sangam saahitya

sangam ke anya arthon ke liye yahaan jaaen - sangam (bahuviklpi)


isa poorv doosari sadi se lekar isa ke pashchaat doosari sadi tak (lagbhag) likhe gaye tamil saahitya ko sangam saahitya kehte hain. lokakathaaon ke anusaar tamil shaasakon ne kuchh samayaantaraalon ki avadhi mein sammelanon ka aayojan kiya jismein lekhak apne gyaan ki charcha tark-vitrk ke roop mein karte the. aisa karne se tamil saahatya ka uttarottar vikaas hua. sangam saahitya ke antargat 473 kaviyon dvaara rachit 2381 padya hain. in kaviyon mein se koi 102 kavi anaam hain.

dakshin Bhaarat ke praacheen itihaas ke liye sangam saahitya ki upayogita ananya hai. is saahitya mein us samay ke teen raajavanshon ka ullekh milta hai : chol , cher aur paandya. sangam tamil kaviyon ka sangh tha jo paandya shaasako ke sanrakshan mein hue the. kul teen sangamon ka jikr hua hai.pratham sangam madura mein agastya rishi ke adhyakshata mein hua tha.

shilppaadikaaram, jeevak chintaamani, tolkpiym, manimekhale kuchh mahatvapoorn sangam mahaakaavya hain. jaisa ki praacheen bhaarateeya itihaas grantho mein atishyoktipoorn varnanon ki bharamaar milti hai, sangam saahitya bhi iska apavaad naheen hai. isliye in grantho ko aadhaar maankar itihaas likhna uchit nahi maana gaya hai fir bhi dakshin Bhaarat ke praacheen samay ke itihaas ki ruparekha jaanane mein yeh bahut sahaayak hain.

parichay

tamil isa kaal ke aarambh se hi likhit bhaasha ke roop mein aa gayi thi. at: ismein koi aashcharya naheen hai ki adhikaansh sangam saahitya ki rachana isa kaal ki aaranbhik chaar shataabdiyon mein hui, yadyapi usaka antim roop se sankalan 600 isavi tak hua. raajaaon evam saamaanton ke aashrayaadheen sabhaaon mein ekatr hue kaviyon ne teen se chaar shataabdiyon ki avadhi mein sangam saahitya ki rachana ki. kavi, chaaran, lekhak aur rachanaakaar dakshini Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaagon se madurai aae. inki sabhaaon ko 'sangam' aur in sabhaaon mein rachit saahitya ko 'sangam saahitya' kaha gaya. ismein tiroovalloovar jaise tamil santon ki krutiyaaain 'kuraal' ullekhaneeya hain jinka baad mein anek bhaashaaon mein anuvaad kiya gaya. sangam saahitya anek veeron aur veeraanganaaon ki prashansa mein rachit anek chhoti-badi kavitaaon ka sangrah hai. ye kavitaaeain dharmasambandhi naheen hai tatha ye uchchakoti ki rachanaaeain hain. aisi teen sangam sabhaaeain aayojit huin. pratham sangam mein sankalit kavitaaen gum ho gain. doosare bhaag ki 2000 kavitaaeain sankalit ki gayi hain.

sangam saahitya mein 30,000 panktiyon ki kavitaaen shaamil hain. inhein aath sangrahon mein sankalit kiya gaya, jinhein 'ettootokoi' kaha gaya. inke do mukhya samooh hain- paatinenakil kanaakoo (18 nichle sangrah) aur pattoopattoo (10 geet). pehle samooh ko saamaanyat: doosare se adhik puraana aur apekshaakrut adhik aitihaasik maana jaata hai. tiruvalluvar ki kruti 'kuraal' ko teen bhaagon mein baanta gaya hai. pehla bhaag mahaakaavya, doosra bhaag raajaneeti aur shaasan tatha teesara bhaag prem vishyak hai.

sangam saahitya ke alaava ek rachana 'tolakkaapiym' bhi hai. is rachana ka vishay vyaakaran aur kaavya hai. iske atirikt 'shilaappadeekaaram' tatha 'manimekalai' naamak do mahaakaavya hain, jinki rachana lagbhag chhathi isavi mein ki gayi. pehla mahaakaavya tamil saahitya ka sarvottam ratn maana jaata hai. premagaatha ko lekar iski rachana ki gayi hai. doosra mahaakaavya madurai ke anaaj vyaapaari ne likha tha. is prakaar donon mahaakaavyon mein doosari sadi se chhathi sadi tak tamil samaaj ke saamaajik, aarthik jeevan ka chitraan praapt hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein