sandhi (vyaakaran)

sandhi (sam + dhi) shabd ka arth hai 'mel'. do niktavarti varnon ke paraspar mel se jo vikaar (parivartan) hota hai vah sandhi kahalaata hai. jaise - sam + tosh = santosh ; Dave + Indra = Devendra ; bhaanu + udaya = bhaanoodaya.

sandhi ke bhed

sandhi teen prakaar ki hoti hain -

  1. svar sandhi
  2. vyanjan sandhi
  3. visrg sandhi

anukram

svar sandhi

do svaron ke mel se hone vaale vikaar (parivartan) ko svar-sandhi kehte hain. jaise - vidya + aalaya = vidyaalaya.

svar-sandhi paaainch prakaar ki hoti hain -

  1. deergh sandhi
  2. gun sandhi
  3. vruddhi sandhi
  4. yan sandhi
  5. ayaadi sandhi

deergh sandhi

sootr-ak: savarne deergh: arthaat ak pratyaahaar ke baad usaka savarn aaye to dono milkar deergh ban jaate hain. hrasv ya deergh a, i, u ke baad yadi hrasv ya deergh a, i, u aa jaaeain to donon milkar deergh aa, E aur oo ho jaate hain. jaise -

(k) a/aa + a/aa = aa

a + a = aa --> dharm + arth = dharmaarth / a + aa = aa --> him + aalaya = himaalaya / a + aa =aa--> pustak + aalaya = pustakaalaya
aa + a = aa --> vidya + arthi = vidyaarthi / aa + aa = aa --> vidya + aalaya = vidyaalaya

(kh) i aur E ki sandhi

i + i = E --> ravi + Indra = Ravindra ; muni + Indra = muneendr
i + E = E --> giri + ish = Girish ; muni + ish = muneesh
E + i = E- mahi + Indra = maheendr ; naari + indu = naareendu
E + E = E- nadi + ish = nadeesh ; mahi + ish = maheesh .

(g) u aur oo ki sandhi

u + u = oo- bhaanu + udaya = bhaanoodaya ; vidhu + udaya = vidhoodaya
u + oo = oo- laghu + oormi = laghoormi ; sidhu + oormi = sindhoormi
oo + u = oo- vadhoo + utsav = vadhootsav ; vadhoo + ullekh = vadhoollekh
oo + oo = oo- bhoo + oordhv = bhoordhv ; vadhoo + oorja = vadhoorja

gun sandhi

ismein a, aa ke aage i, E ho to A ; u, oo ho to O tatha ri ho to ar ho jaata hai. ise gun-sandhi kehte hain. jaise -

(k) a + i = A ; nar + Indra = Narendra

a + E = A ; nar + ish= naresh
aa + i = A ; maha + Indra = Mahendra
aa + E = A maha + ish = mahesh

(kh) a + u = O ; gyaan + upadesh = jnyaaanopadesh ;

aa + u = O maha + utsav = mahotsav
a + oo = O jal + oormi = jalormi ;
aa + oo = O maha + oormi = mahormi.

(g) a + ri = ar Dave + rishi = devarshi

(gh) aa + ri = ar maha + rishi = maharshi

vruddhi sandhi

a, aa ka A, ai se mel hone par ai tatha a, aa ka O, au se mel hone par au ho jaata hai. ise vruddhi sandhi kehte hain. jaise -

(k) a + A = ai ; ek + ek = ekaik ;

a + ai = ai mat + aikya = mataikya
aa + A = ai ; sada + ev = sadaiv
aa + ai = ai ; maha + aishvarya = mahaishvarya

(kh) a + O = au van + aushadhi = vanaushadhi ; aa + O = au maha + aushadhi = mahaushadhi ;

a + au = au param + aushadh = paramaushadh ; aa + au = au maha + aushadh = mahaushadh

yan sandhi

(k) i, E ke aage koi vijaateeya (asamaan) svar hone par i E ko 'y' ho jaata hai.

(kh) u, oo ke aage kisi vijaateeya svar ke aane par u oo ko 'v' ho jaata hai.

(g) 'ri' ke aage kisi vijaateeya svar ke aane par ri ko 'r' ho jaata hai. inhein yan-sandhi kehte hain.

i + a = y + a ; yadi + api = yadyapi
E + aa = y + aa ; iti + aadi = ityaadi.

E + a = y + a ; nadi + arpan = nadyarpan

E + aa = y + aa ; devi + aagaman = devyaagaman

(gh)

u + a = v + a ; anu + aya = anvaya
u + aa = v + aa ; su + aagat = svaagat

u + A = v + A ; anu + eshan = anveshan

ri + a = r + aa ; pitru + aajnyaa = pitraajnyaa

ayaadi sandhi

A, ai aur O au se pare kisi bhi svar ke hone par kramash: ay, aay, av aur aav ho jaata hai. ise ayaadi sandhi kehte hain.

(k) A + a = ay + a ; ne + an = nayan

(kh) ai + a = aay + a ; gai + ak = gaayak

(g) O + a = av + a ; po + an = pavan

(gh) au + a = aav + a ; pau + ak = paavak

au + i = aav + i ; nau + ik = naavik

vyanjan sandhi

vyanjan ka vyanjan se athva kisi svar se mel hone par jo parivartan hota hai use vyanjan sandhi kehte hain. jaise-sharat + chandra = sharachchandr. ujjaval

(k) kisi varg ke pehle varn k, ch, t, t, p ka mel kisi varg ke teesare athva chauthe varn ya y, r, l, v, h ya kisi svar se ho jaae to k ko g ch ko j, t ko d aur p ko b ho jaata hai. jaise -

k + g = gg dik + gaj = diggaj. k + E = gi vaak + ish = vaageesh
ch + a = j ach + ant = ajant t + aa = da shat + aanan = shadaanan
p + j + bj ap + j = abj

(kh) yadi kisi varg ke pehle varn (k, ch, t, t, p) ka mel n ya m varn se ho to uske sthaan par usi varg ka paaainchavaaain varn ho jaata hai. jaise -

k + m = ङ vaak + maya = vaaङamaya ch + na = nya ach + naash = anyanaash
t + m = n shat + maas = shanmaas t + na = n ut + nayan = unnayan
p + m = m ap + maya = ammaya

(g) t ka mel g, gh, the, dh, b, bh, ya, r, va ya kisi svar se ho jaae to d ho jaata hai. jaise -

t + bh = dbh sat + bhaavana = sadbhaavana t + E = di jagat + ish = jagadeesh
t + bh = dbh bhagavat + bhakti = bhagavadbhakti t + r = dr tat + roop = tadroop
t + dh = ddh sat + dharm = saddharm

(gh) t se pare ch ya h hone par ch, j ya jh hone par j, t ya th hone par t, d ya dh hone par d aur l hone par l ho jaata hai. jaise -

t + ch = chch ut + chaaran = uchchaaran t + j = jj sat + jan = sajjan
t + jh = jjh ut + jhatika = ujjhatika t + t = tt tat + teeka = tatteeka
t + d = dd ut + dayan = uddayan t + l = ll ut + loss = ullaas

(ङ) t ka mel yadi sh se ho to t ko ch aur sh ka h ban jaata hai. jaise -

t + sh = chh ut + shvaas = uchhvaas t + sh = chh ut + shisht = uchhisht
t + sh = chh sat + shaastr = sachhaastr

(ch) t ka mel yadi h se ho to t ka d aur h ka dh ho jaata hai. jaise -

t + h = ddh ut + haar = uddhaar t + h = ddh ut + haran = uddharan
t + h = ddh tat + hit = taddhit

(chh) svar ke baad yadi h varn aa jaae to h se pehle ch varn badha diya jaata hai. jaise -

a + chh = achh sv + chhand = svachhand aa + chh = aachh aa + chhaadan = aachhaadan
i + chh = ichh sandhi + chhed = sandhichhed u + chh = uchh anu + chhed = anuchhed

(j) yadi m ke baad k se m tak koi vyanjan ho to m anusvaar mein badal jaata hai. jaise -

m + ch = n kim + chit = kinchit m + k = n kim + kar = kinkar
m + k = n sam + kalp = sankalp m + ch = n sam + chaya = sanchaya
m + t = n sam + tosh = santosh m + b = n sam + bandh = sambandh
m + p = n sam + poorn = sampoorn

(jh) m ke baad m ka dvitv ho jaata hai. jaise -

m + m = mm sam + mati = sammati m + m = mm sam + maan = sammaan

(nya) m ke baad y, r, l, v, sh, sh, s, h mein se koi vyanjan hone par m ka anusvaar ho jaata hai. jaise -

m + ya = n sam + yog = sanyog m + r = n sam + rakshan = sanrakshan
m + va = n sam + vidhaan = samvidhaan m + va = n sam + vaad = samvaad
m + sh = n sam + shaya = sanshaya m + l = n sam + lagn = sanlagn
m + s = n sam + saar = sansaar

(t) ri, r, sh se pare n ka n ho jaata hai. parantu chavarg, tavarg, tavarg, sh aur s ka vyavadhaan ho jaane par n ka n naheen hota. jaise -

r + na = n pari + naam = parinaam r + m = n pr + maan = pramaan

(th) s se pehle a, aa se bhinn koi svar aa jaae to s ko sh ho jaata hai. jaise -

bh + s = sh abhi + sek = Abhishek ni + siddh = nishiddh vi + sam + visham

visrg-sandhi

visrg (:) ke baad svar ya vyanjan aane par visrg mein jo vikaar hota hai use visrg-sandhi kehte hain. jaise- man: + anukool = manonukool

(k) visrg ke pehle yadi 'a' aur baad mein bhi 'a' athva vargon ke teesare, chauthe paaainchavein varn, athva ya, r, l, va ho to visrg ka O ho jaata hai. jaise -

man: + anukool = manonukool ; adh: + gati = adhogati ; man: + bal = manobal

(kh) visrg se pehle a, aa ko chhodkar koi svar ho aur baad mein koi svar ho, varg ke teesare, chauthe, paaainchavein varn athva y, r, l, va, h mein se koi ho to visrg ka r ya r ho jaata hai. jaise -

ni: + aahaar = niraahaar ; ni: + aasha = niraasha ni: + dhan = nirdhan

(g) visrg se pehle koi svar ho aur baad mein ch, chh ya sh ho to visrg ka sh ho jaata hai. jaise -

ni: + chal = nishchal ; ni: + chhal = nishhal ; du: + shaasan = dushshaasan

(gh) visrg ke baad yadi t ya s ho to visrg s ban jaata hai. jaise -

nam: + te = namaste ; ni: + santaan = nissantaan ; du: + saahas = dussaahas

(ङ) visrg se pehle i, u aur baad mein k, kh, t, th, p, f mein se koi varn ho to visrg ka sh ho jaata hai. jaise -

ni: + kalank = nishkalank ; chatu: + paad = chatushpaad ; ni: + fal = nishfal

(ch) visrg se pehle a, aa ho aur baad mein koi bhinn svar ho to visrg ka lop ho jaata hai. jaise -

ni: + rog = nirog ; ni: + ras = neeras

(chh) visrg ke baad k, kh athva p, f hone par visrg mein koi parivartan naheen hota. jaise -

ant: + karan = ant:karan

sandhi ki saarani

aarambhik -->
↓ antim
a a i i u oo ru e ai o au
a a a e e o o ar ai ai o au
a a a e e o o ar ai ai au au
i ya ya i i yu you yru ye yau yo yau
i ya ya i i yu you yru ye yau yo yau
u va va vi vi oo oo vru ve vai vo vau
oo va va vi vi oo oo vru ve vai vo vau
ru r ra ri ri Ru roo ri re rai ro rau
e e aya ayi ayi ayu ayoo ayru aye ayai ayo ayau
ai aay aaya aayi aayi aayu aayoo aayru aaye aayai aayo aayau
o o ava avi avi avu avoo avru ave avai avo avau
au aav aava aavi aavi aavu aavoo aavru aave aavai aavo aavau

[1]


 Final Initial 
 V kh gh ch h h h th dh n
 k gV kkh ggh kch g h k h g h kth gdh Nn
 N NV1 Nkh Ngh Nch Nh Nh Nh Nth Ndh Nn
 V kh gh ch h h h th dh n
 t dV tkh dgh cch h h h tth ddh nn
 n nV1 nkh ngh NSch h N h h Nsth ndh nn
 p bV pkh bgh pch b h p h b h pth bdh mn
 m mV Nkh Ngh Nch N h N h N h Nth Ndh Nn
 l lV lkh lgh lch l h l h l h lth ldh ln
 h V hkh gh Sch h h h sth dh n
 @h2 @V3 @hkh oogh @Sch oo h @ h oo h @sth oodh oon
 aah aaV aahkh aagh aaSch aa h aa h aa h aasth aadh aan

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain