sangeet

Nepal ki nukkad sangeet-mandali dvaara paaramparik sangeet

suvyavasthit dhvani, jo ras ki srushti kare, sangeet kahalaati hai. gaayan, vaadan va nrutya ye teenon hi sangeet hain. sangeet naam in teenon ke ek saath vyavahaar se pada hai. gaana, bajaana aur naachana praay: itne puraane hai jitna puraana aadmi hai. bajaane aur baaje ki kala aadmi ne kuchh baad mein khoji-seekhi ho, par gaane aur naachane ka aarambh to na keval hajaaron balki laakhon varsh pehle usane kar liya hoga, ismein sandeh naheen.

gaan maanav ke liye praaya: utana hi svaabhaavik hai jitna bhaashan. kab se manushya ne gaana praarambh kiya, yeh batalaana utana hi kathin hai jitna ki kab se usane bolna praarambh kiya. parantu bahut kaal beet jaane ke baad uske gaan ne vyavasthit roop dhaaran kiya. jab svar aur laya vyavasthit roop dhaaran karte hain tab ek kala ka praadurbhaav hota hai aur is kala ko sangeet, myoojik ya mauseeki kehte hain.

anukram

itihaas

yuddh, utsav aur praarthana ya bhajan ke samay maanav gaane bajaane ka upayog karta chala aaya hai. sansaar mein sabhi jaatiyon mein baaainsuri ityaadi fooaink ke vaadya (sushir), kuchh taar ya taaaint ke vaadya (tat), kuchh chamade se madhe hue vaadya (avanaddh ya aanaddh), kuchh thonkakar bajaane ke vaadya (ghan) milte hain.

aisa jaan padta hai ki Bhaarat mein bharat ke samay tak gaan ko pehle keval 'geet' kehte the. vaadya mein jahaaain geet naheen hota tha, keval daada, diddid jaise shushk akshar hote the, vahaaain use 'nirgeet' ya 'bahirgeet' kehte the aur nrutt athva nrutya ki ek alag kala thi. kintu dheere-dheere gaan, vaadya aur nrutya teenon ka "sangeet" mein antarbhaav ho gaya - geetan vaadyan tatha nrutyan trayan sangatamuchyate.

Bhaarat se baahar anya deshon mein keval geet aur vaadya ko sangeet mein ginte hain; nrutya ko ek bhinn kala maanate hain. Bhaarat mein bhi nrutya ko sangeet mein keval isliye gin liya gaya ki uske saath baraabar geet ya vaadya athva donon rahate hain. oopar likha ja chuka hai ki svar aur laya ki kala ko sangeet kehte hain. svar aur laya geet aur vaadya donon mein milte hain, kintu nrutya mein laya maatr hai, svar naheen. ham sangeet ke antargat keval geet aur vaadya ki charcha kareinge, kyonki sangeet keval isi arth mein anya deshon mein bhi vyavahrut hota hai.

vyutpatti

sangeet ka aadim strot praakrutik dhvaniyaaain hi hai. praak sangeet-yug mein manushya ke prakruti ki dhvaniyon aur unki vishisht laya ko samajhne ki koshish ki. har tarah ki praakrutik dhvaniyaaain sangeet ka aadhaar naheen ho sakateen, at: bhaav paida karne waali dhvaniyon ko parakhakar sangeet ka aadhaar banaane ke saath-saath unhein laya mein baaaindhane ka prayaas kiya gaya hoga. prakruti ki ve dhvaniyaaain jinhonne manushya ke man-mastishk ko sparsh kar ullasit kiya, vahi sabhyata ke vikaas ke saath sangeet ka saadhan bani. haalaanki vichaarakon ke bhinn-bhinn mat hain. daarshanikon ne naad ke chaar bhaagon para, pashyanti, madhyama aur vaikhari mein se madhyama ko sangeetopayogi svar ka aadhaar maana. daarvin ne kaha ki pashu rati ke samay madhur dhvani karte hain. manushya ne jab is prakaar ki dhvani ka anukaran aarambh kiya to sangeet ka udbhav hua.'' kaarl stamf ne bhaasha utpatti ke baad manushya dvaara dhvani ki ekataarata ko svar ki utpatti maana. unneesaveen shati ke uttaraarddh mein bhaaratendu harishchandr ne kaha ki ''sangeet ki utpatti maanaveeya samvedna ke saath hui.'' unhonne sangeet ko gaane, bajaane, bataane (keval nrutya mudraaon dvaara) aur naachane ka samuchchaya bataaya.

praachya shaastron mein sangeet ki utpatti ko lekar anek rochak kathaaeain hain. devaraaj indr ki sabha mein gaayak, vaadak va nartak hua karte the. gandharv gaate the, apsaraaeain nrutya karti theen aur kinnar vaadya bajaate the. gaandharv-kala mein geet sabse pradhaan raha hai. aadi mein gaan tha, vaadya ka nirmaan peechhe hua. geet ki pradhaanata rahi. yahi kaaran hai ki chaahe geet ho, chaahe vaadya sabka naam sangeet pad gaya. peechhe se nrutya ka bhi ismein antarbhaav ho gaya. sansaar ki jitni aarya bhaashaaeain hain unamein sangeet shabd achhe prakaar se gaane ke arth mein milta hai.

'sangeet' shabd 'sam+gr' dhaatu se bana hai. anya bhaashaaon mein 'san' ka 'sin' ho gaya hai aur 'gai' ya 'ga' dhaatu (jiska bhi arth gaana hota hai) kisi na kisi roop mein isi arth mein anya bhaashaaon mein bhi vartamaan hai. ainglosaiksan mein iska roopaantar hai 'singan' (singan) jo aadhunik angreji mein 'sing' ho gaya hai, aaisalaind ki bhaasha mein iska roop hai 'sig' (singja), (keval varn vinyaas mein antar aa gaya hai,) dainish bhaasha mein hai 'sing (Synge), dach mein hai 'tsingan' (tsingen), jarman mein hai 'singen' (singen). arabi mein 'gana' shabd hai jo 'gaan' se poornat: milta hai. sarvapratham 'sangeetaratnaakar' granth mein gaayan, vaadan aur nrutya ke mel ko hi 'sangeet' kaha gaya hai. vastut: 'geet' shabd mein 'sam' jodkar 'sangeet' shabd bana, jiska arth hai 'gaan sahit'. nrutya aur vaadan ke saath kiya gaya gaan 'sangeet' hai. shaastron mein sangeet ko saadhana bhi maana gaya hai.

praamaanik taur par dekhein to sabse praacheen sabhyataaon ke avashesh, moortiyon, mudraaon va bhittichitron se jaahir hota hai ki hajaaron varsh poorv log sangeet se parichit the. Dave-devi ko sangeet ka aadi prerak sirf hamaare hi desh mein naheen maana jaata, Europe mein bhi yeh vishvaas raha hai. Europe, arab aur faaras mein jo sangeet ke liye shabd hain us par dhyaan dene se iska rahasya prakat hota hai. sangeet ke liye yoonaani bhaasha mein shabd 'mausiki' (musique), laitin mein 'musika' (musica), fraanseesi mein 'museek' (musique), portugi mein 'musika' (musica), jarman mein moosik' (musik), angreji mein 'myoojik' (music), ibraani, arabi aur faarasi mein 'moseeki'. in sab shabdon mein saamya hai. ye sabhi shabd yoonaani bhaasha ke 'myooj'(muse) shabd se bane hain. 'myooj' yoonaani parampara mein kaavya aur sangeet ki devi maani gayi hai. kosh mein 'myooj' (muse) shabd ka arth diya hai 'di insapaayaring gaudes of saaaing' arthaat 'gaan ki prerika devi'. yoonaan ki parampara mein 'myooj' 'jyaus'(zeus) ki kanya maani gayi hain. jyaus' shabd sanskrut ke 'dyaus' ka hi roopaantar hai jiska arth hai 'svarg'. 'jyaus' aur 'myooj' ki dhaaran brahma aur sarasvati se bilkul milti-julati hai.

bhaarateeya sangeet

bhaarateeya sangeet ka janm ved ke uchchaaran me dekha ja sakta hai. sangeet ka sabse praacheenatam granth bharat muni ka naat‍aayashaastr hai. anya granth hain: bruhad‌aadeshi, dattilm‌, sangeetaratnaakar.

sangeet ki shailiyaaain

prasiddh sangeetakaar

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sangeet ko samarpit hindi blog