samaajashaastr

samaajashaastr maanav samaaj ka adhyayan hai. yeh saamaajik vigyaan ki ek shaakha hai, jo maanaveeya saamaajik sanrachana aur gatividhiyon se sambandhit jaankaari ko parishkrut karne aur unka vikaas karne ke liye, anubhavajanya vivechan[1][2] aur vivechanaatmak vishleshan[3] ki vibhinn paddhatiyon ka upayog karta hai, aksar jiska dhyeya saamaajik kalyaan ke anusaran mein aise gyaan ko laagoo karna hota hai. samaajashaastr ki vishyavastu ke vistaar, aamne-saamane hone vaale sampark ke sookshm star se lekar vyaapak taur par samaaj ke bruhad star tak hai.

samaajashaastr, paddhati aur vishay vastu, donon ke maamale mein ek vistrut vishay hai. paramparaagat roop se iski kendreeyata saamaajik star-vinyaas (ya "varg"), saamaajik sambandh, saamaajik sampark, dharm, sanskruti aur vichlan par rahi hai, tatha iske drushtikon mein gunaatmak aur maatraatmak shodh takaneek, donon ka samaavesh hai. choonki adhikaanshat: manushya jo kuchh bhi karta hai vah saamaajik sanrachana ya saamaajik gatividhi ki shreni ke arntagat sateek baithata hai, samaajashaastr ne apna dhyaan dheere-dheere anya vishyon jaise, chikitsa, sainya aur dand sangathan, jan-sampark aur yahaan tak ki vaigyaanik gyaan ke nirmaan mein saamaajik gatividhiyon ki bhoomika par kendrit kiya hai. saamaajik vaigyaanik paddhatiyon ki seema ka bhi vyaapak roop se vistaar hua hai. 20veen shataabdi ke madhya ke bhaashaai aur saanskrutik parivrtanon ne teji se saamaaj ke adhyayan mein bhaashya vishyak aur vyaakhyaatmak drushtikon ko utpann kiya. iske vipreet, haal ke dashakon ne naye ganiteeya roop se kathor paddhatiyon ka udaya dekha hai, jaise saamaajik network vishleshan.

anukram

aadhaar

itihaas

ogust kaumt

samaajashaastreeya tark is shabd ki utpatti ki tithi uchit samay se poorv ki bataate hain. aarthik, raajanaitik aur saanskrutik pranaaleeyon sahit samaajashaastr ki utpatti, pashchimi gyaan aur darshan ke sanyukt bhandaar mein aadya-samaajashaastreeya hai. pleto ke samay se hi saamaajik vishleshan kiya jaana shuroo ho gaya. yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki pehla samaajashaastri 14veen sadi ka uttar afreeki arab vidvaan, ibn khaldoon tha, jiski mukddeema, saamaajik ekta aur saamaajik sangharsh ke saamaajik-vaigyaanik siddhaanton ko aage laane waali pehli kruti thi. [4][5][6][7][8]

shabd "sociologie " pehli baar 1780 mein fraanseesi nibandhakaar imenual Joseph seeyas (1748-1836) dvaara ek aprakaashit paandulipi mein gadha gaya. [9] yeh baad mein ogast kaumt(1798-1857) dvaara 1838 mein sthaapit kiya gaya. [10] isse pehle kaumt ne "saamaajik bhautiki" shabd ka istemaal kiya tha, lekin baad mein vah doosaron dvaara apnaaya gaya, vishesh roop se Belgium ke saankhyikeevid edaulf kyotelet. kaumt ne saamaajik kshetron ki vaigyaanik samajh ke maadhyam se itihaas, manovijnyaaan aur arthashaastr ko ekajut karne ka prayaas kiya. fraanseesi kraanti ki vyaakulata ke sheegra baad hi likhte hue, unhonne prasthaapit kiya ki saamaajik nishchayaatmakata ke maadhyam se saamaajik buraaiyon ko door kiya ja sakta hai, yeh the course in positiv filosafi (1830-1842) aur A general vyoo of pausitivism (1844) mein ullikhit ek darshanashaastreeya drushtikon hai. kaumt ko vishvaas tha ki ek 'pratyakshavaadi star' maanaveeya samajh ke kram mein, dhaarmik atkalon aur aadhyaatmik charanon ke baad antim daur ko chihnit karega.yadyapi kaumt ko aksar "samaajashaastr ka pita" maana jaata hai,[11] tathaapi yeh vishay aupachaarik roop se ek anya sanrachanaatmak vyaavahaarik vichaarak emil durkheem(1858-1917) dvaara sthaapit kiya gaya tha, jisne pratham Europeeya academic vibhaag ki sthaapana ki aur aage chalakar pratyakshavaad ka vikaas kiya. tab se, saamaajik jnyaaanavaad, kaarya paddhatiyaan aur poochh-taachh ka daayara, mahattvapoorn roop se vistrut aur apasaarit hua hai.

mahatvapoorn vyakti

emil durkheem

samaajashaastr ka vikaas 19vi sadi mein ubharati aadhunikta ki chunautiyon, jaise audyogikeekaran, shahareekaran aur vaigyaanik punargathan ki shaikshanik anukriya, ke roop mein hua. Europeeya mahaadveep mein is vishay ne apna prabhutv jamaaya aur vaheen british maanav-shaastr ne saamaanyataya ek alag path ka anusaran kiya. 20veen sadi ke samaapt hone tak, kai pramukh samaajashaastriyon ne englo American duniya mein rah kar kaam kiya. shaastreeya saamaajik siddhaantakaaron mein shaamil hain eleksis di tokavile, vilfredo pareto, kaarl maarks, fredarik engels, ludavig gamplovij, fardineind tonneej, floriyn jenike, thorstein veblen, harabart spensar, George simel, George harbart meed,, Charles koole, varnar sombart, maiks vebar, entoniyo graamsi, gaargi lyookaas, vaaltar beinjaamin, thiyodor dablyoo. edorno, maiks horkheimer, Robert ke. mertonn aur telkot paarsans.vibhinn shaikshanik vishyon mein apanaae gaye siddhaanton sahit unki krutiyaan arthashaastr, nyaayashaastr, manovijnyaaan aur darshan ko prabhaavit karti hain.

20veen sadi ke uttaraardh ke aur samakaaleen vyaktiyon mein piyre baurdiye si.right mils, ulreesh back, haavard S. bekar, jaragen haibaramaas dainiyl bail, pitirim sorokin semor Martin lipset mauise ostrogorski lui alatoosar, nikos paulaantjs, raalf milibaind, simon de bauvaar, Peter bargar, harbart maarkus, Michelle fookaalt, alfred shutj, maarsel maus, George ritjr, gaai debord, jeen baudrilaard, baarni glaaser, enaselm straus, dorothi smith, iraving gofamain, gilbarto freyar, jooliya kristeva, raalf daharenadorf, harbart gans, Michael buraavauya, niklas luhman, Lucy irigre, arnest gelaner, richrd hogaart, stuart hall, remand Williams, fredarik jemasan, entoniyo negri, arnest barges, gerhaard leinski, Robert belaah, paul gilrauya, John reks, jigmant bauman, judith butler, teri igalatan, Steve fular, broono letar, bairi velamain, John thaumpasan, Edward sed, harbart blumer, bail huks, mainual kaisals aur enthoni gidns .

pratyek mahattvapoorn vyakti ek vishesh saiddhaantik drushtikon aur anusthaapan se sambaddh hai. durkheem, maarks aur vebar ko aam taur par samaajashaastr ke teen pramukh sansthaapakon ke roop mein uddhrut kiya jaata hai; unke kaaryon ko kramash: prakaaryavaad, dvand siddhaant aur gair-pratyakshavaad ke upadeshon mein aaropit kiya ja sakta hai. simelaaur paarsans ko kabhi-kabhaar chauthe "pramukh vyakti" ke roop mein shiksha paathyakram mein shaamil kiya jaata hai.

ek academic vishay ke roop mein samaajashaastr ka sansthaanikran

hasam mein fardineind tonni ki aavaksh moorti

1890 mein pehli baar is vishay ko iske apne naam ke tahat America kekansaas vishvavidyaalaya, Lawrence mein padhaaya gaya. is paathyakram ko jiska sheershak samaajashaastr ke tatv tha, pehli baar Frank blaikamar dvaara padhaaya gaya. America mein jaari rahane wala yeh sabse puraana samaajashaastr paathyakram hai. America ke pratham viksit svatantr vishvavidyaalaya, kansaas vishvavidyaalaya mein 1891 mein itihaas aur samaajashaastr vibhaag ki sthaapana ki gayi. [12][13]Chicago vishvavidyaalaya mein samaajashaastr vibhaag ki sthaapana 1892 mein elbion dabalyoo. smaal dvaara ki gayi, jinhonne 1895 mein American journal of soshiolaji ki sthaapana ki.[14]

pratham Europeeya samaajashaastr vibhaag ki sthaapana 1895 mein, L'Annéae Sociologique(1896) ke sansthaapak emil durkheem dvaara bordioks vishvavidyaalaya mein ki gayi. 1904 mein United Kingdom mein sthaapit hone wala pratham samaajashaastr vibhaag, London school of ikonomiks end politikl saains (british journal of soshiolaji ki janmabhoomi) mein hua. [15] 1919 mein, Germany mein ek samaajashaastr vibhaag ki sthaapana ludavig maikseemeeliyns university of Munich mein maiks vebar dvaara aur 1920 mein Poland mein floriyn jenek dvaara ki gayi.

samaajashaastr mein antarraashtreeya sahayog 1893 mein shuroo hua, jab rene vorms ne sthaapana ki , jo 1949 mein sthaapit apekshaakrut adhik vishaal antarraashtreeya saamaajik sangh(ISA) dvaara prabhaavaheen kar diya gaya. [16] 1905 mein, vishv ke sabse vishaal peshevar samaajashaastriyon ka sangathan, ameriki saamaajik sangathan ki sthaapana hui aur 1909 mein fardineind toneej, George simel aur maiks vebar sahit anya logon dvaara Deutsche Gesellschaft füaar Soziologie (samaajashaastr ke liye jarman samiti) ki sthaapana hui.

pratyakshavaad aur gair-pratyakshavaad

aaranbhik siddhaantakaaron ka samaajashaastr ki or kramabaddh drushtikon, is vishay ke saath prakruti vigyaan ke samaan hi vyaapak taur par vyavahaar karna tha. kisi bhi saamaajik daave ya nishkarsh ko ek nirvivaad aadhaar pradaan karne hetu aur apekshaakrut kam anubhavajanya kshetron se jaise darshan se samaajashaastr ko pruthak karne ke liye anubhavavaad aur vaigyaanik vidhi ko mahatva dene ki talaash ki gayi. pratyakshavaad kaha jaane wala yeh drushtikon is dhaarana par aadhaarit hai ki keval praamaanik gyaan hi vaigyaanik gyaan hai aur yeh ki is tarah ka gyaan keval kathor vaigyaanik aur maatraatmak paddhatiyon ke maadhyam se, siddhaanton ki sakaaraatmak pushti se aa sakta hai. emil durkheem saiddhaantik roop se aadhaarit anubhavajanya anusandhaan[17] ke ek bade samarthak the, jo sanrachanaatmak niyamon ko darshaane ke liye "saamaajik tathyon" ke beech sanbandho ko talaash rahe the. unki sthiti "enomi" ko khaarij karne aur saamaajik sudhaar ke liye saamaajik nishkarshon mein unki roochi se anupraanit hoti thi. aaj, durkheem ka vidvata bhara pratyakshavaad ka vivran, atishyokti aur ati saraleekaran ke prati asurakshit ho sakta hai: kaumt hi ekamaatr aisa pramukh saamaajik vichaarak tha jisne daava kiya ki saamaajik vibhaag bhi kuleen vigyaan ke samaan vaigyaanik vishleshan ke antargat aa sakta hai, jabki durkheem ne adhik vistaar se maulik jnyaaanashaastreeya seemaaon ko sveekruti di.[18][19]

kaarl maarks

pratyakshavaad ke virodh mein pratikriyaaen tab shuroo huin jab jarman daarshanik George fredarik vilhem hegel ne donon anubhavavaad ke khilaaf aavaaj uthaai, jise usane gair-vivechanaatmak aur niytivaad ke roop mein khaarij kar diya aur jise usane ati yantravat ke roop mein dekha.[20] kaarl maarks ki paddhati, na keval hegel ke praanteeya bhaashaavaad se li gayi thi, balki, bhramon ko mitaate hue "tathyon" ke anubhavajanya adhigrahan ko poorn karne ki talaash mein, vivechanaatmak vishleshan ke paksh mein pratyakshavaad ka bahishkaar bhi hai. [21] usaka maanana raha ki anumaanon ko sirf likhne ki bajaay unki sameeksha honi chaahiye. iske baavajood maarks ne aitihaasik bhautikvaad ke aarthik niytivaad par aadhaarit science of society prakaashit karne ka prayaas kiya. [21]henarik rikert aur vilhem dilthe sahit anya daarshanikon ne tark diya ki praakrutik duniya, maanav samaaj ke un vishisht pahaluon (arth, sanket aur anya) ke kaaran saamaajik sansaarsaamaajik vaastavikta se bhinn hai, jo maanav sanskruti ko anupraanit karti hai.

20veen sadi ke ant mein jarman samaajashaastriyon ki pehli peedhi ne aupachaarik taur par prakriyaatmak gair-pratyakshavaad ko pesh kiya, is prastaav ke saath ki anusandhaan ko maanav sanskruti ke maanakon, moolyon, prateekon aur saamaajik prakriyaaon par vyaktiprak drushtikon se kendrit hona chaahiye.maiks vebar ne tark diya ki samaajashaastr ki vyaakhya halke taur par ek 'vigyaan' ke roop mein ki ja sakti hai, kyonki yeh khaas kar jatil saamaajik ghatna ke aadarsh varg athva kaalpanik saraleekaran ke beech - kaaran-sambandhon ko pahachaanane mein saksham hai. [22] baharahaal, praakrutik vaigyaaniko dvaara khoje jaane vaale sambandhon ke vipreet ek gair pratyakshavaadi ke roop mein, ek vyakti sambandhon ki talaash karta hai jo "anaitihaasik, aparivrtaneeya, athva saamaanya hai".[23]fardineind toneej ne maanaveeya sangathanon ke do saamaanya prakaaron ke roop mein gemaainashaaft aur geselshaaft(saahitya, samudaaya aur samaaj) ko prastut kiya. tonneej ne avadhaarana aur saamaajik kriya ki vaastavikta ke kshetron ke beech ek spasht rekha kheenchi: pehle vaale ke saath hamein svat:siddh aur nigmanaatmak tareeke se vyavahaar karna chaahiye ('saiddhaantik' samaajashaastr), jabki doosare se prayogasiddh aur ek aagamanaat‍aamak tareeke se ('vyaavahaarik' samaajashaastr).

Max Weber 1894.jpg

vebar aur George simel, donon, samaaj vigyaan ke kshetr mein fastehen abhigm (athva 'vyaakhyaatmak') ke aguaa rahe; ek vyavasthit prakriya, jismein ek baahari paryavekshak ek vishesh saankrutik samooh, athva svadeshi logo ke saath unki sharton par aur unke apne drushtikon ke hisaab se judne ki koshish karta hai. vishesh roop se, simel ke kaaryon ke maadhyam se, samaajashaastr ne pratyaksh data sangrah ya bhavya, sanrachanaatmak kaanoon ki niytivaad pranaali se pare, pratyaksh svaroop praapt kiya. jeevan bhar saamaajik academy se apekshaakrut pruthak rahe, simel ne kaumt ya durkheem ki apeksha ghatna-kriya-vigyaan aur astitvavaadi lekhakon ka smaran dilaate hue aadhunikta ka svabhaavagat vishleshan prastut kiya, jinhonne saamaajik vaiyaktikta ke liye sambhaavnaaon aur svaroopon par vishesh taur par dhyaan kendrit kiya. [24] usaka samaajashaastr anubhooti ki seema ke niyo-kaanteeyan aalochna mein vyast raha, jismein poochha jaata hai 'samaaj kya hai?'jo can't ke savaal 'prakruti kya hai?', ka seedha sanket hai. [25]

Simmel 01.JPG

beesaveen sadi ke vikaas

20veen sadi ke praarambhik varshon mein samaajashaastr ka vistaar America mein hua jiske tahat samaaj ke vikaas se sambandhit sthool samaajashaastr aur maanav ke dainandin saamaajik sanparkon se sambandhit, sookshm samaajashaastr, donon ka vikaas shaamil hai. George harbart meed, harbart bloomar aur baad mein Chicago school ke vyaavahaarik saamaajik manovijnyaaan ke aadhaar par samaajashaastriyon ne prateekaatmak paraspaarikta viksit ki.[26] 1930 ke dashak mein, telkot paarsans ne, charcha ko vyavastha siddhaant aur saaibaravaad ke ek uchch vyaakhyaatmak sandarbh ke andar rakhate hue, saamaajik vyavastha ke adhyayan ko sthool aur sookshm ghatakon ke sanrachanaatmak aur svaichhik pahaloo ke saath ekeekrut karte hue kriya siddhaant viksit kiya. ostriya aur tadanantar America mein, alfred shutj ne saamaajik ghatna-kriya-vigyaan ka vikaas kiya, jisne baad mein saamaajik nirmaanavaad ke baare mein jaankaari di. usi avadhi ke dauraan frainkafart school ke sadasyon ne, siddhaant mein - vebar, fraayad aur graimski ki antardrushti sahit maarksavaad ke aitihaasik bhautikvaadi tatvon ko ekeekrut kar vivechanaatmak siddhaant ka vikaas kiya, yadi hamesha naam mein na raha ho, tab bhi aksar gyaan ke kendreeya siddhaanton se door hone ke kram mein poonjeevaadi aadhunikta ki visheshata bataata hai.

Europe mein, vishesh roop se aatanrik yuddh ki avadhi ke dauraan, adhinaayakavaadi sarkaaron dvaara aur pashchim mein roodhivaadi vishvavidyaalayon dvaara bhi pratyaksh raajaneetik niyantran ke kaaranon se samaajashaastr ko kamzor kiya gaya. aanshik roop se, iska kaaran tha, udaar ya vaamapanthi vichaaron ki or apne swayam ke lakshyon aur parihaaron ke maadhyam se is vishay mein prateet hone waali antarnihit pravrutti.yeh dekhte hue ki yeh vishay sanrachanaatmak kriyaavaadiyon dvaara gathit kiya gaya tha: jaivik sambaddhata aur saamaajik ekta se sambandhit yeh avlokan kahi na kaheen niraadhaar tha (haalaanki yeh paarsans hi tha jisne durkheemiyn siddhaant ko ameriki darshakon se parichay karaaya aur avyakt roodhivaadita ke liye usaki vivechana ki aalochna, iraade se kaheen zyaada ki gayi).[27] us dauraan kriya siddhaant aur anya vyavastha siddhaant abhigmon ke prabhaav ke kaaran 20veen shataabdi ke madhya mein U.S-ameriki samaajashaastr ke, adhik vaigyaanik hone ki ek saamaanya lekin asaarvabhaumik pravruti thi.

20veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein, saamaajik anusandhaan teji se sarkaaron aur udyamon dvaara upakaran ke roop mein apnaaya jaane laga.samaajashaastriyon ne nae prakaar ke maatraatmak aur gunaatmak shodh vidhiyon ka vikaas kiya. 1960 ke dashak mein vibhinn saamaajik aandolanon ke udaya ke samaanaantar, vishesh roop se Britain mein, saanskrutik parivartan ne saamaajik sangharsh (jaise nav-maarksavaad, naareevaad ki doosari lahar aur jaateeya sambandh) par jor dete virodhi siddhaant ka udaya dekha, jisne kriyaavaadi drushtikon ka saamana kiya. dharm ke samaajashaastr ne us dashak mein, dharmanirpeksheekaran lekhon, bhoomandaleekaran ke saath dharm ki anyonya-kriya aur dhaarmik abhyaas ki paribhaasha par nayi bahas ke saath punarjaagaran dekha.leinski aur yinger jaise siddhaantakaaron ne dharm ki 'vruttimoolak' paribhaasha ki rachana ki; is baat ki padtaal karte hue ki dharm kya karta hai, bajaay aam pariprekshya mein ki, yeh kya hai .is prakaar, vibhinn nae saamaajik sansthaanon aur aandolanon ko unki dhaarmik bhoomika ke liye nireekshit kiya ja sakta hai. lyukas aur graamski ki parampara mein maarksavaadi siddhaantakaaron ne upabhoktaavaad ka pareekshan samaroopi sharton par karna jaari rakha.

1960 aur 1970 ke dashak mein tathaakathit uttar-saranchanaavaadi aur uttar-aadhuniktaavaadi siddhaant ne, neetshe aur ghatna-kriya vijnyaaaniyon ke saath-saath shaastreeya saamaajik vaigyaaniko ko aadhaarit karte hue, saamaajik jaanch ke saanche par kaafi prabhaav daala. aksar, antarapaath-sambandh, mishran aur vyangya, dvaara chihnit aur saamaanya taur par saanskrutik shaili 'uttar aadhunikta' ke roop mein samajhe jaane vaale uttaraaadhunikta ke saamaajik vishleshan ne ek pruthak yug pesh kiya jo sabandhit hai (1) metaanaretivs[adhivrnan] ke vightan se (vishesh roop se lyotaard ke kaaryon mein) aur (2) vastu pooja aur poonjeevaadi samaaj ke uttaraardh mein khapat ke saath pratibinbit hoti pehchaan se (debord; baudreelaard; jemsan).[28] uttar aadhunikta ka sambandh maanav ikaai ki jnyaaanodaya dhaaranaaon ki kuchh vichaarakon dvaara asveekruti se bhi juda hua hai, jaise Michelle fooko, klaad levi-straus aur kuchh had tak luis aaltuser dvaara maarksavaad ko gair-maanavataavaad ke saath milaane ka prayaas. in aandolanon se jude adhiktar siddhaantakaaron ne uttaraaadhunikta ko kisi tarah ki vivechanaatmak paddhati ke bajaay ek aitihaasik ghatna ke roop mein sveekaar karne ko mahatta dete hue, sakriya roop se is lebal ko nakaar diya.fir bhi, sachet uttaraaadhunikta ke ansh saamaanya roop mein saamaajik aur raajaneetik vigyaan mein ubharate rahe.englo-saiksan duniya mein kaam kar rahe samaajashaastri, jaise enthoni gideins aur jigmant baaooman, ne ek vishisht "nae" svaabhaavik yug ka prastaav rakhane ke bajaay sanchaar, vaishvikran aur aadhunikta ke 'uchch charan' ke maamale mein adtiya punaraavruti ke siddhaanton par dhyaan diya.

