sandhi (samjhauta)

paanch bhaashaaon - jarman, hangri ki bhaasha, bulgeriyaayi bhaasha, Turkey bhaasha evam roosi bhaasha mein brest-litovsk sandhi ke pratham do prusht

antararaashtreeya vidhi ke antargat do ya adhik deshon ya anya antararaashatreeya sangathanon ke beech hue karaar (agreement) ya samjhaute ko sandhi (treaty) kehte hain. jinka svaroop anubandh ke samaan hota hai tatha jinke anusaar sambandhit pakshon ke prati kuchh mein paraspar vidhivt adhikaarakartavya ke daayitv ki srushti hoti hai. antararaashtreeya kshetr mein sandhiyon ka vah sthaan hai jo desheeya kshetr mein vidhiniymon ka hota hai. yeh vah saadhan hai jinke dvaara vibhinn raajya apne antararaashtreeya jeevan ka vyavahaar santulit karte hain.

anukram

naana prakaar ki sandhiyaaain

sandhiyaaain naana prakaar ki hoti hain. antararaashtreeya bhaasha mein sandhi ke anek paryaayavaachi hain; inhein treeti, (antararaashtreeya) samjhauta, protokol, kaanvensan, ekaurd tatha memoraindam of andarstainding aadi naamon se bhi jaana jaata hai. in alag-alag naamon ke baavajood antararaashtreeya vidhi ke anusaar sabhi sandhi hi hain. sandhiyon ko mota-moti sanvida jaisa maana ja sakta hai.

kuchh udaaharan

sanyukt raashtrasangh adhikaarapatr rachana jiske dvaara anek deshon ne milkar antararaashrteeya vyavahaar ke mool niyam niyojit tatha ghoshit kiye; ya kisi bhoo pradesh ka ek desh dvaara doosare desh ko sthaanaantaran, jaise October, 1954 E. mein France ev Bhaarat ke madhya "samarpan" sandhi dvaara hua athva koi saamarik sanbadh sthaapana, jaisa "uttari atalaantik sandhi" dvaara hua ya kisi desh vishesh ke tatasth roop ki ghoshana, jaise London sandhi 1831 dvaara veljiym ke sambandh mein hui.

uddeshya

sandhi ke niyamon ke anusaar sambandhit paksh aabaddh ho jaate hain. yeh daayitv-aabaddhata hi sandhi ka uddeshya hota hai.

koi desh jab ek baar sandhi mein sammilit ho jaata hai to vah uske daayitv bandhan se tab tak mukt naheen ho sakta jab tak sandhi karanevaale anya pakshon se anumati na praapt kar le. sandhi anubandhanon ki apeksha kiye bina antararaashrteeya jeevan nitaant avyavasthit tatha vidhiviheen ho jaaega. kintu durbhaagyavash bahudha raajya sandhiniymon ka ullanghan karte hain. aashcharya ki baat yeh hai ki yeh raajya sandhi ullanghan ka arop kabhi sveekaar naheen karte. kabhi ve kehte hain ki unke kaarya se sandhiniymon ka hanan hi naheen hua, kabhi yeh spasht karne ki cheshta karte hain ki vah sandhi unapar laagoo hi naheen hoti thi, kabhi yeh sveekaar kar lete hain ki aapatkaal mein unhonne ullanghan kiya. kisi bhi prakaar koi antararaashtreeya, sanstha ya samudaaya spashtataya sandhi ki upeksha sveekaar naheen karta, ataev siddhaant roop mein sandhimaanyata sarvatha sveekrut hai.

sandhi ki prakriya

sandhi sambandh sthaapit karne ke hetu sarvapratham ek pratinidhi nishchit karna aavashyak hota hai. is pratinidhi ko jo raajya niyukt karta hai, vah use likhit roop mein ek pratinidhitv "adhikaarapatr" pradaan karta hai jiske anusaar vah desh ki or se sandhi vaarta karne ka adhikaari ho jaata hai. is adhikaarapatr ko antararaashtreeya bhaasha mein "sampoorn adhikr" kehte hain. antaradesheeya sandhivaarta sambandhi adhiveshan mein sarvapratham ek "sampoorn adhikaar samiti" banaai jaati hai jo sammelan mein aae sab pratinidhiyon ke "sampoorn adhikaar" (pratinidhitv adhikaarapatr) ki jaaainch karti hai. tatpashchaat gopaneeya roop se sandhivaarta ki sharton ki charcha ki jaati hai. gopaneeyata sarvatha vaanchhaneeya hai, jisse sandhi ki aparipkvavastha ka vaadavivaad baahya jagat mein prachaarit hokar sandhisthaapan mein haanikr na ho. sab pratinidhi is sandhivaarta ki pratyek avastha par apne raajyon ko soochit karte rahate hain tatha unka paraamarsh lete rahate hain. pratinidhiyon ke hastaaksharon dvaara sandhivaarta ka roop poorn ho jaata hai. tatpashchaat pratyek sambandhit raajya ke paur vidhaan ke anusaar yadi aavashyak ho to yeh sandhiptr us desh ke raajakeeya pushteekaran ke liye bhej diya jaata hai. siddhaantat: raajya ke pradhaanaadhyaksh athva sarkaar dvaara pratinidhi ke hastaakshar ka samarthan hi pushteekaran maana jaata hai kintu aadhunik vyavahaarapranaali ke anusaar yeh pushteekaran bahut mahatvapoorn ho gaya hai.

pushteekaran ki vyavastha is kaaran laabhakaari hai ki isse sambandhit pakshon ki sarkaaron ko sandhiprastaav par antim punarvichaar ka avakaash tatha janamat tatolane ka avsar mil jaata hai. vishv mein jab raajatantravaad ki maanyata thi, tab sandhiprastaavon ka anumodan svabhaavataya raaja dvaara hota tha. vartamaan yug mein bhi England tatha Italy mein raaja, Japan mein samraat, France, Germany tatha sanyukt raashtra amareeka mein raashtrapati ke naam par sandhiprastaav nirmit evam unke dvaara anumodit hote hain. paashchaatya janatantravaadi sanvidhaanon ke anusaar sandhi pushteekaran ke liye yeh anivaarya hai ki kaaryakaarini ke pradhaan ki sveekruti ke atirikt kisi roop mein vidhaayini sahamati bhi praapt ki jaae. udaaharanaarth sanyukt raashtra amareeka mein sandhi ki pushti tab hoti hai jab raashtrapati ki sveekruti tatha 2/3 upasthit senetaron ki sahamati praapt ho jaae. France mein sab sandhiprastaavon ke vishay mein naheen kintu kuchh vishesh mahatvapoorn sandhiyon ki pushti ke liye niyam hai ki "senetaron evam deputeej" ka bahumat praapt ho. Britain mein siddhaant roop se samraat ko sandhi-pushteekaran mein paarlimeint ki sveekruti praapt karna anivaarya naheen hai, kintu vyavahaar mein kuchh doosari hi pratha hai. saare mahatvapoorn sandhiprastaav anumodan ke poorv "house ov kaamanj" ke samaksh sahamati praapt karne ke liye rakh diye jaate hain. Switzerland mein kuchh vishesh sandhiprastaav, pushteekaran ke poorv "janamat grahan" ke liye sarvasaadhaaran janta ke sammukh bhi rakhe ja sakte hain. Bhaarat ki samvaidhaanik pranaali ke anusaar sandhiprastaav sansad mein keval soochanaarth rakh diye jaate hain, anya koi kriya aavashyak naheen hoti. ekashaastrutv ke antargat pushteekaran ekaangi roop se kaaryakaarini dvaara sampann hota hai.

pushteekaran ke poorv kisi bhi sambandhit raajya ki kaaryapaalika ya vidhaanamandal kuchh sanshodhan ya sanrakshan upaang prastaav mein rakh sakte hain kintu inki baadhyata tab tak maanya naheen hoti jab tak anya sabandhit paksh unhein sveekaar na kar lein. in sanrakshan upaangon dvaara pakshavishesh prastaav ke kuchh niyamon se apne ko mukt rakh sakte hain, athva kisi niymavishesh ko sanshodhit roop mein ya kisi vishesh arth mein maankar bhi sandhi ko sveekaar kar sakte hain.

pushteekaran poorn ho chukane par pakshon mein pushteekaranapatron ka paraspar vinimay hota hai. jab sandhi bahupaksheeya hoti hai to sab pushteekaranapatr us desh ke vaideshik vibhaag mein rakh diye jaate hain jahaaain sandhi adhiveshan ki baithak hui ho. yadi sandhi antarraashtreeya sangh ke tatvaavadhaan mein hui ho to sab pushteekaranapatr sangh ke sachivaalaya mein rakhe jaate hain. sangh ke ghoshanaapatr ke anusaar yeh anivaarya hai ki sangh ka koi bhi sadasya jab koi sandhi kare to sangh sachivaalaya dvaara usaka panjeeyan tatha prakaashan karavaae. iska uddeshya keval yahi hai ki raajyon mein paraspar gupt samjhaute na hone paaeain. pushteekaran vinimay ke uparaant sandhi poornaroopen prabhaavasheel ho jaati hai. saadhaaranataya jab tak koi anya tithi nishchit na ki gayi ho, hastaakshar tithi se hi sandhi laagoo ki jaati hai. taduparaant anya raajya bhi sandhi angeekaar kar sakte hain kintu iske liye mool sandhikaaron ki sahamati aavashyak hoti hai.

