaaran rogajanak vishaanoo rogajanak jeevaanu

sandarbh

  1. Bacterial vs. Viral Infections - Do You Know the Difference? National Information Program on Antibiotics

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