pratyakshavaadi parampara samaajashaastr mein sarvatr hai, vishesh roop se sanyukt raajya America mein.[29] is vishay ki do sabse vyaapak roop se uddhrut ameriki patrikaaen, American journal of soshioloji aur American soshiolojikl review, mukhya roop se pratyakshavaadi parampara mein anusandhaan prakaashit karti hain, jismein ASR adhik vividhta ko darshaati hai (doosari or british journal of soshioloji mukhyataya gair-pratyakshavaadi lekh prakaashit karti hai).[29] beesaveen sadi ne samaajashaastr mein maatraatmak paddhatiyon ke prayog mein sudhaar dekha.anudairghya adhyayan ke vikaas ne, jo kai varshon athva dashakon ke dauraan ek hi janasankhya ka anusaran karti hai, shodhakartaaon ko lambi avadhi ki ghatnaaon ke adhyayan mein saksham banaaya aur kaaran-kaarya-siddhaant ka nishkarsh nikaalne ke liye shodhakartaaon ki kshamata mein vruddhi ki.nae sarvekshan tareekon dvaara utpann samuchchaya data ke aakaar mein vruddhi ka anugaman is data ke vishleshan ke liye nai saankhyikeeya takaneekon ke aavishkaar se hua. is prakaar ke vishleshan aam taur par saankhyiki software sankul jaise SAS, Stata, ya SPSS ki sahaayata se kiye jaate hain. saamaajik network vishleshan, pratyakshavaad parampara mein ek nae pratimaan ka udaaharan hai. saamaajik network vishleshan ka prabhaav kai saamaajik upabhaagon mein vyaapt hai jaise aarthik samaajashaastr (udaaharan ke liye, J. klaaid Michelle, hairisn white ya mark graanovetar ka kaarya dekhein), sangathanaatmak vyavahaar, aitihaasik samaajashaastr, raajaneetik samaajashaastr, athva shiksha ka samaajashaastr.stenali aronovitj ke anusaar, sanyukt raajya America mein si.right mils ki pravrutti aur unke power eleet ke adhyayan mein unke mutaabik adhik svatantr anubhavajanya samaajashaastr ka ek sookshm punurutthaan dikhaai deta hai. [30]

gyaan meemaansa aur prakruti darshanashaastr

vishay ka kis had tak vigyaan ke roop mein chitran kiya ja sakta hai yeh buniyaadi prakruti darshanashaastr aur gyaan meemaansa ke prashnon ke sandarbh mein ek pramukh mudda raha hai. siddhaant aur anusandhaan ke aacharan mein kis prakaar aatmeeyata, nishpakshata, antar-aatmeeyata aur vyaavahaarikta ko ekeekrut karein aur mahatva dein, is baat par vivaad uthate rahate hain. haalaanki anivaarya roop se 19veen sadi ke baad se sabhi pramukh siddhaantakaaron ne sveekaar kiya hai ki samaajashaastr, shabd ke paaramparik arth mein ek vigyaan naheen hai, karaneeya sambandhon ko majaboot karne ki kshamata hi vigyaan para-siddhaant mein kiye gaye saamaan maulik daarshanik vichaar vimarsh ka aahvaan karti hai. kabhi-kabhi nae anubhavavaad ki ek nasl ke roop mein pratyakshavaad ka haasya chitran hua hai, is shabd ka kaumte ke samay se viyna circle aur usase aage ke taarkik vastunishthavaad ke liye anuprayogon ka ek samruddh itihaas hai. ek hi tareeke se, pratyakshavaad kaarl paupar dvaara prastut mahatvapoorn buddhivaadi gair-nyaayavaad ke saamane aaya hai, jo swayam Thomas kuhn ke gyaan meemaansa ke pratimaan vichlan ki avadhaarana ke jriye vivaadit hai. madhya 20veen shataabdi ke bhaashaai aur saanskrutik badlaavon ne samaajashaastr mein teji se amoort daarshanik aur vyaakhyaatmak saamagri mein vruddhi aur saath hi tathaakathit gyaan ke saamaajik adhigrahan par "uttaraaadhunik" drushtikon ko ankit karta hai. saamaajik vigyaan ke darshan par saahitya ke siddhaant mein ullekhaneeya aalochna Peter vinch ke the idea of social saains end its rileshan too filaasafi (1958) mein paaya jaata hai. haal ke varshon mein vittajenasteen aur richrd rorti jaisi hastiyon ke saath aksar samaajashaastri bhid gaye hain, jaise ki saamaajik darshan aksar saamaajik siddhaant ka khandan karta hai.

enthani gideins

sanrachana evam saadhan saamaajik siddhaant mein ek sthaayi bahas ka mudda hai: "kya saamaajik sanrachanaaen athva maanav saadhan kisi vyakti ke vyavahaar ka nirdhaaran karta hai?" is sandarbh mein 'saadhan', vyaktiyon ke svatantr roop se kaarya karne aur mukt chunaav karne ki kshamata ingit karta hai, jabki 'sanrachana' vyaktiyon ki pasand aur kaaryon ko seemit athva prabhaavit karne vaale kaarakon ko nirdisht karti hai (jaise saamaajik varg, dharm, ling, jaateeyata ityaadi). sanrachana athva saadhan ki pradhaanata par charcha, saamaajik satta-meemaansa ke mool marm se sambandhit hain ("saamaajik duniya kisase bani hai?", "saamaajik duniya mein kaarak kya hai aur prabhaav kya hai?"). uttar aadhunik kaaleen aalochakon ka saamaajik vigyaan ki vyaapak pariyojana ke saath mel-milaap ka ek prayaas, khaas kar Britain mein, vivechanaatmak yathaarthavaad ka vikaas raha hai. rai bhaaskar jaise vivechanaatmak yathaarthavaadiyon ke liye, paaramparik pratyakshavaad, vigyaan ko yaani ki khud sanrachana aur saadhan ko hi sambhav karne vaale, sattaamoolak haalaaton ke samaadhaan mein naakaami ki vajah se 'gyaan tarkadosh' karta hai. atyadhik sanrachanaatmak ya saadhanaparak vichaar ke prati avishvaas ka ek aur saamaanya parinaam bahuaayaami siddhaant, vishesh roop se tailakaut paarsans ka kriya siddhaant aur enthoni giddens ka sanrachanaatmakata ka siddhaant ka vikaas raha hai. anya saakalyavaadi siddhaanton mein shaamil hain, piyre baurdiyo ki gathan ki avadhaarana aur alfred shutj ke kaam mein bhi jeevan-prapanch ka drushyaprapanchavaad ka vichaar.

saamaajik pratyakshavaad ke para-saiddhaantik aalochanaaon ke baavajood, saankhyikeeya maatraatmak tareeke bahut hi zyaada vyavahaar mein rahate hain. Michael buraavauya ne saarvajanik samaajashaastr ki tulana, kathor aachaar-vyavahaar par jor dete hue, shaikshanik ya vyaavasaayik samaajashaastr ke saath ki hai, jo vyaapak roop se anya saamaajik/raajanaitik vaigyaaniko aur daarshanikon ke beech sanlaap se sambandh rakhata hai.

samaajashaastr ka kaarya-kshetr aur vishay

sanskruti

1965 mein haaidelabarg mein, maiks horkhemar (saamane baaen), thiyodor edorno (saamane daaen) aur yuragen haibaramaas (peechhe daaen).

saanskrutik samaajashaastr mein shabdon, kalaakrutiyon aur prateeko ka vivechanaatmak vishleshan shaamil hai, jo saamaajik jeevan ke roopon ke saath anyonya kriya karta hai, chaahe up sanskruti ke antargat ho athva bade paimaane par samaajon ke saath.simel ke liye, sanskruti ka taatparya hai "baahya saadhanon ke maadhyam se vyaktiyon ka sanvardhan karna, jo itihaas ke kram mein vastunishth banaae gaye hain. [31]thiyodor edorno aur vaaltar beinjaamin jaise frainkafart school ke siddhaantakaaron ke liye swayam sanskruti, ek aitihaasik bhautiktaavaadeevishleshan ka prachalit vishay tha. saanskrutik shiksha ke shikshan mein saamaajik jaanch-padtaal ke ek saamaanya vishay ke roop mein, 1964 mein England ke barmingham vishvavidyaalaya mein sthaapit ek anusandhaan kendra, samakaaleen saanskrutik adhyayan kendra(CCCS) mein shuroo hua. richrd hogaart, stuart hall aur remand Williams jaise Birmingham school ke vidvaanon ne vigat nav-maarksavaadi siddhaant mein parilkshit 'utpaadak' aur upabhoktaaon' ke beech nirbheek vibhaajan par prashn karte hue, saanskrutik granthon aur janotpaadit utpaadon ka kis prakaar istemaal hota hai, iski paarasparikta par jor diya. saanskrutik shiksha, apni vishay-vastu ko saanskrutik prathaaon aur satta ke saath unke sambandhon ke sandarbh mein jaanch karti hai. udaaharan ke liye, up-sanskruti ka ek adhyayan (jaise landan ke kaamagaar varg ke gore yuva), yuvaaon ki saamaajik prathaaon par vichaar karega, kyonki ve shaasak varg se sambandhit hain.