antim seedhi hai sandhi ka vastut: kaaryaanvit na hona, jo vibhinn raajyon ke paur vidhaan (civil la) se niyantrit hota hai. is vishay mein sanyukt raashtra amareeka mein raashtrapati ki or se aupachaarik udghoshana paryaapt hoti hai. England tatha Bhaarat mein sansad dvaara sandhiyon ka vidhivt samaavisht hona anivaarya hai.

sandhi ka sanshodhan evam samaapan

sandhi ka samaapan kai prakaar se ho sakta hai. praaya: yeh sandhi ke svaroop par nirbhar karta hai. nishchit avadhi samaapt ho jaane ke kaaran, sandhi ke niyamon ki poorti ho jaane par, athva mool pakshon mein se ek desh ki vinshti ke kaaran, ya kisi naveen sandhiyojana dvaara jo poorvasthit sandhi ko spasht roop se avakramit karti ho, - in sabhi avasthaaon mein svabhaavat: sandhi ka samaapan ho jaata hai. vastusthiti mein praanabhoot parivartan hona bhi sandhi ki amaanyata utpann kar sakta hai, kintu yeh spasht naheen ki is prakaar ki amaanyata keval ek paksh ke mat se siddh ho sakti hai athva naheen. yuddh ki ghoshana hote hi svabhaavat: yudhyamaan deshon ki paarasparik samast raajaneetik sandhiyon ka samaapan ho jaata hai, anya sab prakaar ki sandhiyon ki kriyaatmakata yuddhakaal ke liye sthagit kar di jaati hai tatha ve samjhaute maanya rah jaate hain jo visheshataya yuddhakaaleen vyavahaar se sambandhit hon. iske atirikt sadhikaaron ki paarasparik sahamati se bhi kisi sandhi ka samaapan ho sakta hai. koi ek paksh bhi anya pakshon ko soochit kar sandhi anubandhan se vilg ho sakta hai, is sthiti mein keval us paksh ki or se sandhi samaapan hota hai, kintu is prakaar ka samaapan turant hi kaaryaanvit naheen ho jaata. anya pakshon ko saamayik soochana ke uparaant kuchh nishchit avadhi milti hai jismein vah vibhkt paksh se vyavahaarasantulan vyavasthit kar sake, anyatha aisa aakasmik parivartan samast sambandhit pakshon ke poorvaniyojit vyavahaaron ko avashya hi avyavasthit aur asantulit kar de.

yeh spasht hai ki vartamaan antararaashtreeya samaaj itna gatimaan hai ki usamein raajaneetik sandhiyaaain kabhi satatamaanya ya aparivrtanasheel naheen ho sakateen. vishvakuntunb mein raajyaroopi ikaaiyon ka aisa svaroop hai ki nitya unki dalagat sthitiyaaain paarasparik laabh haani ke drushtikon ko lekar badalti rahati hain. aise parivrtanasheel samaaj mein satatamaanya samjhaute kaise sambhav ho sakte hain? iski cheshta maatr raajaneetik vastusthiti tatha sandhiniymon mein sada sangharsh utpann karegi. ataev samast sandhiyojanaaon ka saamayik sanshodhan nitaant aavashyak hai jisse parivrtit raajaneetik dashaaon aur sandhiniymon mein sada sangharsh utpann karegi. ataev samast sandhiyojanaaon ka saamayik sanshodhan nitaant aavashyak hai jisse parivrtit raajaneetik dashaaon aur sandhiniymon mein santulan bana rahe or koi paksh avaidh roop se inka samaapan athva ullanghan na kare. is drushtikon ko lakshya kar bahudha sandhiyojanaaon mein sanshodhan karne ki anumati tatha pranaali bhi di jaati hai. adhiktar samast sandhikaaron ki sahamati se sanshodhan kiye jaane ki pratha hai, kintu 1945 E. se ek naveen pranaali aarambh hui hai jise anusaar yadi sanshodhan antararaashtreeya samaaj ke hit mein ho to sarvasammati naheen, keval pakshon ke bahumat se bhi sanshodhan kriyaatmak ho sakta hai.

sandhi ka mahatva

yeh kehna atyukti naheen ki vartamaan sandhiyojanaaon ne antararaashtreeya kshetr ki anek virodhaatmak abhiruchiyon mein shaantipoorn santulan prastut kar ek prakaar ka vaidhaanik anushaasan utpann kar diya hai. sandhiniymon dvaara anek antararaashtreeya vivaadon ka spashteekaran aur samaadhaan hua hai, tatha vishv ke samast raajyon ki suraksha kuchh seema tak surakshit ho gayi hai. jab tak antararaashtreeya vidhaan parishd ka svapn vishvasamaaj mein saakaar naheen ho jaata us samay tak antararaashtreeya sambandhon ki suvyavastha sandhi dvaara hona anivaarya evam nishchit hai.


inhein bhi dekhein

  • sandhi (vyaakaran ke sandarbh mein)
  • sandhiyon ki soochi


baahari kadiyaaain