samatal darpan

darpan (Mirrors) aise prakaasheeya tal (optical surfaces) hain jo prakaash ki kirnon ke paraavartan (reflection) ke dvaara ya to prakaashapunj ko pratyaavartit kar dete hain athva use ek bindu par abhisrut (converge) karke binb (image) ka nirmaan karte hain. prakaasheeya yantron ke, vishesh kar jyotish se sanbadhit yantron ke, nirmaan mein darpanon ne atyant mahatvapoorn sahaayata pradaan ki hai.

darpan ke tal se paraavartit hote samay prakaash ki kirnein do vishesh niyamon ka paalan karti hain. in niyamon ko paraavartan ke niyam (Laws of Reflection) kehte hain. ye nimnalikhit hain:

  • 1. aapaati kiran, aapatan bindu par abhilanb tatha paraavartit kiran ek hi samatal mein sthit hote hain.
  • 2. abhilanb ke saath aapaati kiran tatha paraavartit kiran dvaara bananevaale kon paraspar banaabar hote hain. pehle kon a (i) ko aapatan kon tatha doosare kon p (r) ko paraavartan kon kehte hain.

yadi koi tal prakaash ki kirnon ka paraavartan kisi aise prakaar se karta hai jismein kirnein uparyukt niyamon ka paalan naheen karateen to aisa tal darpan ka tal na hokar visaari paraavartak tal (diffusive reflecting surface) kaha jaaega.

praaya: sabhi darpanon ki rachana samuchit aakruti ke kaachatal par kisi atyadhik paraavartanasheel padaarth ki patali parat chadhaakar ki jaati hai. yeh prakriya praaya: nirvaat aalepan dvaara sampann ki jaati hai aur padaarth ka chayan us varnakram pradesh ke anusaar kiya jaata hai jiske liya darpan ka prayog abheesht hai.

drushya prakhand (visible region) ke liye chaaaindi sarvaadhik paraavartaneeyata (reflectivity) pradaan karti hai, kintu saadhaaranataya ailyoominiym ka hi upayog kiya jaata hai. iska kaaran yeh hai ki elyoominiym chaaaindi ki apeksha adhik tikaaoo hota hai. iska kaaran ailyoominiym oksaaid hai, jo ailyoominiym ke vaayumandal ke sampark mein aane par ban jaata hai.

anukram

niktasth tatha doorasth avarakt prakhand (Near and far infra-red region)

lagbhag 2 maaikraun tarangadairdhya tak ke prakaash ke liye ailyoominiym ke sthaan par sone ka upayog darpan ki kalai karne ke liye kiya jaata hai. 0.35 myoo (m) ke neeche varnakram prakhand ke liye pun: ailyoominiym hi upayukt siddh hota hai, kyonki 0.31 myoo (m) ke sameep ki kirnon ke liye ailyoominiym paaradarshi hota hai. 0.10 myoo (m) ke neeche plaitinm ka upayog kiya jaata hai, kyonki in kirnon ke liye ailyoominiym paaradarshi hota hai.

samatal darpan

samatal darpan dvaara kisi vastu ka binb banane ki prakriya mein nimnalikhit teen baatein mukhya hoti hain :

  • 1. vastu ka binb aisi sthiti mein tatha aise aakaar ka banta hai ki darpan ka tal vastu aur binb ke sangat binduon ko milaanevaalat rekhaaon ke lanbavat‌ padta hai aur unhein samadvibhaajit karta hai.
  • 2. vastu ka koi bhaag darpan se jitni door aage sthit hota hai, usaka binb darpan mein utani hi door peechhe banta hai. iske falasvaroop binb ke paarshv badle hue se prateet hote hai. is kriya ko paarshvik utkraman (Iateral inversion) kehte hain.
  • 3. binb ki sthiti keval vastu aur darpan ki sthiti par nirbhar karti he, dekhanevaale ki sthiti par naheen.

samatal darpan se bananevaale binb aabhaasi (virtual) hote hain, kyonki paraavartit kirnein kisi ek bindu par milti naheen, varan‌ binb se apasrut (diverge) hoti hui prateet hoti hain. isliye ye kirnein kisi parde par vastu ke vaastavik (real) binb ka nirmaan naheen kar sakateen.

paraspar jhuke hue darpanon se binbon ka nirmaan

jab do samatal darpan ek doosare par jhuke hue hote hain tab unke beech sthit kisi vastu ka binb donon darpanon dvaara banta hai. in binbon se aur bhi anek binb punaraavrut paraavartanon (repeated reflections) dvaara ban sakte hain,

pratibinbon ki sankhya = 360◦/θ - 1 hota hain.

jahaaain θ = do samatal darpan jhukaav se bana kon hain.

darpanon ka ghoornan (Rotation of mirrors)

paraavartit kiran mein darpan ke ghumaav ka duna ghumaav utpann ho jaata hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • goleeya darpan
darpan Make-up mirror.jpg
samatal darpan | uttal darpan | avatal darpan