samoaa

Malo Sa'oloto Tuto'atasi o Samoa
Independent State of Samoa
Samoa ka Coat of arms
dhvaj Coat of arms
raashtravaakya: Fa'avae i le Atua Samoa
(angreji: Samoa is founded on God)[1][mrut kadiyaaain]
raashtragaan: The Banner of Freedom
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
Apia
13°a50′aS 171°a45′aW / 13.833°aS 171.75°aW / -13.833; -171.75
raajabhaasha(eain) Samoan, English
nivaasi Samoan
sarkaar Parliamentary republic
- O le Ao o le Malo
(Head of State)
Tufuga Efi
- Prime Minister Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi
Independence from New Zealand
- Date 1 January 1962
kshetrafal
- kul 2,831 varg kilometer (174th)
1093 varg meal
- jal (%) 0.3%
janasankhya
- 2009 janaganana 179,000[2] (166th)
- 2006 janaganana 179,186
- ghanatv 63.2/varg kimi (134th)
163.7/varg meal
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2009 praakkalan
- kul $1.049 billion$[3]
- prati vyakti $5,782$[3]
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2009 praakkalan
- kul $558 million$[3]
- prati vyakti $3,077$[3]
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Red Arrow Down.svg 0.694[4]
madhyam · 106vaaain
mudra Tala (WST)
samay mandal (yoo॰atee॰asee॰-11)
yaataayaat chaalan disha left1
doorabhaash koot 685
Internet teeeladi .ws
1. Since 7 September 2009.[5]

samoaa, aadhikaarik roop se svatantr samoaa raajya, IPA: /səaaˈaamoʊaaə/ ko pehle pashchimi samoaa aur jarman samoaa ke roop mein jaana jaata tha, jo dakshini prashaant mahaasaagar ke samoaai dweep ke pashchimi bhaag mein ek shaasit desh hai. yeh New Zealand se 1962 mein svatantr hua. samoaa ke do mukhya dveepon mein upolu aur savaai'i, poleeneshiya mein sabse bade dveepon mein ek, hain. rajdhani shahar epiya aur faleolo antarraashtreeya havaai adda upolu ke dweep par sthit hain.

15 December 1976 ko samoaa ko sanyukt raashtra sangh mein shaamil kiya gaya.[6] samoaavaasiyon ke samudri kaarya sambandhi yogyata ke kaaran 20veen sadi se pehle Europeeya khojakartaaon dvaara ameriki samoaa sahit poore dweep samooh ko naavikon ka dweep kaha jaata tha.[7]

anukram

itihaas

2500 aur 1500 E.poo. ke beech dakshin-poorvi aur melaaneshiya se poorv ki or lapita vistaar ki avadhi ke dauraan ostroneshiyn poorvajon se samoaaiyon ki paidaaish hui hai.[8] 2003 aur uske baad se paae jaane vaale nae vaigyaanik pramaan aur kaarban deting ke nishkarshon ke kaaran samoaaiyon ki paidaaish ka in dinon punarmoolyaankan kiya ja raha hai.

poorvi lapita bastiyon ke beech antarang saamaajik-saanskrutik va aanuvanshik sambandh kaayam the aur puraataatvik record maukhik parampara tatha deshi vanshaavaliyon ka samarthan karte hain, jo antar-dveepeeya samudra yaatra aur praagaitihaasik samoaaiyon, fijivaasiyon tatha tonganon ke beech antarvivaah ke sanket dete hain.

samoaa'ava samaaroh ki taiyaari ko darshaati studio tasveer.1911.
samoaai ghar ka andaruni bhaag, epiya, urvile 1842.

18veen sadi ke aarambh mein Europeeyon ke saath sampark shuroo hua. ek haulaindavaasi jaikob roggeveen (1659-1729), 1722 mein samoaai dveepon ko dekhne wala pehla gyaat Europeeya tha. iske baad luis-entoni di bugainaville (1729–1811) naamak ek fraansisi anveshak ne yahaan ki yaatra ki, jisne 1768 mein unka naam naavikon ka dweep rakha. 1830 ke dashak se pehle sampark seemit tha, us dashak se angrej mishnari aur vyaapaari yahaan pahunchane lage.

samoaa mein mission ka kaam 1830 ke dashak ke ant mein London mishnari society ke John Williams dvaara shuroo hua, jo the kook aayalainds aur taahiti se sapaapaali'i aaye.[9] us samay tak, samoaaiyon ki chhavi barbar aur jangi ki ban gayi thi, kyonki sthaaneeya nivaasiyon tatha fraansisi, british, jarman va ameriki balon ke beech hinsak jhadpein huin. in balon ne unneesaveen sadi ke ant tak samoaa ko koyala-chaalit jahaajon ke liye ek indhan bharne ke station tatha vhel ke shikaar ke liye upayukt maana tha.

vilhem solf, samoaa ke jarman Governor 1900-1910
mata'afa iosefo (1832-1912) sarvochch pramukh aur samoaa ke raajatv ke liye mukhya pratidvandvi

vishesh roop se jarman ne samoaai dveepon par badi vyaavasaayik dilchaspi dikhaani shuroo ki, khaaskar upolu dweep par jahaan jarman companyon ne kopara aur koko fali ke prasanskaran par ekaadhikaar jama rakha tha; sanyukt raajya America ne apne daave pesh kiye aur bahut hi spasht roop se tutuila aur manu'aa dveepon (jo baad mein ameriki samoaa ke roop mein aupachaarik taur se sanyukt raajya America mein mila liye gaye) ke sthaaneeya deshi saradaaron ke saath ek gathabandhan bana liya.

Britain ne bhi british vyaapaar udyam, bandargaah adhikaaron aur vaanijya dootaavaas kaaryaalaya ki raksha ke liye sena ko bheja. iske baad vahaan aath varshon tak gruh yuddh chala, jismein pratyek teenon shaktiyon ne yuddharat samoaai dalon ko hathiyaar, prashikshan aur kuchh maamalon mein yahaan tak ki ladaakoo sainikon ki bhi aapoorti ki. teenon ne epiya bandargaah mein yuddhapot bheja aur ek bade paimaane ka yuddh avashyambhaavi lagne laga, lekin ek ek bhaari toofaan ne yuddhapoton ko kshatigrast ya nasht kar diya, isse sainya sangharsh samaapt hua.[10]

20veen shataabdi

beesaveen sadi ke aarambh mein, tripksheeya sammelan ne samoaai dveepon ko do bhaagon mein vibhkt kar diya:[11] poorvi dweep samooh sanyukt raajya America ka ek kshetr ban gaya (1900 mein tutuila dweep aur 1904 mein aupachaarik roop se manu'aa) aur ab ise ameriki samoaa ke roop mein jaana jaata hai; jab Britain ne samoaa se apne saare daave vaapas le liye aur tonga tatha soloman dveepon ke kuchh kshetron aur pashchim Africa se jarman adhikaaron ki samaapti ko sveekaar kar liya gaya tab jameen ka kaheen bada hissa pashchimi dweep samooh jarman samoaa ke naam se jaana jaane laga.[12]

pehle jarman Governor vilhem solf the, jo baad mein inpeeriyl Germany ke upaniveshon ke liye sekretari bankar chale gaye. Britain dvaara New Zealand se apne "mahaan va atyaavashyak saamraajya ki seva" karne ke anurodh ke baad, 29 August 1914 ko upolu mein New Zealand ki sena nirvirodh ja utari aur jarman adhikaariyon se niyantran jabt kar liya gaya.[13]

1912 mein, ek badlaav yeh hua ki jarman prashaasan ne jaahira taur par sarkaar mein sthaaneeya bhaageedaari ki ekaroopata ko kaayam karke samoaa raajaneeti mein paramparaagat shaktiyon ke saath taalamel bithaane ke apne deerghakaalik lakshya ko haasil kar liya. tupu ya yahaan tak ki alli sili naamak padavi naheen rahi, balki unke sthaan par do fautuaa niyukt kiye gaye. tumuaa aur pule ek samay ke liye maun the; bhoomi aur svatvaadhikaar ko prabhaavit karne vaale maamalon par sabhi nirnaya raajyapaal ke niyantran mein the. prakriya ko poora karne ke liye, saare samoaa ke liye fa'alupega ko sanshodhit kiya gaya tha. kam se kam 19veen sadi ke ant se (aur shaayad usase bhi adhik der se), fa'alupega jo raashtreeya star par sveekaar kiya gaya, is prakaar tha:

"tulouna A tumuaa ma pule (Tulouna a Tumua ma Pule),
tulouna A itu'aau ma alaatuaa (Tulouna a Itu'au ma Alataua),
tulouna A aiga-i-le-taai (Tulouna a Aiga-i-le-Tai),
ma le va'aa-O-fonoti (Ma le Va'a-o-Fonoti),
tulouna A tama ma A laatooo aiga (Tulouna a Tama ma a latou aiga)
po'O aiga ma A tama laatooo (Po'o aiga ma a latou tama) ".

yeh fa'alupega sabse pehle apne pravaktaaon - tumuaa ma pule, itu'aau ma alaataaoo, aiga-i-le, ma le va'aa-O-fonoti - ke maadhyam se samuaa ke pramukh jilon ke adhikaar aur pehchaan ko maanya karta hai aur ye sarvochch upaadhiyaan jo in samoohon dvaara pradaan ki gayi theen. samoaa ke mahaan adhiktam vansh samoohon aur unke "beton", jinhein sarvochch upaadhi ke liye chuna gaya, ki pehchaan ke saath yeh samaapt hua.

jarman samoaa ke nae fa'alupega ke liye spashtataya jaruri tha ki maaliyetoaa taanunaafili aur tupuaa tamaasese ko shapath dilaai jaaya aur is tarah samoaa ke aitihaasik fa'alupega ki jagah laaya gaya naya fa'alupega nimnalikhit hai:

"tulouna A laana maiesitete le kaisa O le tupu maamaloo O lo tatooo maalo kasialika aaoaao (Tulouna a lana Maiesitete le Kaisa o le tupu mamalu o lo tatou malo kasialika aoao).
tulouna A laana afioga le kovaana kasialika O le sui O le kaisa i samoaa nei (Tulouna a lana afioga le kovana kasialika o le sui o le kaisa I Samoa nei).
susu maai maaliyetoaa, afiyo maai tupuaa (Susu mai Malietoa, Afio mai Tupua)
uaa fa'amaanaatuiaana ei aiga A luaa i O ouluaa tofiga kasialika O le fautuaa (Ua fa'amanatuiana ai aiga e lua I o oulua tofiga Kasialika o le Fautua).
tulouna A le vasega A faipule kasialika O A laagolaago malosi i le maalo (Tulouna a le vasega a Faipule Kasialika o e lagolago malosi I le Malo).
afifiyo maai le nofo A vasega O tofiga kasialika O A usu fita i le tautuaa i le maalo (Afifio mai le nofo a vasega o tofiga Kasialika o e usu fita I le tautua I le malo) ".

nirvaasit vakta lauaaki naamulauuloo mamoe.

pratham vishv yuddh ke ant se 1962 tak, league of neshans ke maadhyam se nyaasita ke tahat ek shreni si adhidesh ke roop mein New Zealand ne samoaa ka niyantran kiya.[14] do badi ghatnaaon ke liye New Zealand prashaasakon ki ek shrrunkhala jimmedaar rahi. pehli ghatna mein, samoaai aabaadi ka lagbhag paanchavaan bhaag 1918-1919 ke beech influenja ki mahaamaari ka shikaar bana.[15] 1919 mein mahaamaari ki jaanch kar rahi the royal commission of inkvaayari ne nishkarsh nikaala ki 7 November 1918 ko okalaind se aaye 'esaes talune' ke aagaman [jise New Zealand prashaasan dvaara sangarodh ke ullanghan mein langar daalne ki anumati di gayi thi] se pehle pashchimi samoaa mein koi nimoniya inflooenja naheen tha; is jahaaj ke aagaman ke saat dinon ke andar upou mein inflooenja mahaamaari ban gaya aur fir teji se poore desh mein failata chala gaya.[16]

chitr:Funeral of Tamesese.jpg
tupuaa tamesese ke antim sanskaar mein upasthit log.

doosari badi ghatna maoo (jiska shabdash: anuvaad hai "prabhaavashaali sanghatit abhimt") dvaara shuruaat mein shaantipoorn virodh se aarambh hui, yeh ek aisa ahinsak lokapriya aandolan tha jiski shuruaat savaai'i par 1900 ke dashak ke aarambh mein hui thi aur jiska netrutv solf dvaara apadasth ek vakta pramukh lauaaki namulaaoolu mamoe dvaara kiya gaya tha. 1909 mein, lauaaki ko saayapan nirvaasit kiya gaya aur 1915 mein samoaa vaapas aate samay unki mrutyu ho gayi.

1918 tak, New Zealand prashaasak lagbhag 38,000 samoaaiyon aur 15,000 Europeeyon ki aabaadi ko shaasit kiya karte the.[17] 1920 ke dashak ke ant tak, New Zealand prashaasan dvaara dvaara samoaai janta ke saath durvyavahaar ke dauraan aupaniveshik shaasan ke khilaaf pratirodh aandolan ko vyaapak samarthan milne laga. maoo netaaon mein ek the olaaf fredarik nelsan, jo aadhe samoaai aur aadhe sveedish vyaapaari the.[18] nelsan ko antat: 1920 ke dashak ke ant mein aur 1930 ke dashak ke aarambh mein nirvaasit kar diya gaya, lekin unhonne aarthik aur raajaneetik roop se sangathan ki sahaayata karna jaari rakha. maoo ke ahinsak darshan ka anusaran karte hue navanirvaachit neta shreshth pramukh tupuaa tamaasese leelofi ne 28 December 1929 ko epiya shahar mein apne anuyaayiyon ka vardeedhaari maoo ke shaantipoorn pradarshan mein netrutv kiya.[19]

New Zealand police ne pradarshan ke netaaon mein se ek ko giraftaar karne ka prayaas kiya. jab iska virodh hua tab police aur maoo ke beech ek sangharsh ki shuruaat hui. adhikaariyon ne bheed par andhaadhundh goleebaari shuroo kar di aur is pradarshan ke liye taiyaar kiye gaye ek levis machine gan ka istemaal bheed ko titr-bitr karne ke liye kiya gaya.[20] pramukh tamaasese jab maoo pradarshanakaariyon ko shaant karne aur unhein vyavasthit karne ki koshish kar rahe the tab peechhe se goli maar kar unki htya kar di gayi. ve cheekh rahe the "shaanti, samoaa". bandookon ki goli aur police ke dande se us din aur bhi das log maare gaye aur lagbhag 50 log ghaayal hue.[21]

vo din samoaa mein kaale shanivaar ke naam se jaana jaata hai. maoo badhta gaya, drudhtaapoorvak ahinsak bana raha aur ek atyant prabhaavashaali mahilaaon ki shaakha bhi ismein shaamil kar li gayi. samoaai janta ke lagaataar prayaason se antat: pashchimi samoaa ko 1962 mein svatantrata praapt hui aur usane New Zealand ke saath ek maitri sandhi par hastaakshar kiye. prashaant mahaasaagareeya deshon mein samoaa pehla desh tha jise sabse pehle svatantrata praapt hui. 2002 mein, samoaa ki yaatra par gayeen New Zealand ki pradhaanamantri helen Clark ne in do ghatnaaon mein New Zealand ki bhoomika ke liye aupachaarik roop se maafi maangi.[22][23]

July 1997 mein, samvidhaan sanshodhan karke desh ka naam pashchimi samoaa se samoaa kiya gaya.[24] sanyukt raajya America ke kshetr ameriki samoaa ne is kadam ka virodh kiya, usane drudhtaapoorvak kaha ki is parivartan se usaki apni pehchaan ka hraas hoga. svatantr raajya samoaa tatha iske nivaasiyon ke varnan ke liye ameriki samoaai abhi bhi pashchimi samoaa aur pashchimi samoaai shabdaavaliyon ka istemaal karte hain.

haalaanki donon samoaai bhaasha tatha nasl ke maamale mein ek hain, lekin haal mein unki sanskrutiyon ne alag-alag raaste apna liye hain; ameriki samoaai aksar hi havaaiʻE aur sanyukt raajya America ki mukhya bhoomi ke pravaas mein chale ja rahe hain aur ameriki football tatha besabaul khelne jaisi anek ameriki prathaaon ko apna rahe hain. pashchimi samoaaiyon ki pravrutti New Zealand ke pravaas ki hai, jinke prabhaav ne pashchimi dveepon mein ragbi aur cricket ko adhik lokapriya bana diya hai. yaatra lekhak paul therauks ne kaha ki samoaa aur ameriki samoaa ke samaajon mein ullekhaneeya antar hain.

7 September 2009 se sarkaar ne motor chaalakon ke liye driving dik vinyaas ko badal diya hai aur ab samoaavaasi sadak ki baayeen or se gaadi chalaaya karte hain. isse kshetr ke kai anya deshon ki pankti mein samoaa aa gaya hai. haal ke varshon mein aur 21veen sadi mein samoaa aisa pehla desh hai jisne baayeen or se gaadi chalaana shuroo kiya.[25]

raajaneeti

epiya mein sarkaari bhavanein

saaaincha:Politics of Samoa

20veen sadi ki raajaneeti

1960 ka samvidhaan, jo aupachaarik roop se New Zealand se svatantr hone ke saath 1962 mein laagoo hua, sansadeeya jantantra ki british pranaali par aadhaarit hai, jise samoaai prathaaon ke maddenajar sanshodhit kiya gaya hai.[26] samoaa ke raashtreeya aadhunik sarkaar ko 'maalo' ke roop mein ullikhit kiya jaata hai. desh ke chaar sarvochch sthaan praapt bade pramukhon mein se ek fiaame mata'afa faumuina mulinu'u dviteeya samoaa ke pratham pradhaanamantri bane. do anya bade pramukhon ko jeevan bhar ke liye svatantrata ke samay desh ka sanyukt pramukh niyukt kiya gaya. tupuaa tamaasese meya'ole, jinki mrutyu 1963 mein hui, ke baad maaliyetoaa taanumaafili dviteeya 11 May 2007 ko apni mrutyu ke din tak raajya ke pramukh bane rahe, uske baad us raajya mein samvaidhaanik raajashaahi ki jagah ganatantr ki sthaapana ki gayi. raajya ke agale pramukh tuiaatuaa tupuaa tamaasese efi ka chunaav 17 June 2007 ko vidhaayika dvaara 5 varsh ke tay kaaryakaal ke liye kiya gaya.[27]

ekasadani vidhaayika (fono) mein 49 sadasya hote hain jinka kaaryakaal 5 varshon ka hota hai. sajaateeya samoaaiyon dvaara kshetreeya jilon se saintaalees ko nirvaachit kiya jaata hai; aur baaki do ka chunaav gair-samoaaiyon dvaara hota hai, alag matadaata soochi se koi mukhya sanbaddhata ke bina.[28] saarvabhaumik mataadhikaar ko 1990 mein vistaarit kiya gaya, lekin samoaai seaton se chunaav ke liye sirf pramukh (mataai) hi khade ho sakte hain. desh mein 25,000 se adhik mataai hain, jinmein lagbhag 5% mahilaaen hain.[29] fono mein bahumat se pradhaanamantri ko chuna jaata hai aur sarkaar banaane ke liye raashtra ke pramukh dvaara unki niyukti hoti hai. pradhaanamantri ki pasand ke 12 cabinet padon ki niyukti raashtra pramukh dvaara hoti hai, jo fono ke satat vishvaas ka maamala hai.

samoaa ki raajaneeti mein prakhyaat mahilaaon mein samoaa ke pratham pradhaanamantri ki patni aur lotofaaga nirvaachan kshetr ki sv. laulu fetuimalemau mata'afa (1928-2007) shaamil hain. unki beti fiaame Naomi mata'afa ek sarvochch pramukh aur lambe samay se cabinet ki sadasya hain. raajaneeti mein anya mahilaaon mein shaamil hain samoaai vidvaan aur prakhyaat praadhyaapak aaiono fanaafi le taagaaloya, vakta-pramukh mataatumuaa maimoana aur vartamaan sanchaar va praudyogiki mantri safuneitu'uga pa'aga neri.

nyaayik pranaali angreji saamaanya vidhi aur sthaaneeya prathaaon par aadhaarit hai. samoaa ka sarvochch nyaayaalaya uchchatam nyaayaadhikaar kshetr ki adaalat hai. iske mukhya nyaayaadheesh ki niyukti pradhaanamantri ki sifaarish par raashtra pramukh dvaara ki jaati hai.

raajaneetik jile

gyaarah itumaalo (raajaneetik jile) se samoaa bana hai. in paaramparik gyaarah jilon ki sthaapana Europeeya aagaman se pehle hui thi. pratyek jile ki apni samvaidhaanik buniyaad (faavaae) hai, jo har jile ke faalupega (paaramparik abhivaadan) mein paayi jaane waali upaadhi poorvavartita ki paramparaagat vyavastha par aadhaarit hai.

pratyek jile ke mukhyaalaya gaanv anya jimmedaariyon ke saath-saath jila ka prashaasan chalaate hain aur jila ke maamalon ko samanvit karte hain aur pratyek jila ki sarvochch upaadhi pradaan karte hain. udaaharan ke liye, a'aana jila ka mukhyaalaya leulumoega mein hai. a'aana ki sarvochch upaadhi tuiaa'aana hai. vakta samooh jo yeh upaadhi pradaan karta hai - faleiva (nau ka ghar) - usaka kendra leulumoega hi hai. anya jilon mein bhi yahi baat laagoo hoti hai. tuamasaaga jile mein, jila ki sarvochch upaadhi - maaliyetoaa khitaab - faale tuamasaaga dvaara pradaanaki jaati hai, jo afga mein sthit hai.

samoaa ke raajaneetik jile
  1. upolu (chhote dveepon sahit)

  2. tuamasaaga (afega)
  3. a'aana (leulumoega)
  4. aiga-i-le-taai (mulifnuaa)1
  5. atuaa (lufilufi) 2
  6. va'a-O-fonoti (samaameya)
    • savaai'i
  1. fa'asaleleaga (safotulaafai)
  2. gaaga'emauga (saleaula)3
  3. gaaga'ifomauga (safotu)
  4. vaisigaano (asau)
  5. satupa'iteya (satupa'iteya)
  6. palauli (vailoya)

1 manono, apolima aur nu'ulopa dveepon sahit
2 aleipata dweep aur nu'usafe'A dweep sahit
3 kuchh chhote bhaag bhi hain upolu mein (salaamumu (saath hisalaamumu-utu) aur leeuva gaanv)

bhoogol

samoaa ka maanachitr.
le maafa darra, poorv upolu se falefa ghaati ke drushya.

antararaashtreeya dinaank rekha ke poorab aur bhoomadhya rekha ke dakshin mein yeh desh sthit hai, tatha havaai aur New Zealand ke beecho-beech prashaant mahaasaagar ke polineshiyaai kshetr mein padta hai. kul bhoomi kshetr 2,934 kimee² (1,133 varg meal) hai (America ke rode dweep se jara-sa chhota hai), ismein upolu aur savaai do bade dweep hain jinke hisse mein kul bhoomi kshetr ka 99% aata hai aur aath chhote taapoo hain.

inmein teen taapoo apolima jaladamaroomadhya mein (manono dweep, apolima aur nu'ulopa), chaar taapoo upolu ke poorvi chhor ke aleipata dweep mein (nu'utele, nu'uluaa, namuaa aur fanuataapoo) aur nu'usefe dweep (0.01 kimee² - 2½ ekad se kam kshetr aur upolu ke gaanv vaova ke dakshini tat se lagbhag 1.4 ki॰mee॰ (0.9 meal) shaamil hain.[1] mukhya dweep upolu samoaa aabaadi ke lagbhag teen-chauthaai ka ghar hai, jiski rajdhani epiya shahar mein hai.

jalavaayu

jalavaayu bhoomadhyavarti/barasaati hai, ausat vaarshik taapamaan 26.5° seinteegred (79.7° faurenahaait) hai aur November se April tak varsha ka mausam hota hai.[30] samoaa dveepon mein savaai sabse bada dweep hai aur New Zealand ke uttari, dakshini aur steevart dweep tatha havaai dweep ke havaai aur maaui ke baad polineshiyaai dweep ka chhatha bada dweep hai. savaai ki aabaadi 42,000 hai.

Apia ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
24
(75)
himpaat/varsha mm (inch) 419
(16.5)
322
(12.68)
332
(13.07)
261
(10.28)
205
(8.07)
165
(6.5)
133
(5.24)
155
(6.1)
180
(7.09)
257
(10.12)
270
(10.63)
372
(14.65)
3,071
(120.91)
srot: www.weather2travel.com"Apia climate guide". http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/index.php?destination=apia.

bhoovijnyaaan

jvaalaamukhi ghatna dvaara samoaa dveepon ki paidaaish hui, jiske srot ka mukhya kendra samoaa hai jo ki meintal plam ka sambhaavit parinaam hai.[31][32] jabki sabhi dweep jvaalaamukhi se utpann hain, lekin samoaa ke pashchimi chhor par sthit savaai hi akela aisa dweep hai jahaan sakriya jvaalaamukhi hai, haal mein mount mataavaanu mein (1905–1911), mata O le afi (1902) aur mauga afi (1725) mein jvaalaamukhi fat chuki hain. samoaa mein uchchatam bindu hai mount silisili, jiski oonchaai 1,858 meter (6,096 foot) hai. saleaula laava kshetr savaai ke madhya-uttari tat par avasthit hai, jo mount mataavaanu ke jvaalaamukhi ke visfot ka parinaam hai, jo 50 kimee² (20 varg meal) ka thos laava chhod gaya.[33]

arthavyavastha

faleyaaloopo varshaavan vitaan path, savaai ke oopar ke drushya.
taaro, ek kand fasal, paaramparik roop se samoaa ka sabse bada niryaat, 1993 mein poore niryaat raajasv ka aadha se adhik iseese aaya. lekin ek kavak tushaar paudhon ko nuksaan pahunchaata hai aur 1994 se har saal taaro ke niryaat se 1% raajasv kam hote jaane ke liye jimmevaar hai.

desh ki mudra hai samoaai taala (tāalā) hai, jo samoaa ke central bank dvaara jaari aur viniymit ki jaati hai.[34] samoaa ki arthavyavastha paaramparik roop se krushi aur sthaaneeya star par machhali pakadne par nirbhar rahi hai. aadhunik samay mein, vikaas madad, videsh se paarivaarik sadasyon dvaara bheji gayi rakam aur krushi-utpaad ka niryaat desh ki arthavyavastha ke mukhya ghatak ban gaye hain. krushi mein do-tihaai shram bal laga hua hai aur 90% niryaat krushi se hi hota hai, jinmein shaamil hain naariyl kreem, naariyl tel, noni (nonoo fal ka joos, samoaa mein ise isi naam se jaana jaata hai) aur kopara.[35]

ek badi otomotiv taar nirmaan factory (yaajaaki Corporation) ke baahar vinirmaan kshetr mein mukhyat: krushi utpaad sansaadhit hote hain. paryatan ek vistaarasheel kshetr hai, jiska sakal ghareloo utpaad mein 25% ka yogadaan hai. paryatakon ka aagaman pichhle varshon mein badha hai, 1996 mein jahaan 70,000 paryatak aaye the, vaheen 2005 mein 100,000 se jyaada paryatak dveepon mein aaye.

samoaa ki sarkaar ne vitteeya kshetr ke aviniyman, nivesh ko protsaahan aur satat raajakosheeya anushaasan ka aahvaan kiya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] paryavekshakon ne bhaavi aarthik vikaas ke liye buniyaadi taakat ke roop mein shram baajaar ke lacheelepan ka ullekh kiya hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] hotel ke aadhaarbhoot sanrachana mein bade poonji nivesh, padosi prashaant mahaasaagareeya deshon mein raajaneetik asthirta aur sarkaar tatha varjin airlines ke beech 2005 mein ek sanyukt udyam polineshiyaai blyoo ke praarambh se is kshetr ko badi bhaari madad mili.

samoaa ek upajaaoo, laabhadaayak, utpaadak dveepasamooh hai. jarman aupanivesheekaran se pehle yahaan jyaadaatar kopare ka utpaadan hota tha. jarman vyaapaari aur upaniveshi bade star par baagaan lagaane ki shuruaat karne aur nae udyog viksit karne mein sakriya hue, khaaskar koko been aur rabar ke. iske liye ve cheen aur melaaneshiya ke aayaatit majadooron par nirbhar the. pratham vishv yuddh ke ant mein jab praakrutik rabar ke moolya badi teji se neeche aa gaye, tab New Zealand sarkaar ne kela ke utpaadan ko protsaahit kiya, jiska New Zealand mein bada baajaar hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

oonchaai mein bhinnata ke kaaran, anek prakaar ki ushnakatibandheeya aur uposhnakatibandheeya fasalon ki kheti ki ja sakti hai, lekin baahari hiton ke liye aam taur par bhoomi upalabdh naheen hai. 2,934 kimee² (725,000 ekad) ke kul bhoomi kshetr mein se, lagbhag 24.4% mein sthaayi fasal hain aur 21.2% bhoomi krushi yogya hai. lagbhag 4.4% bhoomi western samoan trast istets Corporation (WSTEC) ke paas hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

samoaa ke pradhaan utpaadon mein kopara (sookhe naariyl), koko fali (chaukalet ke liye) aur kele hain. kele aur kopara donon ka vaarshik utpaadan 13,000 se 15,000 meetrik tan (lagbhag 14,500 se 16,500 chhote tan) tak hai. agar samoaa se raayanoseros beetal (ek prakaar ka bhaunra) ko samaapt kar diya jaaya to samoaa 40,000 meetrik tan (44,000 chhote tan) tak kopare ka utpaadan kar sakta hai. samoaa ki koko fali bahut hi uchch gunavatta ki hoti hai aur New Zealand ke uttam chaukaleton mein prayukt ki jaati hai. adhikaansh kriollo-foraastero sankar kism ki hain. kaufi achhi paida hoti hai, lekin utpaadan asamaan hai. dablyooesateeisi (WSTEC) sabse bada kaufi utpaadak hai. rabar ka utpaadan samoaa mein anek varshon se ho raha hai, lekin arthavyavastha par iske niryaat moolya ka prabhaav bahut kam hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

anya krushi udyog kam safal rahe hain. mool roop se 20veen sadi ke praarambh mein jarmanon dvaara shuroo kiya gaya ganna utpaadan safal ho sakta hai. epiya ke poorv mein kuchh baagaan kshetron mein ganna ke parivhan ke liye banaai gayi puraani train ki patariyaan dekhi ja sakti hain. samoaa mein anannaas ka achha utpaadan hota hai, lekin sthaaneeya khapat se pare iska koi bada niryaat naheen hota hai.

arthavyavastha ke ghatak

2006 mein kraya shakti samaanata mein sakal ghareloo utpaad (GDP) anumaanat: 1,218 billion ameriki dollar par tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein][krupaya uddharan jodein] 58.4% ke saath audyogik kshetr, sakal ghareloo utpaad ka sabse bada ghatak hai, uske baad 30.2% (anumaanit 2004) ke saath seva kshetr aata hai. krushi sakal ghareloo utpaad ka sirf 11.4% (anumaanit 2004) ka hi pratinidhitv karti hai. saamoaai shram shakti anumaanat: 90,000 hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

janasaankhyikeeya

ek samoaai parivaar.
inhein bhi dekhein: Religion in Samoa

CIA world faiktabuk ke anusaar samoaa ki aabaadi 182,265 hai; jiska 92.6% samoaai, 7% yuroneshiyaai (mishrit, Europeeya aur polineshiyaai poorvajon ke log) aur 0.4% Europeeyon ka hai. lagbhag teen-chauthaai aabaadi mukhya dweep upolu mein rahati hai.[26] polineshiyaai samoohon mein keval New Zealand ke maaori ki sankhya samoaaiyon se adhik hai.

dharm

samoaaiyon ki dhaarmik nishtha mein nimnalikhit shaamil hain: samoaa ka isaai saamudaayik church 35.5%, roman Catholic 12.7%, methodist 15%, laitar-de saints 12.7%, samoan esembaleej of gaud 10.6%, seveinth-de edveintist 3.5%, varship center 1.3%, anirdisht 0.8% (2001 janaganana).[36]

raashtra pramukh mahaaraaj maliyetoaa taanumafili dviteeya 2007 tak bahaai dharmaantarit the. samoaa ne vishv mein saat bahaai poojaasthalon mein se ek ki sthaapana ki; jo 1984 mein poora hua aur raashtra pramukh dvaara samarpit kiya gaya, jo epiya se 8 kimi (5 meal) door tiapaapata mein sthit hai.

sanskruti

inhein bhi dekhein: Music of Samoa
mairi ki nirmal avadhaarana ka roman Catholic kaithedral.
ek samoaai agni nartaki.

fa'a samoaa ya paaramparik samoaai reeti, samoaai jeevan aur raajaneeti mein ek majaboot shakti bani hui hai. sadiyon se Europeeya prabhaav ke baavajood, samoaa ne apne aitihaasik reeti-rivaaj, saamaajik aur raajaneetik vyavastha aur bhaasha ko sanjoe rakha hai. mataai pramukh ki upaadhi pradaan karne sahit mahatvapoorn avsaron ke samay samoaa'ava anushthaan jaisi prathaaen mahatvapoorn aur pavitra krutya hain. mahaan saanskrutik moolya ki saamagriyon mein utkrusht roop se bune gaye 'ie toga ('ie toga) shaamil hain.

samoaai pauraanik kathaaon mein anek devata shaamil hain, jinke saath srushti ki kahaaniyaan aur tagaloaa tatha pulotoo aatma raajya ke shaasak saveasi'uleo ki beti yuddh ki devi naafanuaa jaisi kinvadantiyaan shaamil hain. anya kinvadantiyon mein seena aur L ki kahaani shaamil hai, jo pehle naariyl ke ped ki utpatti ke baare bataati hai.

kuchh samoaai aadhyaatmik aur dhaarmik hain aur unhonne aasaani se prabal isaai dharm ke saath fa'a samoaa ke 'taalamel' ko anukoolit kar liya aur vipreet kram mein bhi taalamel bithaaya. jaise ki isaai dharm ke saath-saath praacheen vishvaason ka sah-astitv bhi jaari hai, khaaskar samoaa ke paaramparik reeti-rivaajon aur fa'a samoaa ke maamale mein. saamoaai sanskruti vaafealoa'i, arthaat logon ke beech sambandh ke siddhaant ke aaspaas keindrit hai. ye rishte sammaan, ya fa'aaloaalo par aadhaarit hain. samoaa mein jab isaai dharm ka aagaman hua, tab jyaadaatar samoaai dharmaantarit ho gaye. vartamaan mein 98% aabaadi khud ki pehchaan isaai ke roop mein karti hai. anya 2 pratishat aabaadi ya to khud ko gair-dhaarmik maanati hai, ya kisi dhaarmik mandali se juda naheen maanati hai.

kuchh samoaai saamudaayik jeevan yaapan karte hain, ve saamoohik roop se gatividhiyon mein bhaag lete hain. paaramparik samoaai faale (ghar) iske udaaharan hain, jinme deevaarein naheen hoteen; raat mein ya kharaab mausam mein naariyl ke patton se use gher diya jaata hai.

nrutya ke liye samoaai shabd hai siva, jisme sangeet ke samay anoothe dhang se halke se shareer thirkata hai, haalaanki samoaai purush teji se shareer ko thirkaate hue naach sakte hain.[37] saasa bhi ek paaramparik nrutya hai jisme lakdi ke dramon (pait) ya belanaakaar maits ki taal par panktibddh nartak teji se samakaalik gati ka pradarshan karte hain. purushon dvaara kiya jaane wala ek anya nrutya fa'ataupaati ya chapat nrutya hai, jismein naachate samay shareer ke vibhinn bhaagon par chapat lagaakar taalabaddh dhvani paida ki jaati hai. shareer par ke keeton ko thappad lagaane se yeh vyutpann hua maana jaata hai.

samoaa ki paaramparik vaastukala ka roop aur nirmaan tufuga faai faale dvaara kiya jaane wala ek vishesh kaushal tha jo anya saanskrutik kalaaon se bhi juda hua hai.

godana

pe'aa ke saath ek purush, yeh ek purush samoaai taitoo hai.
ek paaramparik maaloo ke saath ek samoaai mahila.

havaaiyon, taahitiyon aur maaoriyon jaisi anya mukhya sanskrutiyon ke mahatvapoorn aur anokhe godana ya taitoo hote hain, usi tarah samoaa ke do ling vishesh aur saanskrutik roop se mahatvapoorn godana hain. purushon ke liye, ise pe'aa kaha jaata hai aur jo jatil va jyaamiteeya paitarn ke godana hote hain jo ki ghutanon se pasaliyon tak ke bhaag ko dhank dete hain. koi purush jo aise godane (tataaoo) godavaaya hua hota hai use soga'imiti kehte hain. samoaai ladki ya teine ko maaloo diya jaata hai, jo uske ghutanon ke jara-sa neeche se usaki oopari jaangh tak faila hota hai.[38]

samakaaleen sanskruti

albart veindat ek mahatvapoorn samoaai lekhak hain, jinke upanyaas aur kahaaniyaan samoaai anubhav ko bayaan karti hain. 1989 mein, unke upanyaas flaaing fauks in A freedom tri par New Zealand mein ek feature film banaai gayi, jiska nirdeshan Martin seindarasan kiya hai.[39] unke ek anya upanyaas sans for the return hom par bhi 1979 mein paul maundar ke nirdeshan mein ek feature film banaai gayi.[40] anya samoaai kaviyon aur lekhakon mein shaamil hain sapaaoo ruperaake petaiaa, eti saaga aur samoaa objarvar ke sampaadak saaveya saano malifa.

ameriki samoaa mein janme nipun naatakakaar aur patakatha lekhak sv. John neubuhi tatha lekhak siya figiyel ne 1997 ka raashtramandal lekhak puraskaar paaya. momo vaun reeche antararaashtreeya star par maanyata praapt kavi aur kalaakaar hain. lokapriya band mein shaamil hain the five stars, penina O tiaafaaoo aur punialaava. saath hi anek samakaaleen samoaai kalaakaar duniya bhar mein bhi rahate hain. in samoaai kalaakaaron mein shaamil hain lekhak, film nirmaata, drushya kalaakaar, abhineta, nirdeshak, gaayak aur nartak. New Zealand ke samakaaleen nrutya mein lemi ponifsio ek nirdeshak va nrutya-nirdeshak[41] hain aur neel leremiya ki company black gres ne Europe aur New York ke daure se antararaashtreeya khyaati praapt ki. kala sangathan tautaai drushya kalaakaaron ka ek samooh hai, jisme faatu feoo, Johnny penisula, shigeyuki kihaara, losefa lio, Michelle tafri, John loaana aur lili laaita bhi shaamil hain.[42]

film mein, nirdeshak sima uraale ek award vijeta film nirmaata hain. uraale ki laghu film O tamaiti ne 1996 mein venis film mahotsav mein sarvashreshth laghu film ka pratishthit award jeeta. unki pehli feature film epron strings se 2008 New Zealand antarraashtreeya film samaaroh ka praarambh hua. oscar kaaitale ke sah-lekhan ki feature film sions veding okalaind aur epiya ke Premier ke baad aarthik roop se safal rahi thi. sangeet mein, the yaandal sistars ke sveet inspireshan geet ka kavar chart par pehle number par aaya, jabki King kapisi pehle hip hope kalaakaar the jinhein unke geet rivers resisteins ke liye 1999 mein pratishthit New Zealand apara (APRA) silver skrol award praapt hua. unke sangeet video rivers resisteins ko savaai ke unke gaanvon mein filmaaya gaya tha. anya safal samoaai hip haup kalaakaaron mein shaamil hain rapper skraaib, dei haamo, savaaj aur tha feelastaail jiska sangeet video suaamaali samoaa mein filmaaya gaya tha.

Comedy mein, laafing samoans, naiked samoans aur kila kokonat dal ne safal daure kiye. abhineta va nirdeshak nathaaniyel lees ne anek theatre prodakshans aur filmon mein kaam kiya, saath hi truteeya the maitriks film mein kaptaan mifune ki bhoomika bhi ki. theatre mein, prakaashit naatakakaaron mein shaamil hain oscar kaaitale, Victor Roger, makerita uraale aur niuen samoaai naatakakaar daayana fuemaana.[43] tusiata aviya ek pradarshan karne waali kavayitri hain. unki kavita ki pehli pustak wild daugs under maai skart ko 2004 mein Victoria vishvavidyaalaya press ne prakaashit kiya tha.

hip haup jaise antararaashtreeya prabhaavon ne samoaai sanskruti ko prabhaavit kiya hai. manoaa sthit havaai vishvavidyaalaya se Ph.D. karne waali katareena maartina teiva ke anusaar "vishesh roop se hip haup sanskruti yuvaaon ke beech lokapriya hai."[44] samoaa, havaai aur sanyukt raajya America ki mukhya bhoomi, vishesh roop se California ke beech badi taadaad mein ho rahe pravaas ko dekhkar aashcharya karne ki koi baat naheen. iske alaava, samoaai parampara mein hip haup tatvon ka ekeekaran bhi "nrutya roopon ki sthaanaantaraneeyata ka khud hi saakshi hai" aur "un paripthon ke pramaan hain jinke maadhyam se log aur unke sabhi sannihit gyaan yaatra karte hain."[45] paaramparik aur adhik aadhunik, apne donon roopon mein nrutya samoaaiyon, khaaskar yuvaaon ka ek keindreeya saanskrutik prachalan bana hua hai.[44]

khel-kood

inhein bhi dekhein: Sport in Samoa
samoaa (blyoo) banaam dakshin Africa June 2007 mein.

samoaa mein khele jaane vaale mukhya khel ragbi union, samoaai cricket aur netabaul hain. ragbi union samoaa ka raashtreeya football code hai. samoaa ke gaanvon mein, vauleebaul bhi lokapriya hai.

ragbi union samoaa mein bahut lokapriya hai aur raashtreeya team, jiska upanaam manu samoaa hai, kaheen adhik badi aabaadi vaale deshon ki teemon ke viruddh lagaataar pratispardhi bani rahati hai. 1991 ke baad se samoaa ne sabhi ragbi vishv cup pratiyogita mein bhaag liya hai aur 1991, 1995 mein quarter final tatha 1999 vishv cup ke doosare daur mein apni jagah banaai thi.[46] 2003 ke vishv cup mein, manu samoaa sambhaavit vishv champion England ko haraane ke bilkul kareeb aa pahuncha tha. samoaa paisifik nations cup aur paisifik traai-nations mein bhi khela karta hai. yeh khel samoaa ragbi football union ke adheen hai, jo paisifik aailainds ragbi elaayans ke sadasya hain aur is tarah, international paisifik aailaindars ragbi union team mein bhi yogadaan karte hain.

club star par national provinsiyl championship hai aur paisifik ragbi cup ke pramukh samoaai khilaadiyon mein pait laam aur Brian leema shaamil hain. iske alaava aise anek samoaai hain jo New Zealand all blacks ke liye khel chuke hain ya khel rahe hain. 2007 mein velingatan aur Hongkong ragbi sevens ke cup ve apne desh laaye - jiske liye samoaa ke pradhaanamantri tuila'epa sa'ilele maaliyelegoi, jo ki raashtreeya ragbi union ke adhyaksh bhi hain, ne raashtreeya chhutti ki ghoshana ki thi. ve 2010 mein aaiaarabi world sevens series ke vijeta bhi bane, yeh samoaaiyon ke liye upalabdhi ka saal raha; iske baad unhonne sanyukt raajya America, Australia, Hongkong aur Scotland mein bhi jeet haasil ki.

samoaaiyon mein ragbi league bhi lokapriya hai, 2000 ke ragbi league vishv cup ke quarter final mein samoaa ne apni jagah bana li thi. anek samoaai aur samoaai vansh ke nyoojeelaindavaasi ya ostreliyaavaasi Britain mein super league tatha national leegs mein khelte hain. jaise ki va'ega leeluga tuigaamaala New Zealand all blacks ka pratinidhitv karte hain, jo baad mein vigaan ke liye ragbi league khelne ke liye million dollar ka samjhauta karne vaale pehle khilaadi bane, uske baad unhonne samoaa ka pratinidhitv karne se pehle nyookaisal faalkons ke liye ragbi union khela. iske alaava, varkingatan taaun ke ta'aane laavoolaavoo, saint heleins ke mauri f'asavaalu aur vhaaitahaiven ke David fatiyaalofa bhi shaamil hain.

samoaai mukkebaaji, kikbauksing, kushti aur sumo mein bahut dikhaai dete hain; bahut prasiddh musaasheemaaroo aur konishiki jaise kuchh samoaai sumo ojeki aur yokojuna ke uchchatam raink tak pahunch chuke hain. dveepon ki apekshaakrut chhoti aabaadi ke baavajood anek samoaai aur samoaai mool ke log kai peshevar khel leegon ke oonche star tak pahunche hain. iske alaava David tuaa ek bahut prakhyaat samoaai mukkebaaj hain.

samoaa mein ameriki football seemit roop mein khela jaata hai, lekin ameriki samoaa mein yeh bahut hi lokapriya hai, jahaan uchch vidyaalaya ke anumodan ke tahat yeh khel khela jaata hai. lagbhag 30 samoaai mool ke khilaadi in dinon national football league (enaefael) mein khel rahe hain, inmein adhikaansh ameriki samoaai hain. 2002 ke ESPN ke ek lekh mein anumaan lagaaya gaya ki kisi gair-samoaai ameriki ki tulana mein samoaai purush (chaahe vah ameriki samoaai ho ya sanyukt raajya America mein rahane wala koi samoaai ho) enaefael mein khelne ke liye 40 guna adhik sanbhaavya hote hain.[47]

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/g' not found.

  • 1889 epiya chakravaat
  • 2009 samoaa sunaami
  • samoaa mein puraatatv
  • jarman samoaa
  • samoaa, California
  • esaes tailyun
  • samoaa mein parivhan

sandarbh

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  8. praacheen samoaa ka raajaneetik arthashaastr: besaalt adje production end linkejej tu social status" (vintarahoff 2007)
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  12. raaiden, prushth. 571
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  14. "Imperialism as a Vocation: Class C Mandates". http://www.jamesrmaclean.com/archives/archive_vocational_imperialism.html. abhigman tithi: 27 November 2007.
  15. "The 1918 flu pandemic". NZHistory.net.nz. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/culture/influenza-pandemic. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  16. Albert Wendt. "Guardians and Wards: (A study of the origins, causes, and the first two years of the Mau in Western Samoa.)". http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-WenGua-c2.html.
  17. "Wartime administration - capture of German Samoa". NZHistory.net.nz. http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/war/capture-of-samoa/administration. abhigman tithi: 18 October 2010.
  18. "Nelson, Olaf Frederick 1883 - 1944". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. http://www.dnzb.govt.nz/dnzb/default.asp?Find_Quick.asp?PersonEssay=4N5. abhigman tithi: 27 November 2007.
  19. "The Mau Movement" (PDF). Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071201163452/http://www.globaled.org.nz/comm/documents/GlobalBits_Parihaka_000.pdf. abhigman tithi: 27 November 2007.
  20. Field, Michael (2006). Black Saturday: New Zealand's tragic blunders in Samoa. Auckland, N.Z.: Reed Publishing (NZ). aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0790011034.
  21. "History and migration: Who are the Samoans?". Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/NewZealandPeoples/Samoans/1/en. abhigman tithi: 27 November 2007.
  22. "New Zealand's apology to Samoa". http://www.michaelfield.org/mauapology.htm.
  23. "Prime Minister Helen Clark's Historic Apology". http://192.54.242.122/details.php?table=doc_primary&id=164.
  24. "Constitution Amendment Act (No 2) 1997". http://www.paclii.org/ws/legis/num_act/caa21997295/. abhigman tithi: 27 November 2007.
  25. "Samoa switches to driving on left". BBC News. 7 September 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8243110.stm. abhigman tithi: 7 September 2009.
  26. a aa "Background Note: Samoa". U.S. State Department. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/1842.htm. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  27. New Zealand Herald. "New head of state for Samoa". http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/2/story.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10446128. abhigman tithi: 16 June 2007.
  28. "Samoa: Key Facts: Political". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Countries/Pacific/Samoa.php. abhigman tithi: 27 November 2007.
  29. "Samoa: Country Reports on Human Rights Practices in 2006". U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78789.htm. abhigman tithi: 27 November 2007.
  30. "Smaoa: Climate". Encyclopæadia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-54101/Samoa. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  31. Koppers, Anthony A.P.; Russell, Jackson, Konter, Staudigel, and Hart (June 2008). "Samoa reinstated as a primary hotspot trail". Geology (The Geological Society of America) 36 (6): 435–438. doi:10.1130/G24630A.1.
  32. "GSA Press Release - GEOLOGY/GSA Today Media Highlights". Geosociety.org. 2008-05-27. http://www.geosociety.org/news/pr/08-23.htm. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-30.
  33. savaai'i - ek parichay, samoaa paryatan praadhikran.
  34. "Introduction". Central Bank of Samoa website. http://www.cbs.gov.ws/about/intro/index.html. abhigman tithi: 18 November 2010.
  35. "Samoa: Economy". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ws.html#Econ. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  36. "Samoa: People; Religions". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ws.html#People. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  37. "Dance: Siva". Samoa.co.uk. http://www.samoa.co.uk/dance.html. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  38. "Worn With Pride > Tatau (Tatoo)". Oceanside Museum of Art. http://www.oma-online.org/worn_with_pride_04.html. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  39. "NZ Feature Project: Flying Fox in a Freedom Tree - The New Zealand Film Archive". Filmarchive.org.nz. http://www.filmarchive.org.nz/feature-project/pages/Flying-Fox.php. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-30.
  40. "NZ Feature Project: Sons For the Return Home - The New Zealand Film Archive". Filmarchive.org.nz. http://www.filmarchive.org.nz/feature-project/pages/SFTRH.php. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-30.
  41. "Forum 2009: 27 fravari - 21 March". MAU. 2009-03-21. http://www.mau.co.nz/. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-30.
  42. "Home - Tautai Contemporary Pacific Arts Trust". Tautaipacific.com. http://www.tautaipacific.com/. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-30.
  43. "Buy NZ books and NZ plays online - Home". Playmarket. http://www.playmarket.org.nz/home. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-30.
  44. a aa jeevan ka nrutya | American samoaa[mrut kadiyaaain]
  45. heindarasan, April ke. "dveepon ke beech nrutya: hip haup aur samoaan daayaspora" in the vinaail aint final: hip haup end the globalaaijeshan of black paupular kalchar, deepaannita Basu aur Sydney J. lemele dvaara sanpaadit, 180-199. London; enn aarbar, emaaai: plooto press, 2000
  46. "Rugby in Samoa". ManuSamoa.net. http://www.manusamoa.net/history.htm. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.
  47. "American football, Samoan style". ESPN. http://espn.go.com/gen/s/2002/0527/1387562.html. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2007.

aage padhein

manono dweep par ek faale
  • Watson, aaraem, samoaa ka itihaas (velingatan, 1918)
  • shani, dau॰ henarik (jarman samoaa ke poorv up raajyapaal aur jarman poorvi Africa ke antim Governor). 1926. jarman kolonaaijeshan, paast end future-the truth abaaut the jarman kauloneej. London: George Allen aur anavin.
  • yoostis, nelsan. [1979] 1980. eggi gre of samoaa. edeeled, dakshin Australia: haubi nivesh. ISBN 0-9595609-0-4.
  • Stevenson, Robert Louis. A Footnote to History: Eight Years of Trouble in Samoa. BiblioBazaar. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-4264-0754-8.

baahari links

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chitr evam anya media kaumans par
sooktiyaaain vikisookti par
granth vikisrot par
paathyapustakein vikitaab par
sarkaar
saamaanya jaankaari
anya

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