sanaatan dharm ke sanskaar

is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

hindu dharm
par ek shreni ka bhaag

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vigrah
praveshadvaar: hindu dharm

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hindu maapan pranaali

sanaatan dharm ke sanskaar hindu dharm aadhaareet reeti-rivaaj hai jismein janm se lekar mrutyu ke baad ke vibhinn sanskaaro ke vidhi-vidhaan ka samaavesh hota hai.[1] vivaah, janeu ityaadi sanskaar bade dhaamadhoom se manaaye jaate hai. vartamaan samay mein sanaatan dharm ya hindu dharm ke anuyaayi garbhadhaan se mrutyu tak 16 sanskaaro mein se pasaar hote hai.[2]

anukram

itihaas

praacheen kaal mein pratyek kaarya sanskaar se aarambh hota tha. us samay sanskaaron ki sankhya bhi lagbhag chaalees thi. jaise-jaise samay badalta gaya tatha vyastata badhati gayi to kuchh sanskaar svat: vilupt ho gaye. is prakaar samayaanusaar sanshodhit hokar sanskaaron ki sankhya nirdhaarit hoti gayi. Gautam smruti mein chaalees prakaar ke sanskaaron ka ullekh hai. [3]maharshi angira ne inka antarbhaav pachchees sanskaaron mein kiya. vyaas smruti mein solah sanskaaron ka varnan hua hai. hamaare dharmashaastron mein bhi mukhya roop se solah sanskaaron ki vyaakhya ki gayi hai. inmein pehla garbhaadhaan sanskaar aur mrutyu ke uparaant antyeshti antim sanskaar hai. garbhaadhaan ke baad punsavan, seemantonnayan, jaatakarm, naamakaran ye sabhi sanskaar navajaat ka daivi jagat se sambandh sthaapana ke liye kiye jaate hain.

naamakaran ke baad choodaakarm aur yajnyaopaveet sanskaar hota hai. iske baad vivaah sanskaar hota hai. yeh gruhasth jeevan ka sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn sanskaar hai. hindu dharm mein stri aur purush donon ke liye yeh sabse bada sanskaar hai, jo janm-janmaantar ka hota hai.

vibhinn dharmagranthon mein sanskaaron ke kram mein thoda-bahut antar hai, lekin prachalit sanskaaron ke kram mein garbhaadhaan, punsavan, seemantonnayan, jaatakarm, naamakaran, nishkraman, annapraashan, choodaakarm, vidyaaranbh, karnavedh, yajnyaopaveet, vedaarambh, keshaant, samaavartan, vivaah tatha antyeshti hi maanya hai.

garbhaadhaan se vidyaaranbh tak ke sanskaaron ko garbh sanskaar bhi kehte hain. inmein pehle teen (garbhaadhaan, punsavan, seemantonnayan) ko antargarbh sanskaar tatha iske baad ke chhah sanskaaron ko bahirgarbh sanskaar kehte hain. garbh sanskaar ko dosh maarjan athva shodhak sanskaar bhi kaha jaata hai. dosh maarjan sanskaar ka taatparya yeh hai ki shishu ke poorv janmon se aaye dharm evam karm se sambandhit doshon tatha garbh mein I vikrutiyon ke maarjan ke liye sanskaar kiye jaate hain. baad vaale chhah sanskaaron ko gunaadhaan sanskaar kaha jaata hai.

sanskaar

garbhaadhaan

hamaare shaastron mein maanya solah sanskaaron mein garbhaadhaan pehla hai. gruhasth jeevan mein pravesh ke uparaant pratham ka‌aarttavya ke roop mein is sanskaar ko maanyata di gayi hai. gaarhasthya jeevan ka pramukh uddeshya shreshth santaanotpatti hai. uttam santati ki ichha rakhanevaale maata-pita ko garbhaadhaan se poorv apne tan aur man ki pavitrata ke liye yeh sanskaar karna chaahiye. vaidik kaal mein yeh sanskaar ati mahatvapoorn samjha jaata tha.

punsavan

garbhasth shishu ke maanasik vikaas ki drushti se yeh sanskaar upayogi samjha jaata hai. garbhaadhaan ke doosare ya teesare maheene mein is sanskaar ko karne ka vidhaan hai. hamaare maneeshiyon ne santaanotkarsh ke uddeshya se kiye jaane vaale is sanskaar ko anivaarya maana hai. garbhasth shishu se sambandhit is sanskaar ko shubh nakshatr mein sampann kiya jaata hai. punsavan sanskaar ka prayojan svasth evam uttam santati ko janm dena hai. vishesh tithi evam grahon ki ganana ke aadhaar par hi garbhadhaan karna uchit maana gaya hai.

seemantonnayan

seemantonnayan ko seemantakaran athva seemant sanskaar bhi kehte hain. seemantonnayan ka abhipraaya hai saubhaagya sampann hona. garbhapaat rokane ke saath-saath garbhasth shishu evam usaki maata ki raksha karna bhi is sanskaar ka mukhya uddeshya hai. is sanskaar ke maadhyam se garbhini stri ka man prasann rakhane ke liye saubhaagyavati striyaan garbhavati ki maang bharati hain. yeh sanskaar garbh dhaaran ke chhathe athva aathavein maheene mein hota hai.

jaatakarm

navajaat shishu ke naalachhedan se poorv is sanskaar ko karne ka vidhaan hai. is daivi jagat se pratyaksh sampark mein aanevaale baalak ko medha, bal evam deerghaayu ke liye svarn khand se madhu evam ghrut vaidik mantron ke uchchaaran ke saath chataaya jaata hai. yeh sanskaar vishesh mantron evam vidhi se kiya jaata hai. do boond ghi tatha chhah boond shahad ka sammishran abhimantrit kar chataane ke baad pita yagya karta hai tatha nau mantron ka vishesh roop se uchchaaran ke baad baalak ke buddhimaan, balavaan, svasth evam deerghajeevi hone ki praarthana karta hai. iske baad maata baalak ko stanapaan karaati hai.

naamakaran

janm ke gyaarahavein din yeh sanskaar hota hai. hamaare dharmaachaaryo ne janm ke das din tak ashauch (sootak) maana hai. isaliye yeh sanskaar gyaarahavein din karne ka vidhaan hai. maharshi yaajnyaavalkya ka bhi yahi mat hai, lekin anek karmakaandi vidvaan is sanskaar ko shubh nakshatr athva shubh din mein karna uchit maanate hain.

naamakaran sanskaar ka sanaatan dharm mein adhik mahatva hai. hamaare maneeshiyon ne naam ka prabhaav isaliye bhi adhik bataaya hai kyonki yeh vyaktitv ke vikaas mein sahaayak hota hai. tabhi to yeh kaha gaya hai Ram se bada Ram ka naam hamaare dharm vijnyaaaniyon ne bahut shodh kar naamakaran sanskaar ka aavishkaar kiya. jyotish vigyaan to naam ke aadhaar par hi bhavishya ki rooparekha taiyaar karta hai.

nishkraman

daivi jagat se shishu ki pragaadhta badhe tatha brahmaaji ki srushti se vah achhi tarah parichit hokar deerghakaal tak dharm aur maryaada ki raksha karte hue is lok ka bhog kare yahi is sanskaar ka mukhya udde nishkraman ka abhipraaya hai baahar niklana. is sanskaar mein shishu ko soorya tatha chandrama ki jyoti dikhaane ka vidhaan hai. Bhagwan bhaaskar ke tej tatha chandrama ki sheetalata se shishu ko avagat karaana hi iska uddeshya hai. iske peechhe maneeshiyon ki shishu ko tejasvi tatha vinmr banaane ki parikalpana hogi. us din devi-devataaon ke darshan tatha unase shishu ke deergh evam yashasvi jeevan ke liye aasheervaad grahan kiya jaata hai. janm ke chauthe maheene is sanskaar ko karne ka vidhaan hai. teen maah tak shishu ka shareer baahari vaataavaran yatha tej dhoop, tej hava aadi ke anukool naheen hota hai isaliye praaya: teen maas tak use bahut saavadhaani se ghar mein rakhana chaahiye. iske baad dheere-dheere use baahari vaataavaran ke sampark mein aane dena chaahiye. is sanskaar ka taatparya yahi hai ki shishu samaaj ke sampark mein aakar saamaajik paristhitiyon se avagat ho.

annapraashan

is sanskaar ka uddeshya shishu ke shaareerik va maanasik vikaas par dhyaan kendrit karna hai. annapraashan ka spasht arth hai ki shishu jo ab tak peya padaartho visheshakar doodh par aadhaarit tha ab ann jise shaastron mein praan kaha gaya hai usako grahan kar shaareerik va maanasik roop se apne ko balavaan va prabuddh banaae. tan aur man ko sudrudh banaane mein ann ka sarvaadhik yogadaan hai. shuddh, saatvik evam paushtik aahaar se hi tan svasth rahata hai aur svasth tan mein hi svasth man ka nivaas hota hai. aahaar shuddh hone par hi ant:karan shuddh hota hai tatha man, buddhi, aatma sabka poshan hota hai. isaliye is sanskaar ka hamaare jeevan mein vishesh mahatva hai.

hamaare dharmaachaaryo ne annapraashan ke liye janm se chhathe maheene ko upayukt maana hai. chhathe maas mein shubh nakshatr evam shubh din dekhkar yeh sanskaar karna chaahiye. kheer aur mithaai se shishu ke annagrahan ko shubh maana gaya hai. amrut: ksheerabhojanam hamaare shaastron mein kheer ko amrut ke samaan uttam maana gaya hai.

choodaakarm

choodaakarm ko mundan sanskaar bhi kaha jaata hai. hamaare aachaaryo ne baalak ke pehle, teesare ya paanchavein varsh mein is sanskaar ko karne ka vidhaan bataaya hai. is sanskaar ke peechhe shuaachita aur bauddhik vikaas ki parikalpana hamaare maneeshiyon ke man mein hogi. mundan sanskaar ka abhipraaya hai ki janm ke samay utpann apavitr baalon ko hataakar baalak ko prakhar banaana hai. nau maah tak garbh mein rahane ke kaaran kai dooshit kitaanu uske baalon mein rahate hain. mundan sanskaar se in doshon ka safaaya hota hai. jyotish shaastr ke anusaar is sanskaar ko shubh muhoort mein karne ka vidhaan hai. vaidik mantrochchaaran ke saath yeh sanskaar sampann hota hai.

vidyaarambh

vidyaarambh sanskaar ke kram ke baare mein hamaare aachaaryo mein matabhinnata hai. kuchh aachaaryo ka mat hai ki annapraashan ke baad vidyaarambh sanskaar hona chaahiye to kuchh choodaakarm ke baad is sanskaar ko upayukt maanate hain. meri rai mein annapraashan ke samay shishu bolna bhi shuroo naheen kar paata hai aur choodaakarm tak bachchon mein seekhane ki pravrutti jagane lagti hai. isaliye choodaakarm ke baad hi vidyaarambh sanskaar upayukt lagta hai. vidyaarambh ka abhipraaya baalak ko shiksha ke praarambhik star se parichit karaana hai. praacheen kaal mein jab gurukul ki parampara thi to baalak ko vedaadhyayan ke liye bhejane se pehle ghar mein akshar bodh karaaya jaata tha. maaain-baap tatha gurujan pehle use maukhik roop se shlok, pauraanik kathaayein aadi ka abhyaas kara diya karte the taaki gurukul mein kathinaai na ho. hamaara shaastr vidyaanuraagi hai. shaastr ki ukti hai sa vidya ya vimuktaye arthaat vidya vahi hai jo mukti dila sake. vidya athva gyaan hi manushya ki aatmik unnati ka saadhan hai. shubh muhoort mein hi vidyaarambh sanskaar karna chaahiye.

karnavedh

hamaare maneeshiyon ne sabhi sanskaaron ko vaigyaanik kasauti par kasane ke baad hi praarambh kiya hai. karnavedh sanskaar ka aadhaar bilkul vaigyaanik hai. baalak ki shaareerik vyaadhi se raksha hi is sanskaar ka mool uddeshya hai. prakruti pradatt is shareer ke saare ang mahatvapoorn hain. kaan hamaare shravan dwaar hain. karn vedhan se vyaadhiyaan door hoti hain tatha shravan shakti bhi badhti hai. iske saath hi kaanon mein aabhooshan hamaare saundarya bodh ka parichaayak bhi hai.

yajnyaopaveet ke poorv is sanskaar ko karne ka vidhaan hai. jyotish shaastr ke anusaar shukl paksh ke shubh muhoort mein is sanskaar ka sampaadan shreyaskar hai.

yajnyaopaveet

yajnyaopaveet athva upanayan bauddhik vikaas ke liye sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn sanskaar hai. dhaarmik aur aadhaatmik unnati ka is sanskaar mein poornaroopen samaavesh hai. hamaare maneeshiyon ne is sanskaar ke maadhyam se vedamaata gaayatri ko aatmasaat karne ka praavadhaan diya hai. aadhunik yug mein bhi gaayatri mantra par vishesh shodh ho chuka hai. gaayatri sarvaadhik shaktishaali mantra hai.

yajnyaopaveetan paraman pavitran arthaat yajnyaopaveet jise janeoo bhi kaha jaata hai atyant pavitra hai. prajaapati ne svaabhaavik roop se iska nirmaan kiya hai. yeh aayu ko badhaanevaala, bal aur tej pradaan karanevaala hai. is sanskaar ke baare mein hamaare dharmashaastron mein vishesh ullekh hai. yajnyaopaveet dhaaran ka vaigyaanik mahatva bhi hai. praacheen kaal mein jab gurukul ki parampara thi us samay praaya: aath varsh ki umr mein yajnyaopaveet sanskaar sampann ho jaata tha. iske baad baalak vishesh adhyayan ke liye gurukul jaata tha. yajnyaopaveet se hi baalak ko brahmacharya ki deeksha di jaati thi jiska paalan gruhasthaashram mein aane se poorv tak kiya jaata tha. is sanskaar ka uddeshya sanyamit jeevan ke saath aatmik vikaas mein rat rahane ke liye baalak ko prerit karna hai.

vedaarambh

jnyaaanaarjan se sambandhit hai yeh sanskaar. ved ka arth hota hai gyaan aur vedaarambh ke maadhyam se baalak ab gyaan ko apne andar samaavisht karna shuroo kare yahi abhipraaya hai is sanskaar ka. shaastron mein gyaan se badhkar doosra koi prakaash naheen samjha gaya hai. spasht hai ki praacheen kaal mein yeh sanskaar manushya ke jeevan mein vishesh mahatva rakhata tha. yajnyaopaveet ke baad baalakon ko vedon ka adhyayan evam vishisht gyaan se parichit hone ke liye yogya aachaaryo ke paas gurukulon mein bheja jaata tha. vedaarambh se pehle aachaarya apne shishyon ko brahmacharya vrat ka paalan karne evam sanyamit jeevan jeene ki pratijnyaa karaate the tatha usaki pareeksha lene ke baad hi vedaadhyayan karaate the. asanyamit jeevan jeene vaale vedaadhyayan ke adhikaari naheen maane jaate the. hamaare chaaron ved gyaan ke akshunn bhandaar hain.

keshaant

gurukul mein vedaadhyayan poorn kar lene par aachaarya ke samaksh yeh sanskaar sampann kiya jaata tha. vastut: yeh sanskaar gurukul se vidaai lene tatha gruhasthaashram mein pravesh karne ka upakram hai. ved-puraanon evam vibhinn vishyon mein paarangat hone ke baad brahmachaari ke samaavartan sanskaar ke poorv baalon ki safaai ki jaati thi tatha use snaan karaakar snaatak ki upaadhi di jaati thi. keshaant sanskaar shubh muhoort mein kiya jaata tha.

samaavartan

gurukul se vidaai lene se poorv shishya ka samaavartan sanskaar hota tha. is sanskaar se poorv brahmachaari ka keshaant sanskaar hota tha aur fir use snaan karaaya jaata tha. yeh snaan samaavartan sanskaar ke tahat hota tha. ismein sugandhit padaartho evam aushadhaadi yukt jal se bhare hue vedi ke uttar bhaag mein aath ghadon ke jal se snaan karne ka vidhaan hai. yeh snaan vishesh mantrochchaaran ke saath hota tha. iske baad brahmachaari mekhala va dand ko chhod deta tha jise yajnyaopaveet ke samay dhaaran karaaya jaata tha. is sanskaar ke baad use vidya snaatak ki upaadhi aachaarya dete the. is upaadhi se vah sagarv gruhasthaashram mein pravesh karne ka adhikaari samjha jaata tha. sundar vastr va aabhooshan dhaaran karta tha tatha aachaaryo evam gurujanon se aasheervaad grahan kar apne ghar ke liye vida hota tha.

vivaah

praacheen kaal se hi stri aur purush donon ke liye yeh sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn sanskaar hai. yajnyaopaveet se samaavartan sanskaar tak brahmacharya vrat ke paalan ka hamaare shaastron mein vidhaan hai. vedaadhyayan ke baad jab yuvak mein saamaajik parampara nirvaah karne ki kshamata va paripkvata aa jaati thi to use grurhasthya dharm mein pravesh karaaya jaata tha. lagbhag pachchees varsh tak brahmacharya ka vrat ka paalan karne ke baad yuvak parinya sootr mein bandhata tha.

hamaare shaastron mein aath prakaar ke vivaahon ka ullekh hai- braahm, daiv, aarsh, prajaapatya, aasur, gandharv, raakshas evam paishaach. vaidik kaal mein ye sabhi prathaaen prachalit theen. samay ke anusaar inka svaroop badalta gaya. vaidik kaal se poorv jab hamaara samaaj sangathit naheen tha to us samay uchhrunkhal yaunaachaar tha. hamaare maneeshiyon ne is uchhrunkhalata ko samaapt karne ke liye vivaah sanskaar ki sthaapana karke samaaj ko sangathit evam niymabaddh karne ka prayaas kiya. aaj unheen ke prayaason ka parinaam hai ki hamaara samaaj sabhya aur susanskrut hai.

antyeshti

antyeshti ko antim athva agni parigrah sanskaar bhi kaha jaata hai. aatma mein agni ka aadhaan karna hi agni parigrah hai. dharm shaastron ki maanyata hai ki mrut shareer ki vidhivt kriya karne se jeev ki atrupt vaasanaayein shaant ho jaati hain. hamaare shaastron mein bahut hi sahaj dhang se ihalok aur paralok ki parikalpana ki gayi hai. jab tak jeev shareer dhaaran kar ihalok mein nivaas karta hai to vah vibhinn karmo se bandha rahata hai. praan chhootane par vah is lok ko chhod deta hai. uske baad ki parikalpana mein vibhinn lokon ke alaava moksh ya nirvaan hai. manushya apne karmo ke anusaar fal bhogata hai. isi parikalpana ke tahat mrut deh ki vidhivt kriya hoti hai.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

hindu sanskaaron ka itihaas

baahari kadiyaaain

  • baalasanskaar (hindi tatha maraathi mein baalakon ke sanskaar ko samarpit jaalasthal)