sanghavaad

neela : ekaatmak raajya
hara : sangheeya raajya

sanghavaad (fedalijm) samvaidhaanik raajasanchaalan ki us pravrutti ka praaroop hai jiske antargat vibhinn raajya ek sanvida dvaara ek sangh ki sthaapana karte hain. is sanvida ke anusaar ek sangheeya sarkaar evam anek raajya sarkaarein sangh ki vibhinn ikaaiyaaain ho jaati hain.

saamaanya roop se prabhusatta ka vibhaajan sangheeya evam raajyasarakaaron ke madhya unke samvidhaan mein ullikhit hota hai jo us sanvida ko antim roop se pusht karta hai. saadhaaranataya sangheeya sarkaar ko aise kaaryon ke sanchaalan ka bhaar diya jaata hai jinhein kshetravistaar kharcheela athva durooh hone ke kaaran raajya swayam chalaane mein kathinaai prateet karte hain. at: in kaaryon ke chalaane ke liye ve sab ikaaiyaaain prateet karte hain. at: in kaaryon ke chalaane ke liye ve sab ikaaiyaaain apni raajashaktiyon ka ek nishchit bhaag sangheeya sarkaar ko adhikaar evam saadhan ke roop mein pradaan kar dete hain. shesh anya vishyon mein raajya swayam kaaryabhaar vahan karte hain evam uske pratiroop adhikaar evam saadhan ke roop mein pradaan kar dete hain. shesh anya vishyon mein raajya swayam kaaryabhaar vahan karte hain evam uske pratiroop adhikaar evam saadhan samvidhaan dvaara lete hain. is prakaar ekaatmak samvidhaan (yoonitri samvidhaan) ke vipreet sanghaatmak samvidhaan ek hi samvidhaan ke antargat raajadvai (duval paaliti) ko sthaapana karta hai. parinaamasvaroop aise sangh ke naagrik do prakaar ki sarkaaron, sangheeya evam raajya sarkaaron ke adheenasth hote hain.

anukram

sanghaatmak samvidhaan ki visheshataaeain

sanghaatmak samvidhaan mein nimnalikhit visheshataaeain apekshit hoti hain :

  • pratham, raajanayik shaktiyon ka sangheeya evam raajya sarkaaron ke madhya samvaidhaanik vibhaajan, dviteeya, sangheeya samvidhaan ki prabhusatta arthaat pratham to na sangheeya aur na raajya sarkaarein sangh se pruthak ho sakti hain.
  • dviteeya, sanghaatmak samvidhaan un donon se samaan roop se sarvopari hota hai.
  • truteeya, choonki sangheeya evam raajya sarkaaron ke madhya adhikaaron ka spasht vibhaajan hota hai, at: sanghaatmak savidhaan ka likhit hona bhi aavashyak hai.
  • chaturth, sanghaatmak samvidhaan sangheeya evam raajyasarakaaron ke samjhaute ka antim roop se pusht karta hai. at: aise samvidhaan ka vyaavahaarik roop se aparivrtaneeya bhi hona apekshit hai. kam se kam kisi ek paksh ke ke mat se aisa samvidhaan parivrtit naheen kiya ja sakta. samvidhaan ka parivartan vishisht paristhitiyon mein vishisht prakriya dvaara hi kiya ja sakta hai.
  • pancham, kisi bhi prakaar ke vivaad jo sangheeya evam raajya sarkaaron ke beech mein samvaidhaanik kaaryasanchaalan mein kartavya, adhikaar athva saadhanon ke vishay mein aa gaye hon to unke nirnaya ke liye nyaayaalaya ko savidhaan ke sanghaatmak praavadhaanon ki meenmaansa karne ka poorn evam antim adhikaar diya jaana chaahiye.

in visheshataaon ke saath sanghaatmak samvidhaan ka ek aadarsh praaroop sanyukt raajya America ka samvidhaan hai jiska nirmaan san 1787 mein 12 svatantr raashtron ki sanvida ke anusaar hua tha. iske pashchaat Canada, Australia, Germany evam France ityaadi ke sanghaatmak sanvidhaanon ka nirmaan hua. Bhaarat ka samvidhaan bhi, jo san 1950 se laagoo hua, sanghaatmak sanvidhaanon ka ek naveen drushtaant hai.

Bhaarat : sanghaatmak ya ekaatmak

pradhaanat: Bhaarat ke samvidhaan mein sanghaatmak samvidhaan ki sabhi uparyukt visheshataaeain vidyamaan hain. kintu bhaarateeya sanghaatmak samvidhaan mein kuchh vishisht praavidhaan hai jinka samaavesh anya sanvidhaanon ke kaaryasanchaalan se utpann kathinaaiyon ko drushtigt karke kiya gaya hai.

udaaharanaarth, sabse vishisht tathya yeh hai ki bhaarateeya samvidhaan sanghaatmak hote hue bhi iska nirmaan svatantr raashtron ki kisi sanvida dvaara naheen hua hai; balki yeh un raaj ikaaiyon ke mel (union) se bana hai jo parantantr ekaatmak Bhaarat ke ang ke roop mein pehle se hi vidyamaan the. doosari visheshata yeh hai ki aapatkaal mein bhaarateeya samvidhaan mein ekaatmak sanvidhaanon ke anuroop kendra ko adhik shaktishaali banaane ke liye praavadhaan nihit hain. truteeya visheshata yeh hai ki keval ek naagarikta (bhaarateeya naagarikta) ka hi samaavesh kiya gaya hai tatha ek hi samvidhaan kendra tatha raajya donon hi sarkaaron ke kaaryasanchaalan ke liye vyavasthaaeain pradaan karta hai. iske atirikt samvidhaan sabha ke mataanusaar Bhaarat ek shishu ganatantr ki avastha mein hai, at: desh ke teevr evam sarvatomukhi vikaas evam unnati ke liye samay samay par upayukt praavadhaanon ki aavashyakta pad sakti hai jiske liye samvidhaan sanshodhan ki teen vibhinn prakriyaaeain di gayi hain. keval vishesh sanghaatmak praavadhaanon ke sanshodhan ke liye hi raajyon ka mat aavashyak hai, baaki sanshodhan sansad swayam kar sakti hai. is prakaar sanghaatmak sanvidhaanon ke vikaas mein bhaarateeya samvidhaan ek nai pravrutti, keindreekaran, ka sootrapaat karta hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain