sampatti

poorvi tatha pashchimi samaajon dvaara sampatti ka prayog saamaajik sangathan tatha saamaajik rahan-sahan ke liye ek atyaavashyak vastu ke roop mein hota raha hai. sampatti shabd ka aashay, isse sambandhit anya vichaaron se, jinhein "vastu" ya "race" (res), "domas" (Domus) tatha "svaami" (propraayatar) aadi shabdon se vyakt kiya gaya, viksit hua.

anukram

sampatti shabd ki vyutpatti

bhaashaavijnyaaan ke anusaar sampatti shabd ki vyutpatti laitin kriyaavisheshan "praaptar" (propter) se hui hai. iska vikaas "propraairtas" naamak shabd se hua. propraaitais shabd roman vidhijnyaon dvaara bauddhik star par prayog mein laaya jaane laga tatha France ki bolachaal ki bhaasha mein iska vyavahaar hone laga. dheere dheere sampatti shabd ka upayog bhoomi, dhan tatha anya moolyavaan vastuon ke liye hone laga.

"sampatti" ke abhipraaya ka vikaas

"sampatti" shabd ka arth tab nishchit hai jab is shabd ka prayog ek parivaar aur uske sadasyon se sambandhit vastuon ka sambandh vyakt karne ke liye kiya jaane laga. baad mein saamaajik paristhitiyon dvaara vyaktiyon ki vastuon ke abhigrahan aur sanrakshan ki pravrutti ko maanyata praapt hui tatha uske mool ka auchitya aur aavashyakta dekhte hue sampatti ka samarthan kiya jaane laga. vah sammaan ki vastu ban gayi tatha usaka vikaas saamaajik vishishtataaonvaali sanstha ke roop mein hone laga.

aadim samaaj mein dharm ke adhikaari vidvaanon ne kaanoon ko janm diya tatha us samaaj mein sampatti evam parivaar donon aviyojya shabd the kyonki donon ka mool dharm hi tha tatha donon ko dharm se hi maanyata praapt thi. is prakaar sampatti, parivaar tatha kaanoon, aadim samaaj mein sajaateeya athva sambaddh shabd the.

sanskrut shabd "gruh" arthaat ghar ki vyutpatti, "grah" shabd hui hai jiske arth hai, le lena, sveekaar karna, chheen lena athva vijay praapt karna. yeh smaran rakhana chaahiye ki balapoorvak athva yuddh mein jeetkar adhigrahan atyant praacheen vidhi hai. manu ke anusaar, gruh ki sthaapana gruhasthi ya parivaar ki neenv hai. "ghar" tatha "parivaar" donon ke liye prayukt honevaale laitin shabd "domas", "dominiym" (Dominium) ka mool hai, jiska arth roman nyaayashaastr mein sampatti ka aashay samajhaane ke liye atyadhik mahatvapoorn hai.

nyaayasanhita (Justinian code) mein "mainnasipiym" (Mancipium), "dominiym" tatha "propaairtas" ka prayog sampatti athva "svaamitv" ke liye samaan roop se kiya jaata hai. mainasipiym ka arth hai abhigrahan, adhikaar mein karna, visheshakar bhoomi aadi. "mainasipiym" shabd lagbhag sanskrut ke "grah" shabd ke hi samaan hai. roman mein "dominiym" athva "propaairtas" ka arth un sab adhikaaron ka samooh hai jisse svaamitv ka bodh hota hai.

samay ke saath saath "svatv" ka vikaas hua aur dheere dheere iska aashay kisi vastu ka svatantr upayog aur use bhejane ya de daalne ka adhikaar samjha jaane laga.

aadim samaajon mein sampatti ke saath dhaarmik bhaavana bhi judi rahati thi. jahaaain bhoomi aur uske utpaadan jeevika ke pramukh saadhan the tatha bhoomi abhigrahan ki vidhi atikraman aur vijay dvaara praapt karna tha, bhoomi tatha kheti karne ka adhikaar ek prakaar ka dhan samjha jaata tha aur is prakaar yeh ek jaati athva parivaar se sanbadhit sampatti ka pramukh ang tha. parivaarik sampatti unheen ke liye daaya yogya thi jo apne poorvajon ke liye dhaarmik anushthaan kiya karte the. poorvajon ke liye dhaarmik anushthaan karna nar vanshajon ka hi pratham kartavya samjha jaata tha. isliye kheti karne, bhoomi ka bhog karne tatha iski kraya vikraya karne ka adhikaar janm se praapt ho jaata tha.

putr ka janmat: adhikaar mitaakshara ne sveekaar kiya hai. vijneshvar ke anusaar janm hi sampatti ka kaaran hai. hindu samaaj mein kaanoon ki yeh nishchit sthiti hai ki Patrick ya poorvajon ki sampatti ka svatv janm se praapt hota hai.

dheere dheere sampatti ka dhaarmik svaroop lupt hota gaya. mitaakshara ke anusaar sampatti ihalauki vastu hai kyonki iska upayog saansaarik len den ke liye hota hai.

manusmruti ke teekaakaaron ke mataanusaar aaryon mein sampatti ka aashay poore parivaar se sambaddh hota tha jismein putr, putri, patni tatha das bhi sammilit the. samaaj ke vikaas ke saath putr, putri tatha patni ko sampatti ki vastu ya sampatti ka ang na samajhakar unhein sampatti se pruthak astitv ki maanyata di gayi.

sampatti ka pratyaya (concept of property)

bhaarateeya kaanoon mein sapaatt ka vidhik pratyaya vaisa hi hota hai jaisa angreji nyaayashaastr mein. angreji kaanoon bahut kuchh roman kaanoon se prabhaavit hai. "sampatti" shabd ke kai arth ho sakte hain yatha svaamitv ya svatv, arthaat svaami ko praapt sampoorn adhikaar. kabhi kabhi iska arth roman "race" hota hai jise antargat svaamitv ke adhikaar ka prayog hota hai jiske antargat svaamitv ke adhikaar ka prayog hota hai arthaat swayam vah vastu jo ukt adhikaar ka vishay ya paatr hai. "race" athva "vastu" ka maanav se sanbadh bataanevaala arth sampatti ke svaroop ke vikaas mein sahaayak hua hai. is prakaar "race" athva "vastu" par adhikaar ka sanbodh aur swayam "race" ya "vastu" ka sanbodh sapatti sambandhi pratyaya se jatil tatha gahre roop se sambaddh hai arthaat donon ek doosare ke poorak aur sahaayak hai.

roman mein "race" ka arth atyant jatil hai. yeh angreji ki tarah adhikaar ki thos vastu hai. kintu "race" ka theek theek arth "vastu" ke bilkul samaan naheen hai, usase kuchh adhik hai. yadyapi "race" ka mool arth bhautik vastu hai, parantu dheere dheere iska prayog aisi parisanpatti (assets) ko vyakt karne ke liye bhi hone laga jo bhautik tatha sthool hi na hokar amoort bhi ho sakti thi jaise bijli. "race" ka prayog vishishtaadhikaar ke liye bhi hota hai aur aise adhikaaron ke liye bhi jo, udaaharanaarth, prasiddhi ya khyaati se utpann hote hain. is prakaar in do artho ke liye race ka lagaataar prayog hone ke kaaran "race" ke do arth ho gaye : "race paarthiv" arthaat bhautik vastueain jo manushya ke adhikaaron ke antargat aa sakti hai tatha "race apaarthiv" arthaat ve adhikaar swayam. is prakaar antim vishleshan ke falasvaroop "vastu" ka aashay "race paarthiv" se hi liya jaaega.

roman bhaasha mein "race" sampatti ki vastu tatha adhikaar donon ke liye prayukt hota hai, parantu "bona" (Bona) shabd, jo saamaan ya dhan ke liye prayukt hota hai, sanskrut ke "dhan" shabd ke samakaksh hai. arabi jooriyon (Arabian Jurists) ke anusaar "maal" shabd sampatti tatha kisi bhi aisi vastu ke liye prayukt ho sakta hai jiska arabi kaanoon (basheriyaat) mein moolya ya arth (vailyoo) ho athva jo kisi vyakti ke adhikaar mein rah sakti ho. "dhan" shabd bhi sampatti ke liye bahudha prayukt hota hai.

sampatti ke arth mein prayukt honevaali vastu mein sthaayitv ka tatha bhautik ekatv ka gun hona aavashyak hai. ikaaiyon ke ek sangrah ko jiski ikaaiyaaain swayam pruthak vastu hon aur aisi ekal ikaaiyon ke sammiln se bani vastu ko bhi vastu kah sakte hain; jaise ek int athva inton se nirmit ek makaan ya ek bheind athva kai bhedon se bana ek jhudan. kaanoon mein vastu ka prayog kuchh adhikaaron evam kartavyon ko vyakt karne ke liye bhi kiya jaata hai. bhautik gunon ke aadhaar par "vastu" do prakaar ki ho sakti hai - chal athva achal. lekin agreji kaanoon ke takaneeki niyamon ke anusaar vastu, vaastavik tatha vyaktigat hoti hai. roman kaanoon ke anusaar "race" ko isi prakaar "mainasipebul" (mancipable) tatha anamainasipoobul mein vibhkt kiya gaya hai. is prakaar sampatti ek aur "race" ya "vastu" aur doosari or race athva vastu se sambandhit manushya ke adhikaaron se sambaddh hai. isliye sampatti ke liye ek aisa vyakti aavashyak hai jo kisi vastu par apna adhikaar rakh sake.

antim vishleshan ke anusaar sampatti, ek vyakti aur ek vastu ya adhikaar, jise vah keval apna maanata ho, ke madhya sthaapit sanbadh ko vyakt karti hai. apne aadhunik prayogon mein sampatti un sabhi vastuon ya sanpada (assets) ke liye prayukt hoti hai jo kisi vyakti se sambandhit ho ya us vyakti ne kisi anya ko samarpit kar diya ho parantu apne laabh ke liye us vastu ki vyavastha karne ka adhikaar surakshit rakhata ho.

race ya vastu ke paarthiv aur apaarthiv vargeekaran tatha vastu ya adhikaaron ke svaroop ke anusaar sampatti ka vargeekaran vibhinn prakaar se hua hai jaise, paarthiv ya apaarthiv; chal ya achal tatha vaastavik ya vyaktigat. sampatti ke saath anya vishisht shabdon jaise vyaktigat ya saarvajanik, Patrick, daayayogya, sanyukt paarivaarik, samaadhikaarik aadi ke sanyukt kar dene se sampatti ke svaroop ke saath sambandh vyakt hota hai.

sampatti ki vaidhaanik vyaakhya

sampatti ki vaidhaanik vyaakhya ke anusaar iske kai arth hai. sampatti ke antargat kisi vyakti ke dvaara kiye gaye shaareerik tatha maanasik parishram ke fal bhi aate hain. koi bhi vyakti apni kisi vastu ke badle mein jo kuchh bhi paata hai, jo kuchh bhi use diya jaata hai aur jise kaanoon dvaara us vyakti ka maana jaata hai athva use prayog karne, bhog karne tatha vyavastha karne ka adhikaar pradaan kiya jaata hai, vah sab us vyakti ki vyaktigat sampatti kahalaati hai. parantu kaanoon dvaara maanyata na praapt hone par use sampatti naheen kaha ja sakta aur tab vidhik parinaam ki drushti se vyakti aur vastu ke beech koi sambandh naheen rah jaata hai.

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