samayamaapan

jab samay beetata hai, tab ghatanaaeain ghatit hoti hain tatha chalabindu sthaanaantarit hote hain. isliye do lagaataar ghatnaaon ke hone athva kisi gatisheel bindu ke ek bindu se doosare bindu tak jaane ke antaraal (prateekshaanubhooti) ko samay kehte hain. samay naapane ke yantr ko ghadi athva ghateeyantr kehte hain. is prakaar ham yeh bhi kah sakte hain ki samay vah bhautik tatv hai jise ghateeyantr se naapa jaata hai.

saapekshavaad ke anusaar samay digdesh ke saapeksh hai. at: is lekh mein samayamaapan pruthvi ki soorya ke saapeksh gati se utpann digdesh ke saapeksh samay se liya jaaega. samay ko naapane ke liye sulabh ghateeyantr pruthvi hi hai, jo apne aksh tatha kaksh mein ghoomkar hamein samay ka bodh karaati hai; kintu pruthvi ki gati hamein drushya naheen hai. pruthvi ki gati ke saapeksh hamein soorya ki do prakaar ki gatiyaaain drushya hoti hain, ek to poorv se pashchim ki taraf pruthvi ki parikrama tatha doosari poorv bindu se uttar ki or aur uttar se dakshin ki or jaakar, kaksha ka bhraman. ataev vyaavahaarik drushti se ham soorya se hi kaal ka gyaan praapt karte hain.

anukram

samay maapan ka itihaas

nakshatr ghadi ko theek karne ki vidhi

nakshatr ghadi ki ashuddhi ko jaanane ke liye yaamyottar yantr (transit instrument) dvaara soorya athva taaron ka vedh karke, kronomeetar naamak yantr ki sahaayata se, unke yaamyottar langhan ka nakshatr samay jaan liya jaata hai. (transit instrument) dvaara soorya athva taaron ka vedh karke, kronomeetar naamak yantr ki sahaayata se, unke yaamyottar langhan ka nakshatr samay jaan liya jaata hai.

naakshatr ghadi se milaakar, yaamyottar yantr ke dooradarshi mein grah ya taare ke bedh ke nakshatr samay ko kronomeetar ka svich dabaakar jaan liya jaata hai. is samay se yaantrik ashuddhiyon ko nikaal dene par jo samay praapt hota hai, vahi grah ya taare ke yaamyottar ke oodhrv bindu ke langhan ka samay hota hai. yadi naakshatr padi theek hai, to yeh grah ya taare ke vishuvaansh ke tulya hoga aur antar ghadi ki ashuddhi hai. is prakaar nakshatr ghadi ko shuddh rakhakar usase maadhya soorya ghadiyon ko shuddh kiya jaata hai. yaamyottar yantr dvaara vedh karne mein vyaktigat ashuddhi ki adhik sambhaavana hai. isliye taaron ke yaamyottar langhan ke nakshatr samay ko camera lage khamadhya dooradarshakon (zenith tubes) se bhi jaana jaata hai.

is prakaar yadyapi maadhya samay ki ghadiyon ko theek rakha jaata hai, tathaapi unamein dainik sanshodhan karna ek samasya thi. isliye aajkal ghadiyon ke second soochak upakaran kvaartanj ke kristalon (quartz crystals) se banaae jaate hain. kvaartanj ke kristalon par ushnata ka prabhaav bahut kam padta hai. ataev ye ghadiyaaain bahut shuddh samay deti hain. inmein second ke hajaaravein bhaag tak ki ashuddhi jaani ja sakti hai. saath is ghadi ko us tarah ki doosare stationon par rakhi ghadiyon ke samay sanketak, pip, ko sunakar, milaaya ja sakta hai tatha isse samay sanketak (time signals) pip bheje bhi ja sakte hain. is prakaar ki ek ghadi kaashi ki prastaavit, raajakeeya sanskrut kaalaj vedhashaala ke liye san 1953 mein maingavaai gayi thi, jo ab raajakeeya vedhashaala naineetaal mein hai. is prakaar ki ghadiyon se desh ki mukhya ghadiyon ko theek karke, radio ke samay sakeintak "pip" se sab maadhya sooryan ghadiyaaain theek rakhi jaati hain.

aajkal pratyek desh mein madhyaraatri ke samay ko shoonya maankar, vaheen se din ka praarambh maanate hain. din raat ke 24 ghanton ko do 12 ghanton mein, (1) raat ke baarah baje se 12 ghanton tak poorvaahnakaal tak tatha (2) din ke 12 baje se raatri ke 12 baje tak aparaahnakaal mein, baaaint diya jaata hai. hamaari ghadiyaaain yaheen samay batalaati hain. in 24 ghanton ko naagrik din kehte hain. din mein 24 ghante, 1 ghante mein 60 minit tatha ek minute mein 60 second hote hain. vigyaan ki angreji maapan pranaali foot second mein tatha antararaashtreeya pranaali seinteemeetar gram second mein second hi samay ki ikaai hai.

maanak samay (Standard Time)

samay ka sambandh kisi nishchit sthaan ke yaamyottaravrutt se rahata hai. at: vah us sthaan ka sthaaneeya samay hoga. kisi bade desh mein ek jaisa samay rakhane ke liye, desh ke beechobeech sthit kisi sthaan ke yaamyottar vrutt ka maanak yaamyottar vrutt (standard meridian) maan liya jaata hai. iske saapeksh maadhya-soorya ka samay us desh ka maanak samay kahalaata hai.

vishv-samay-maapan

vishv ka samay naapane ke liye grinich ke yaamyottar vrutt ko maanak yaamyottar maan lete hain. iske poorv mein sthit deshon ka samay grinich se, unke deshaantar ke prati 15roo par ek ghante ke hisaab se, aage hoga tatha pashchim mein peechhe. is prakaar Bhaarat ka maapak yaamyottar grinich ke yaamyottaravrutt se poorv deshaantar 82 hai. at: Bhaarat ka maadhya samay grinich ke maadhya samay se 5 ghante 30 minit adhik hai. isi prakaar kshetreeya samay bhi maan liye gaye hain. grinich ke 180roo deshaantar ki rekha tithirekha hai. iske aarapaar samay mein 1 din ka antar maan liya jaata hai. tithirekha suvidha ke liye seedhi na maankar tedhi medhi maani gayi hai.

varsh tatha calendar

pruthvi ki gati ke kaaran jab soorya vasantapaat ki ek parikrama kar leta hai, tab use ek aartav varsh kehte hain. yeh 365.24219879 din ka hota hai. yadi ham vasantapaat par sthit kisi sthir bindu athva taare se is parikrama ko naapein, to yeh naakshatr varsh hoga. yeh aartav varsh se kuchh bada hai. rituon se taal mel rakhane ke liye sansaar mein aartav varsh prachalit hai. sansaar mein aajkal gregreriyni calendar prachalit hai, jise Pope gregori trayodash ne 1582 E. mein sanshodhit kiya tha. ismein February ko chhodkar sabhi maheenon ke din sthir hain. saadhaaran varsh 365 din ka hota hai. leep varsh (February 29 din) 366 din ka hota hai, jo isvi san ki shataabdi ke aarambh se pratyek chauthe varsh mein padta hai. 400 se poore kat jaanevaale isvi shataabdi ke varshon ko chhodkar, shesh shataabdi varsh leep varsh naheen hote. aitihaasik ghatnaaon tatha jyotish sambandhi gananaaon ke liye jooliyn din sankhyaaeain (Julian day numbers) prachalit hain, jo 1 January 4713 E. poo. ke madhyaahn se praarambh hote hain.