sangeet ka itihaas

yuddh, utsav aur praarthana ya bhajan ke samay maanav gaane bajaane ka upayog karta chala aaya hai. sansaar mein sabhi jaatiyon mein baaainsuri ityaadi fooaink ke vaadya (sushir), kuchh taar ya taaaint ke vaadya (tat), kuchh chamade se madhe hue vaadya (avanaddh ya aanaddh), kuchh thonkakar bajaane ke vaadya (ghan) milte hain.

anukram

Bhaarat mein sangeet ki vikaas yaatra

pragaitihaasik kaal se hi Bhaarat mein sangeet ki samruddh parampara rahi hai. gine-chune deshon mein hi sangeet ki itni puraani evam itni samruddh parampara paayi jaati hai. aisa jaan padta hai ki Bhaarat mein bharat ke samay tak gaan ko pehle keval geet kehte the. vaadya mein jahaaain geet naheen hota tha, keval daada, diddid jaise shushk akshar hote the, vahaaain us nirgeet ya bahirgeet kehte the aur nrutt athva nrutya ki ek alag kala thi. kintu dheere dheere gaan, vaadya aur nrutya teenon ka "sangeet" mein antarbhaav ho gaya - geetan vaadyan tatha nrutyan trayan sangatamuchyate.

Bhaarat se baahar anya deshon mein keval geet aur vaadya ko sangeet mein ginte hain; nrutya ko ek bhinn kala maanate hain. Bhaarat mein bhi nrutya ko sangeet mein keval isliye gin liya gaya ki uske saath baraabar geet ya vaadya athva donon rahate hain. ham oopar kah chuke hain ki svar aur laya ki kala ko sangeet kehte hain. svar aur laya geet aur vaadya donon mein milte hain, kintu nrutya mein laya maatr hai, svar naheen. ham sangeet ke antargat keval geet aur vaadya ki charcha kareinge, kyonki sangeet keval isi arth mein anya deshon mein bhi vyavahrut hota hai.

bhaarateeya sangeet mein yeh maana gaya hai ki sangeet ke aadi prerak Shiv aur sarasvati hai. iska taatparya yahi jaan padta hai ki maanav itni uchch kala ko bina kisi daivi prerana ke, keval apne bal par, viksit naheen kar sakta.

bhaarateeya sangeet ka aadi roop vedon mein milta hai. ved ke kaal ke vishay mein vidvaanon mein bahut matabhed hai, kintu usaka kaal isa se lagbhag 2000 varsh poorv tha - ispar praaya: sabhi vidvaan sahamat hai. isliye bhaarateeya sangeet ka itihaas kam se kam 4000 varsh praacheen hai.

vedon mein vaan, veena aur karkari ityaadi tantu vaadyon ka ullekh milta hai. avanaddh vaadyon mein dudunbhi, gargar ityaadi ka, ghanavaadyon mein aaghaat ya aaghaati aur sushir vaadyon mein baakur, naadi, toonav, shankh ityaadi ka ullekh hai. yajurved mein 30vein kaand ke 19vein aur 20vein mantra mein kai vaadya bajaanevaalon ka ullekh hai jisse prateet hota hai ki us samay tak kai prakaar ke vaadyavaadan ka vyavasaaya ho chala tha.

sansaar bhar mein sabse praacheen sangeet saamaved mein milta hai. us samay "svar" ko "yam" kehte the. saam ka sangeet se itna ghanishth sambandh tha ki saam ko svar ka paryaaya samajhne lag gaye the. haandogyopanishd mein yeh baat prashnottar ke roop mein spasht ki gayi hai. "ka saamno gatiriti? svar iti hovaach" (chha. u. 1. 8. 4). (prashn "saam ki gati kya hai?" uttar "svar". saam ka "sv" apanaapan "svar" hai. "tasya haitasya saamno ya: svan ved, bhavati haasya svan, tasya svar ev svam" (bru. u. 1. 3. 25) arthaat jo saam ke svar ko jaanta hai use "sv" praapt hota hai. saam ka "sv" svar hi hai.

vaidik kaal se praarambh bhaarateeya sangeet ki parampara nirntar falati-foolati aur samruddh hoti rahi. is par saikadon granth likhe gaye.

anya deshon mein sangeet ka vikaas

Bhaarat se baahar sabse praacheen sangeet sumeru, bave degree (baabal ya baibiloniya), asur (aseeriya) aur sur (Syria) ka maana jaata hai. unka koi saahitya naheen milta. mandiron aur raajamahalon par uddhrut kuchh vaadyon se hi unke sangeet ka anumaan kiya ja sakta hai. unke ek vaadya balaggu ya balagu ka ullekh milta hai. kuchh vidvaan iska arth ek avanaddh vaadya lagaate hain aur kuchh log dhanushaakaar veena. ek tabbalu vaadya lagaate hain aur kuchh log dhanushaakaar veena. ek tabbalu vaadya hota tha jo aadhunik daf jaisa bana hota tha. kuchh mandiron par ek aisa uddhrut tat vaadya mila hai jismein paaainch se saat taar tak hote the. ek gigid naamak baaainsuri bhi thi. baibiloniya ki kuchh chakrikaaon mein kuchh shabdon ke saath a, i, u ityaadi svar lage hue milte hain jisse kuchh vidvaan yeh anumaan lagaate hain ki yeh ek prakaar ki svaralipi thi. jis prakaar se ved ka sasvar paath hota tha usi prakaar baibiloniya mein bhi hota tha aur "a" svarit ka chinh tha, "A" vikrut svar ka, "i" udaatt ka "u" anudaatt ka. kintu is kalpana ke poshak pramaan abhi naheen mile hain.

cheen me praaya: paaainch svaron ke hi gaan milte hain. saat svaron ka upayog karanevaale bahut hi kam gaan hain. unki ek prakaar ki bahut hi praacheen svaralipi hai. bauddhon ke pahunchane par yahaaain ke sangeet par kuchh bhaarateeya sangeet ka bhi prabhaav pada.

ibraani sangeet bhi bahut hi praacheen hai. yahaaain ke sangeet par sumeru - baibiloniya ityaadi ke sangeet ka prabhaav pada. ve log mandiron mein jo gaan karte the use samay ya saam kehte the. inka prasiddh tat vaadya hota tha jisko ye "kinnar" kehte the.

misr desh ka sangeet bhi bahut hi praacheen hai. in logon ka vishvaas tha ki maanav mein sangeet devi aaisis athva Dave thaath dvaara aaya hai. inka prasiddh tat vaadya been ya bint kahalaata tha. misr desh ke log svar ko harb kehte the. inke mandir sangeet ke kendra ban gaye the. afalaatoon, jo mishr desh mein adhyayan ke liye gaya tha, kehta hai, vahaaain ke mandiron mein sangeet ke niyam aisi poornata se barte jaate the ki koi gaayak vaadak unke vipreet naheen ja sakta tha. kaha jaata hai ki koi 300 varsh E.poo. misr mein lagbhag 600 vaadakon ka ek vaadyavrund tha jismein 300 to keval been bajaanevaale the. inke sangeet mein kai prakaar ke tat, sudhir, avanaddh aur dhan vaadya the. misr se paaithaagoras aur afalaatoon donon ne sangeet seekha. yoonaan ke sangeet par misr ke sangeet ka bahut bada prabhaav pada.

Europe mein sabse pehle yoonaan mein sangeet ek vyavasthit kala ke roop mein viksit hua. bharat ki moorhanaaon ki tarah yahaaain bhi kuchh "mod" bane jisse anek prakaar ki "dhune" banti thi. yahaaain bhi tat, sushir, avanaddh aur dhan vaadya kai prakaar ke the. Europe mein paaithaagoras pehla vyakti hua hai jisne ganit ke niyamon dvaara svaron ke sthaan ko nirdhaarit kiya.

lagbhag 16veen shati se Europe mein sangeet ka ek nai disha mein vikaas hua. ise svarasanhati (haarmani) kehte hain. sanhati mein kai svaron ka madhur mel hota hai, jaise s, g, p (shadj, gaandhaar, pancham) ki sangati. is prakaar ke ek se adhik svaron ke guchhe ko "sanghaat" (card) kehte hain. ek sanghaat ke sab svar ek saath bhinn bhinn vaadyon se nikalkar ek mein milkar ek madhur kalaatmak vaataavaran ki srushti karte hain. isi ke aadhaar par Europe ke aarakeshtra (vrundavaadan) ka vikaas hua hai. svarasanhati ek vishisht lakshan hai jisse paashchaatya sangeet poorveeya sangeet se bhinn ho jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain