samaas

samaas ka taatparya hai 'sankshipteekaran'. do ya do se adhik shabdon se milkar bane hue ek naveen evam saarthak shabd ko samaas kehte hain. jaise - 'rasoi ke liye ghar' ise ham 'rasoighar' bhi kah sakte hain. sanskrut evam anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein samaas ka bahutaayat mein prayog hota hai. jarman aadi bhaashaaon mein bhi samaas ka bahut adhik prayog hota hai.

anukram

paribhaashaaeain

saamaasik shabd

samaas ke niyamon se nirmit shabd saamaasik shabd kahalaata hai. ise samastapad bhi kehte hain. samaas hone ke baad vibhktiyon ke chinh (parasarg) lupt ho jaate hain. jaise-raajaputr.

samaas-vigrah

saamaasik shabdon ke beech ke sambandh ko spasht karna samaas-vigrah kahalaata hai. jaise-raajaputr-raaja ka putr.

poorvapad aur uttarapad

samaas mein do pad (shabd) hote hain. pehle pad ko poorvapad aur doosare pad ko uttarapad kehte hain. jaise-gangaajal. ismein ganga poorvapad aur jal uttarapad hai.

sanskrut mein samaason ka bahut prayog hota hai. anya bhaarateeya bhaashaaon mein bhi samaas upayog hota hai. samaas ke baare mein sanskrut mein ek sookti prasiddh hai:

vandvo dvigurapi chaahan madgehe nityamavyayeebhaav:.
tat purush karm dhaaraya yenaahan syaan bahuvreehi:.

samaas ke bhed

samaas ke chh: bhed hote hain:

  • avyayeebhaav
  • tatpurush
  • dvigu
  • dvandv
  • bahuvreehi
  • karmadhaaraya

avyayeebhaav samaas

jis samaas ka pehla pad pradhaan ho aur vah avyaya ho use avyayeebhaav samaas kehte hain. jaise - yathaamati (mati ke anusaar), aamaran (mrutyu kar) n inmein yatha aur aa avyaya hain.

kuchh anya udaaharan -

  • aajeevan - jeevan-bhar
  • yathaasaamarthya - saamarthya ke anusaar
  • yathaashakti - shakti ke anusaar
  • yathaavidhi- vidhi ke anusaar
  • yathaakram - kram ke anusaar
  • bharapet- pet bharakar
  • hararoj - roj-roj
  • haathonhaath - haath hi haath mein
  • raatonraat - raat hi raat mein
  • pratidin - pratyek din
  • beshak - shak ke bina
  • nidr - dar ke bina
  • nissandeh - sandeh ke bina
  • prativrsh - har varsh

avyayeebhaav samaas ki pehchaan - ismein samast pad avyaya ban jaata hai arthaat samaas lagaane ke baad usaka roop kabhi naheen badalta hai. iske saath vibhkti chinh bhi naheen lagta. jaise - oopar ke samast shabd hai.

tatpurush samaas

tatpurush samaas - jis samaas ka uttarapad pradhaan ho aur poorvapad gaun ho use tatpurush samaas kehte hain. jaise - tulaseedaasakrut = tulasi dvaara krut (rachit)

jnyaaatavya- vigrah mein jo kaarak prakat ho usi kaarak wala vah samaas hota hai.

vibhktiyon ke naam ke anusaar tatpurush samaas ke chhah bhed hain-

  1. karm tatpurush (girhakat - girh ko kaatne wala)
  2. karan tatpurush (manachaaha - man se chaaha)
  3. sanpradaan tatpurush (rasoighar - rasoi ke liye ghar)
  4. apaadaan tatpurush (deshanikaala - desh se nikaala)
  5. sambandh tatpurush (gangaajal - ganga ka jal)
  6. adhikran tatpurush (nagaravaas - nagar mein vaas)

tatpurush samaas ke prakaar

nanya tatpurush samaas

jis samaas mein pehla pad nishedhaatmak ho use nanya tatpurush samaas kehte hain. jaise -

samast pad samaas-vigrah samast pad samaas-vigrah
asabhya na sabhya anant na ant
anaadi na aadi asambhav na sambhav
karmadhaaraya samaas

jis samaas ka uttarapad pradhaan ho aur poorvapad va uttarapad mein visheshan-visheshya athva upamaan-upameya ka sambandh ho vah karmadhaaraya samaas kahalaata hai. jaise -

samast pad samaas-vigrah samast pad samaas-vigrah
chandramukh chandra jaisa mukh kamalanayan kamal ke samaan nayan
dehalata deh roopi lata daheebada dahi mein dooba bada
neelakamal neela kamal Pitambar peela anbar (vastr)
sajjan sat (achha) jan narasinh naron mein Singh ke samaan
dvigu samaas

jis samaas ka poorvapad sankhyaavaachak visheshan ho use dvigu samaas kehte hain. isse samooh athva samaahaar ka bodh hota hai. jaise -

samast pad samaas-vigrah samast pad samaas-vigrah
navagrah nau grahon ka samooh dopahar do paharon ka samaahaar
trilok teen lokon ka samaahaar chaumaasa chaar maason ka samooh
navaraatr nau raatriyon ka samooh shataabdi sau abdo (varshon) ka samooh
athanni aath aanon ka samooh trayambakeshvar teen lokon ka ishvar

dvandv samaas

jis samaas ke donon pad pradhaan hote hain tatha vigrah karne par 'aur', athva, 'ya', evam lagta hai, vah dvandv samaas kahalaata hai. jaise-

samast pad samaas-vigrah samast pad samaas-vigrah
paap-punya paap aur punya ann-jal ann aur jal
seeta-Ram seeta aur Ram khara-khota khara aur khota
ooainch-neech ooainch aur neech raadha-Krishna raadha aur Krishna

bahuvreehi samaas

jis samaas ke donon pad apradhaan hon aur samastapad ke arth ke atirikt koi saanketik arth pradhaan ho use bahuvreehi samaas kehte hain. jaise -

samast pad samaas-vigrah
dashaanan dash hai aanan (mukh) jiske arthaat raavan
neelakanth neela hai kanth jiska arthaat Shiv
sulochana sundar hai lochan jiske arthaat meghanaad ki patni
Pitambar peela hai ambar (vastr) jiska arthaat shreekrushn
lanbodar lamba hai udar (pet) jiska arthaat ganeshaji
duraatma buri aatma wala (koi dusht)
shvetaanbar shvet hai jiske anbar (vastr) arthaat sarasvati ji

karmadhaaraya aur bahuvreehi samaas mein antar

karmadhaaraya mein samast-pad ka ek pad doosare ka visheshan hota hai. ismein shabdaarth pradhaan hota hai. jaise - neelakanth = neela kanth. bahuvreehi mein samast pad ke donon padon mein visheshan-visheshya ka sambandh naheen hota apitu vah samast pad hi kisi anya sanjnyaaadi ka visheshan hota hai. iske saath hi shabdaarth gaun hota hai aur koi bhinnaarth hi pradhaan ho jaata hai. jaise - neel+kanth = neela hai kanth jiska arthaat Shiv..

sandhi aur samaas mein antar

sandhi varnon mein hoti hai. ismein vibhkti ya shabd ka lop naheen hota hai. jaise - Dave + aalaya = devaalaya.

samaas do padon mein hota hai. samaas hone par vibhkti ya shabdon ka lop bhi ho jaata hai. jaise - maata aur pita = maata-pita.

samaas-vyaas se vishay ka pratipaadan

yadi aapko lagta hai ki sandesh lamba ho gaya hai (jaise, koi ek prushth se adhik), to achha hoga ki aap samaas aur vyaas donon mein hi apne vishay-vastu ka pratipaadan karein arthaat jaise kisi shodh lekh ka prastuteekaran aarambh mein ek saaraansh ke saath kiya jaata hai, vaise hi aap bhi kar sakte hain. iske baare mein kuchh praacheen uddharan bhi diye ja rahe hain.

visteeryaitanmahajjnyaaanamrushi: sankshipya chaabraveet.
ishtan hi vidushaan loke samaasavyaasadhaaranam . (mahaabhaarat aadiprv 1.51)

--- arthaat maharshi ne is mahaan gyaan (mahaabhaarat) ka sankshep aur vistaar donon hi prakaar se varnan kiya hai, kyonki is lok mein vidvajjan kisi bhi vishay par samaas (sankshep) aur vyaas (vistaar) donon hi reetiyaaain pasand karte hain.

te vai khalvapi vidhy: suparigruheeta bhavanti yeshaan lakshanan prapanyachashch.
kevalan lakshanan keval: prapanyacho va na tatha kaarakan bhavati. (vyaakaran-mahaabhaashya 2. 1. 58, 6. 3. 14)

--- arthaat ve vidhiyaaain saralata se samajh mein aati hain jinka lakshan (sankshep se nirdesh) aur prapanyach (vistaar) se vidhaan hota hai. keval lakshan ya keval prapanyach utana prabhaavakaari naheen hota.

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain