sanchaar

sanchaar preshak ka praaptakarta ko soochana bhejane ki prakriya hai jisme jaankaari pahunchaane ke liye aise maadhyam (medium) ka prayog kiya jaata hai jisse sanpreshit soochana preshak aur praaptakarta donon samajh sakein yeh ek aisi prakriya hai jis ke dvaara praani vibhinn maadhyamon ke dvaara soochana ka aadaan pradaan kar sakte hain sanchaar ki maang hain ki sabhi paksh ek samaan bhaasha ka bodh kar sakein jis ka aadaan pradaan hua ho, shraavaanik (auditory) maadhyam hain (jaise ki) boli, gaan aur kabhi kabhi aavaaj ka svar evam gair maukhik (nonverbal), shaareerik maadhyam jaise ki shaareerik haav bhaav (body language), sanket boli (sign language), sam bhaasha (paralanguage), sparsh (touch), netr sampark (eye contact) athva lekhan (writing) ka prayog sanchaar ki paribhaasha hai - ek aisi kriya jis ke dvaara arth ka niroopan evam sanpreshan (convey) saanjhi samajh paida karne ka prayaas mein kiya ja sake is kriya mein ankhya kushalataaon ke rangapatal ki aavashyakta hai ant: vyaktigat (intrapersonal) aur antar vyaktigat (interpersonal) prakraman, sun avlokan, bol, poochh-taachh, vishleshan aur moolyaankanain prakriyaaon ka upayog vikaasaatmak hai aur jeevan ke sabhi kshetron ke liye sthaanaantarit hai : ghar, school, saamudaayik, kaam aur pare.sanchaar ke dbaara hi sahayog aur pushtikran hote hain[1] sanchaaran vibhinn maadhyamon[2] dbaara sandesh bhejane ki abhivyakti hai chaahe vah maukhik athva amaukhik ho, jab tak koi vichaaroddeepak vichaar sanchaarit (transmit) ho bhaav (gesture) kriya ityaadi

sanchaar kai staron par (ek ekal kaarravaai ke liye bhi), kai alag alag tareekon se hota hai aur adhiktam praaniyon ke liye, saath hi kuchh masheenon ke liye bhi .yadi samast naheen to adhiktam adhyayan ke kshetr sanchaar karne ke liye dhyaan ke ek hisse ko samarpit karte hain, isliye jab sanchaar ke baare mein baat ki jaae to yeh jaanana aavashyak hai ki sanchaar ke kis pahaloo ke baare mein baat ho rahi hai. sanchaar ki paribhaashaaeain shreni vyaapak hain, kuchh pahachaanati hain ki pashu aapas mein aur manushyon se samvaad kar sakte hain aur kuchh seemit hain evam keval maanavon ko hi maanav prateekaatmak baatcheet ke maapadandon ke bheetar shaamil karte hain

baharahaal, sanchaar aamtaur par kuchh pramukh aayaam saath mein varnit hai: vishay vastu (kis prakaar ki vastuen sanchaarit ho raheen hain), srot, skandan karne wala, preshak ya koot lekhak (encoder) (kis ke dvaara), roop (kis roop mein), channel (kis maadhyam se), gantavya, riseevar, lakshya ya kootavaachak (decoder) (kis ko) evam uddeshya ya vyaavahaarik pahaloo.paartiyon ke beech, sanchaar mein shaamil hai veh karm jo gyaan aur anubhav pradaan karein, salaah aur aadesh dein aur savaal poochhein yeh karm anek roop le sakte hai, sanchaar ke vibhinn shishtaachaar ke kai roopon mein se us ka roop samooh sanpreshan ki kshamata par nirbhar karta haisanchaar, tattv aur roop saath mein sandesh (message) banaate hain jo gantavya (destination) ki or bheja jaata hailakshya khud, doosra vyakti (person) ya hasti, doosra astitv (jaise ek nigam ya hasti ke samooh) ho sakte hain

sanchaar prakriyasoochana prasaaran (information transmission) ke teen staron dvaara niyantrit shabdaarth vaigyaanik (semiotic) niyamon ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai

  1. vaakyaatmak (Syntactic) (sanketon aur prateekon ka aupachaarik gun),
  2. vyaavahaarik (pragmatic) (sanketon ke beech rishton ke saath sambandh / abhivyakti aur unke prayoktaaon) aur
  3. shabdaarth vigyaan (semantic) (sanket aur chinh ke beech ke sambandhon ka adhyayan aur veh kya prardashit karte hain

isliye, sanchaar saamaajik samvaad hai jahaaain kam se kam do baatcheet karne vaale ek samaan chinhon aur shabdaarth vigyaan (semiotic) samuchchaya niyamon mein bhaageedaar hon. kuchh arthon mein yeh saamaanyat: aayojit shaasan ant: vyaktigat samvaad (intrapersonal communication) sahit dincharya ya swayam vaartaalaap ke maadhyam se svat: samvaad (autocommunication) ki avhelna karta hai

संचार प्रमुख आयाम योजना
संचार कोड योजना

ek saadhaaran maadal mein, jaankaari ya saamagri (jaise praakrutik bhaasha mein sandesh) kuchh roop mein bheja jaata hai (boli ke bhesh mein) ek emisr / sandar / koot lekhak (encoder) ke dvaara ek gantavya / praaptakarta / kootavaachak (decoder) ko thode adhik jatil roop mein ek preshak aur ek praaptakarta paarasparik roop se ek doosare se jude hain sanchaar ka ek vishisht udaaharan ko kaha jaata hai bhaashan adhiniyam (speech act).sanchaar shor (communication noise) ki upasthiti mein is sancharan channel par (yahaaain hava mein), srot ki praapti aur kootvaachana doshapoorn ho sakte hain aur is prakaar ke bhaashan adhiniyam apekshit parinaam se vaanchhit rah sakte hain is koot lekhak - sancharan - praapti - kootvaachana namoone ki samasya yeh hai ki yeh prateet hota hai ki koot lekhak aur kootvaachak donon ke paas hi kuchh aisa aujaar hai jo code kitaab ka kaam karti hai aur yeh code kitaab agar ek naheen to ek jaisi to zaroor hai. haalaan ki code kitaab jaisa is model mein kuchh vivkshit hai, veh daraasal hai naheen aur is kaaranvash sankalpanaatmak baadhaaen aati hain

sah-viniyman (coregulation) ke siddhaant sanchaar ko ek rachanaatmak aur gatisheel nirantar pratikriya ke roop mein varnit kiya jaata hai bajaai ke jaankaari ke ek asatat vinimay roop mein.

anukram

sanchaar ke prakaar

bhaasha

bhaasha vakyaavinyaasi (syntactically) sanketon ki sangathit pranaali hai jaise ki vaani ki aavaaj, sanprateek antaraal, ya likhit (written) chinh jo vichaar ya bhaav sanchaarit karta hai yadi ek bhaasha sanketon, vaani, dhvani, bhaav ya likhit chinhon ke maadhyam se vaartaalaap ko kehte hain, to kya jaanavar sanchaar ek bhaasha ke rup me jaana ja sakta hai ? pashuon ke paas bhaasha ka koi likhit roop naheen hota, kintu vaartaalaap ke liye bhaasha ka upayog karte hain. is maayane mein, pashu bhaasha ko sanchaar kaha ja sakta hai

maanaveeya (Human) boli evam likhit bhaasha ko sanket (symbol) ki pranaali kaha jaata hai (kabhi shabdim (lexeme) ke naam se prasiddh aur vyaakaran niyam jo chinhon ko prakalit karta hai shabd 'bhaasha', bhaasha ke samaan gunadharm ko vichaaraarth karne mein upayog hota hai bhaasha seekhane maanav bachapan mein saamaanya hai. adhiktam maanaviya bhaashaayein dhvani (sound) ya bhaav (gesture) ka prayog chinhon ke liye karte hain jo apne aas paas vaalon se sanchaar mein madad dete hain hajaaron maanaveeya bhaashaayein hain aur un mein kain samaanataaen hain, haalaanki in samaanataaon mein bhi bhinnata hai

bhaasha aur boli (dialect) ke beech koi paribhaashit rekha (no defined line) naheen hai, kintu bhaasha praveen meks veinreich (Max Weinreich) ko is kahaavat ka shreya diya jaata hai ki bhaasha ek sena aur ek nausena waali ek boli hai (a language is a dialect with an army and a navy) nirmit bhaasha jaise esperaanto kramaadesh bhaashaaen aur vibhinn ganiteeya rachana maanaveeya bhaasha ke saanjhe gunon se seemit naheen hain

samvaad

samvaad do ya aadhik astitvon ke beech ek paarasparik (reciprocal)vaartaalaap (conversation) hai shabd ka mool paandurang sambandhi (yunaani (Greek) bhaasha mein δaaιaaά(diá maane ke dvaara + + λaaόaaγaaοaaς(logos maane vaak) avdhaarnaiyein jaise arth aadyant bahne ki tarah) aavashyakt: yeh nahi darshaate jaise maanav is shabd ko prayog mein laane lage hain, upasarg δaaιaaά(diá - ke dvaara) aur δaaι- (di- do) ke beech ulajhan ke kaaran yeh samjha jaane laga ki samvaad keval do pakshon ke beech hota hai

amaukhik sanchaar

gair maukhik sanchaar, sanchaar ki vah prakriya hai jis main shabdon ke prayog ke bina sandesh (message) bheja aur praapt kiya jaata hai. aise sandesh bhaav (gesture), shaareerik bhaasha (body language) athva mudra (posture); chehare ki abhivyakti (facial expression) aur netr sampark, vaastu sanchaar jaise pahanaava (clothing) kesh sajja (hairstyles) athvanirmaan ya chinh aur infografiks - soochana vigyaan sambandhi (infographics) vaak mein amaukhik tatvon ka samaavisht ho sakta hai jise sam bhaasha (paralanguage) aavaaj ki gunavatta, bhaavanaaon aur bolne ki shaili sanyukt evam chhand shaastreeya suvidhaaeain jaise taal (rhythm) intonaashan (intonation) aur pratibl (stress) isi tarah likhit granthon mein amaukhik tatv jaise likhaavat ki shaili, shabdon ki sthaanik vyavastha, ya bhaavvyaktikaaraanaabhiroop (emoticons) ka upayog angreji shabd 'emotion' (ya emote) aur 'aaikan' ki khichdi, 'emotikon' ek chinh ya chihnon ka samooh hai jo likhit ya sandesh rupi bhaavanaatmak antarvastu ko vyakt karne ke liye prayog kiya jaata hai

gair maanav jeevan avayav

apne kai roopon mein sanchaar maanavon (human) ya nar vaanar (primates) mein seemit nahi hai jeevadhaareeyon ke beech jaankaari ke har aadaan pradaan (information exchange) - maane sanket (signal) ka prasaaran jis mein ek bhejanevaala (receiver) aur ek praaptakarta ho - use sancharan ka ek roop kaha ja sakta haiis prakaar jaanavar sanchaar (animal communication) ke ek vyaapak kshetr hai jo aachaar shaastr (ethology) ke muddon ko gherata hai aur buniyaadi star par praarambhik jeevaanu jaise jeevanuo aur paudhon (plant) mein aur fafoond raajyon ke beech koshika sanket (cell signaling) koshika sanchaaran (cellular communication) aur raasaayanik sanchaar hota hai yeh sabhi sanchaar pranaaliyaaain chinh beech bachaav vaale bhinn prakaar ki ant:kriya spasht taalamel hai

pashu

pashu sanchaar (Animal communication) ek pashu ke us kisi aacharan (behaviour) ko kehte hai jis ka prabhaav doosare pashu ke varttamaan athva bhavishya aacharan ko prabhaavit karta hai maanav sanchaar ko aavashya hi pashu sanchaar ka atyadhik viksit roop maana ja saka hai pashu sanchaar ke adhyan jise chidiaghar shabdaarth vigyaan ya joosemiotiks ' kehte hain, (anthrosemiotiks (anthroposemiotics) maanav sanchaar se alag) ka aachaar shaastr (ethology) saamajik jeevavijnyaaan (sociobiology) aur pashu bodh (animal cognition) ke vikaas mein ek vishaal yogadaan hai yeh kaafi spasht hai kyonki maanav pashuon se vaartaalaap karne mein saksham hai, khaaskar dolfins aur anya pashu jo sarkas mein upayog hote hai, kintu in pashuon ko sanchaar ke khaas tareeke seekhane padhte hain pashu sanchaar aur pashu raajya ko samajhna teji se viksit hota hua kshetr hai aur 21vi sadi ke bhinn kshetr jaise niji prateekaatmak naam (name) istamaal pashu bhaavanaaeain (animal emotions) pashu sabhyata (animal culture) aur seekh (learning) aur kaam aacharan (sexual conduct) jise lambe samay se seekha hua maana jaata tha us mein bhi kraanti (revolution) aayi hai

paudhe aur fafoond

paudhon mein sanchaar paudh jeevadhaari mein hi paaya jaata hai yaani sanyantr koshikaaon (plant cells) mein aur sanyantr koshikaaen ek nasl ya alag nasl aur paudhon evam gair paudh jeevdhaarion koshikaaoain, khaaskar jad kshetr mein paudh jadein (Plant root) saath saath rijobiya (rhizobia) jeevaanu fafoond aur mitti (soil) ke keedon ke saath samvaad karte hain in samaanaantar sadasyata ki jo vaakyaatmak, vyaavahaarik aur arth ke niyamon se sanchaalit ant:kriya hain veh paudhon ki vikendreekrut "tantrika tantr" ki vajah se sambhav ho rahe hain. haal hi ke anusandhaan darshaate hain ki 99% ant: ang sambandhi paudh sanchaaran tantrika sambandhi (neuronal) kism ke hote hain paudhe asthirmati (volatile) dvaara bhi sanchaar karte hai shaakbhoji (herbivory) maamale mein padosi paudhon ko chetaavani dene ke liye.saath saath veh anya asthirmati paida karte hain jo doosare parjeevion (parasites) par hamla karte hain tanaav (Stress) paristhitiyon nein paudhe apne aanuvanshik code (genetic code) ko adhilekhit kar sakte hain jo un ko apne janm daata se mila aur un se poorv peedi[3] se vinimay kar sakte hain.

fafoond samvaad karti hai apni badhat aur apne vikaas ke liye jaise ki mysaliya ke gathan aur santaanaaatran nikaaen iske atirikt kavak apni aur sambandhit prajaatiyon ke jeevaanuon ke saath, tatha gair fafoond jeevaanuon ke saath anek prakaar ke sahajeevi sanchaar karte hain, khaas taur se ekkoshik jeevanuo (unicellular), eukaryotes, paudhon aur keedon ke saath prayog kiye hue semiyo rasaayan biotik mool ke hai aur fafoond jeevon ko vishishth taur se prakriya karne par ukasaata hai jabki ek jaise raasaayanik anu biotik sandesh ka bhaag na hote hue fafoond jeevaanu ko prakriya karne par naheen ukasaate is ka arth yeh hai ki fafoond jeevaanu yeh kshamata rakhate hain ki ek prajaati ke anuon mein antar bata sakein ke veh biotik sandesh ka hissa hain ya in mein is visheshata ki kami hai. ab tak paaainch praathamik sanket anu jaane gaye hai jo vibhinn vyavahaaravaadi pratiroop jaise, tantukaran (filamentation), sambhog (mating), badhat, rogaanujanaakata (pathogenicity) ko nirdeshaank karne mein maddad karte hain. vyavahaaravaadi nirdeshaank aur aise tatvon ka niryaat keval nirvaachan kriya ke dvaara ho sakta hai, aatm ya gair aatm, ajaiv soochak, samaan jaivik sandesh se sambandhit ya gair sambandhit prajaatiyon ya shor yaani samaan anu jaivik mool

jeevaanu

jeevaanuon ki vibhinn prajaatiyon ke beech sanchaar kriyaaeain hoti hai aur jeevanuo evam gair jeevaanu jeevon mein bhi jaise eukaryotika parichaarak ardh raasaayan jo jeevaanuon ke vikaas pratikriya ke liye aavashyak hai, jaise vibhaajan, sporuleshan (sporulation), maadhyamik metaabolites (metabolites) ka vibhaajan (synthesis), un ke neeche baahya sampark beech bachaav ke pravrutti pratiroop hain jo baayofilm (biofilm) vyavasthaapan ke liye aavashyak hain sanketan anuon ke teen shreniyaan bhinn uddeshyon ke liye hai, yaani jeevaanu ke bheetar sanketan karne, pitraik abhivyakti niyaamak karne, paryaapt anukriya pravrutti utpann karne, paraspar athva sambhandit aur bhinn nasl ke beech sanketan ke liye sarvaadhik lokapriya meli aacharan "koram sanvedan (quorum sensing)" hai. kuorum seinsing ek pad hai jo ausadhi se sambandhit hai jisme raasaayanik kan utpann hote hain aur jeevaanuon dbaara sanchit kiye jaate hain. veh jeevaanu samudaaya ke maane jaate hai aur mahatvapoorn ekaagrata aur janasainkhya ghantatv ke vishesh anupaat par nirbhar hai yeh jeevaanu pitraik pratilekhan ke anek prakaaron ki abhivyakti ko badhaava dete hain

jeevaanuon dvaara upayog kiye gaye ardh raasaayan bhinn prakaar ke hote hai, khaaskar kyonki kuchh sanket anukanika bahu punarchakran ghatak hote hain (k) paarasparik sanchaar, sakriya hastaakshar, jo donon baatcheet bhaagon ke liye faayademand hai; (kh) sandesh jin ka nirmaan ek anukriya se ho jo praaptakarta ke liye ek sanket ho aur nirmaata ke liye lakshit na ho ek aakasmik ghatna jo tatasth hai - utpaadan ki oorja laagat ke alaava - nirmaata ke liye kintu praaptakarta ke liye laabhadaayak; (k) praaptaakarta ka dhoorata se prabandh signal yaani ek aacharan anukriya utpannata jo ek tarafa nirmaata ke liye laabhadaayak ho aur praaptakarta ko nuksaan de aur yooain aksar apne uddashya ke vipreet vyavahaar karte hain. jeevaanu sanchaaran ke teen varg jeevaanuon ko vyavahaaravaadi pratiroop utpann aur samakaksh karne yogya banaate hain :[4] aatm aur gair aatm pehchaan yaani kauloniyon aur unke maap ki shinaakht, feromons par aadhaarit sambhog premaalaap, kauloniyon ke dhaanchon ke sansroopan falaahaari nikaaya ka fera fer, vikaas aur vruddhi prakriyaaon ka pravartan jaise ki sporuleshan[5]

srot

  • Baumeister, R.F., & Leary, M.R.(1995). sarokaar rakhane ki aavashyakta: ichha maulik maanav prerana ke roop mein paarasparik sanlagnakon ke liye.manovaigyaanik patrika 117, 497-529
  • Severin, Werner J., Tankard, James W., Jr., (1979). sanchaar siddhaant: mool, vidhi, upayog.New York: Hastings House, ISBN 0-8013-1703-7

inhein bhi dekhein

baahya links

svaami vivekaanand gurukul ke vidiyo ke maadyam se hindi mein sanchaar ko samajane ke liye yahaaain jaaye -> http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-P7KThrGoeg

sandarbh

  1. Witzany, G.(2007) jaiv paudhon ki sanchaar.prakruti poorvavarti: echadeeel: 10101 /npre.2007.1429.1
  2. Witzany, G.jaiv sanchaar jeevaanu aur uske vikaasavaadi prakritik genome virus sanshodhan yogyata antar sambandh prakruti kaaryavaahi : hdl:10101/npre.2008.1738.1