sandhi

yeh prusht sanskrut vyaakaran mein prayukt sandhi ke baare mein hai. antararaashtreeya vidhi ke sandarbh mein sandhi alag prusht par dekhein.


sandhi ka arth hota hai jod (Addition ya Joint). sanskrut, hindi evam anya bhaashaaon mein jab do shabdon ke mel se ek naya shabd banta hai to ise sandhi kehte hain. sandhi ke niyam keval bhaaropeeya bhaashaaon mein hi naheen hain balki koriyaayi jaisi yooraal-aaltik parivaar ki bhaashaaon mein bhi hain. jis prakaar neela aur laal milkar baigani rang ban jaata hai usi prakaar sandhi ek "praakrutik" ya sahaj kriya hai.

anukram

bhed

sandhi ke mukhyat: teen bhed hain -

svar sandhi

jab do svaron ke mel se naya shabd banta hai to svar sandhi hoti hai. svar sandhi ke mukhya bhed nimnalikhit hain

deergh sandhi

akaar aadi samaan svaron ke mel se deergh svar ban jaata hai. yatha–

a + a = aa — kamal + aasan = kamalaasan

a +aa= aa — him + aalaya = himaalaya

aa + a = aa — vidya + arthi = vidyaarthi

aa + aa = aa — maha + aalaya = mahaalaya

i + i = E — giri + indr = gireendr

E + E = E — nadi + ish = nadeesh

u + u = oo — laghu + urmi = laghoormi

oo + u = oo — vadhoo + utsav = vadhootsav

gun sandhi

bhinn svaron ke mel se gun sandhi hoti hai. iske kuchh pramukh niyam is prakaar hain-

(1) jab hrasv ya deergh "a" ke baad hrasv ya deergh "i" aae to donon ke sthaan par "A" ho jaata hai. jaise

a+ i = A — Bhaarat + indu = bhaaratendu

aa+ E = A — rama + ish = ramesh

aa+ i = A — maha + indr = Mahendra

a+ E = A — gan + ish = ganesh

(2) jab hrasv ya deergh "a" ke baad hrasv ya deergh "u" aae to donon ke sthaan par "O" ho jaata hai. jaise

a+ u = O — chandr + udaya = chandrodaya

aa + u = O — maha + udaya = mahodaya

aa+ oo = O — ganga + oormi = gangormi

a + oo = O — jal + oormi = jalormi

(3) jab hrasv ya deergh "a" ke baad hrasv ya deergh "ri" aae to donon ke sthaan par "ar" ho jaata hai. jaise

a+ ri = ar — Dave + rishi = devarshi

aa + ri = ar — maha + rishi = maharshi

vruddhi sandhi

iske pramukh sootr nimn hain

(1) jab hrasv ya deergh "a" ke baad "A" ya "ai" aae to donon ke sthaan par "ai" ho jaata hai. jaise

a+ A = ai — atr + ev = atraiv

aa + ai = ai — maha + aishvarya = mahaishvarya

a+ ai = ai — mat + aikya = mataikya

aa +A = ai — sada + ev = sadaiv

(2) jab hrasv ya deergh "a" ke baad "O" ya "au" aae to donon ke sthaan par "au" ho jaata hai. jaise

a + O = au — sundar + odan = sundaraudan

a + au = au — van + aushadhi= vanaushadhi

aa + O = au — maha + oj = mahauj

aa + au = au — maha + aushadhi = mahaushadhi

yan sandhi

iske kuchh pramukh niyam is prakaar hain-

(1) jab "i" ya "E" ke baad "i" ya "E" ke atirikt koi anya svar aae to "i" ya "E" ke sthaan par "ya" ho jaata hai. jaise

abhi+ udaya = abhyudaya

iti +aadi = ityaadi

(2) jab "u" ya "oo" ke baad "u" ya "oo" ke atirikt koi anya svar aae to "u" ya "oo" ke sthaan par "va" ho jaata hai. jaise

su + aagat = svaagat

anu + eshan = anveshan

vadhoo + aagaman = vadhvaagaman

(3) jab "ri" ke baad "ri" ke atirikt koi anya svar aae to "ri" ke sthaan par "r" ho jaata hai. jaise

maatru + aadesh = maatraadesh

pitru + aadi = pitraadi

ayaadi sandhi

jab "A", "ai", "O" evam "au" ke baad koi anya svar aae to inke sthaan par kramash: "ay", "aay", "av" "aav" ho jaata hai. jaise

ne +an =nayan

gai +ak = gaayak

po + an = pavan

nau + ik = naavik

vyanjan sandhi

jab do vyanjanon ya vyanjan aur svar ke mel se ek naya shabd banta hai to ise vyanjan sandhi kehte hain. jaise :- dik + gaj = diggaj vaak + ish = vaageesh

visrg sandhi

jab pehle shabd ke ant mein sthit visrg ke doosare shabd ke pratham akshar se sanyukt hone par naya shabd banta hai to visrg sandhi hoti hai.