aparaadh aur vichlan

'vichlan' kriya ya vyavahaar ka varnan karti hai, jo saanskrutik aadarshon sahit aupachaarik roop se laagoo-niyamon (uda.,jurm) tatha saamaajik maanadandon ka anaupachaarik ullanghan karti hai. samaajashaastriyon ko yeh adhyayan karne ki dheel di gayi hai ki kaise ye maanadand nirmit hue; kaise ve samay ke saath badalate hain; aur kaise ve laagoo hote hain. vichlan ke samaajashaastr mein anek prameya shaamil hain, jo saamaajik vyavahaar ke uchit roop se samajhne mein madad dene ke liye, saamaajik vichlan ke antargat nihit pravruttiyon aur svaroop ko sateek taur par varnit karna chaahate hain. vipthagaami vyavahaar ko varnit karne vaale teen spasht saamaajik shreniyaan hain: sanrachanaatmak kriyaavaad; prateekaatmak anyonyakriyaavaad; aur virodhi siddhaant

arthashaastr

maiks vebar ka the protesteint ethik end the spirit of kaipitlism

aarthik samaajashaastr, aarthik drushya prapanch ka samaajashaastreeya vishleshan hai; samaaj mein aarthik sanrachanaaon tatha sansthaaon ki bhoomika, tatha aarthik sanrachanaaon aur sansthaaon ke svaroop par samaaj ka prabhaav.poonjeevaad aur aadhunikta ke beech sambandh ek pramukh mudda hai. maarks ke aitihaasik bhautikvaad ne yeh darshaane ki koshish ki ki kis prakaar aarthik balon ka samaaj ke dhaanche par maulik prabhaav hai. maiks vebar ne bhi, haalaanki kuchh kam nirdhaarak taur par, saamaajik samajh ke liye aarthik prakriyaaoain ko mahatvapoorn maana.George simel, vishesh roop se apne filaasafi of mani mein, aarthik samaajashaastr ke praarambhik vikaas mein mahatvapoorn rahe, jis prakaar emile darkhim apni the diveejn of lebar in society jaisi rachanaaon se.aarthik samaajashaastr aksar saamaajik-aarthiki ka paryaaya hota hai. tathaapi, kai maamalon mein, saamaajik-arthashaastri, vishisht aarthik parivrtanon ke saamaajik prabhaav par dhyaan kendrit karte hain, jaise ki factory ka band hona, baajaar mein heraaferi, antarraashtreeya vyaapaar sandhiyon par hastaakshar, nae praakrutik gas viniyman ityaadi.(inhein bhi dekhein: audyogik samaajashaastr)

paryaavaran

paryaavaran sambandhi samaajashaastr, saamaajik-paryaavaraneeya paarasparik sambandhon ka saamaajik adhyayan hai, jo paryaavaran sambandhi samasyaaon ke saamaajik kaarakon, un samasyaaon ka samaaj par prabhaav, tatha unke samaadhaan ke prayaas par jor deta hai. iske alaava, saamaajik prakriyaaon par yathesht dhyaan diya jaata hai, jinki vajah se katipya pariveshagat paristhitiyaan, saamaajik taur par paribhaashit samasyaaen ban jaati hain. (inhein bhi dekhein: aapada ka samaajashaastr)

shiksha

shiksha ka samaajashaastr, shikshan sansthaanon dvaara saamaajik dhaanchon, anubhavon aur anya parinaamon ko nirdhaarit karne ke taur-tareekon ka adhyayan hai. yeh vishesh roop se uchch, agrani, vayask aur satat shiksha sahit aadhunik audyogik samaaj ki schooli shiksha pranaali se sambandhit hai. [32]

parivaar aur bachapan

parivaar ka samaajashaastr, vibhinn saiddhaantik drushtikonon ke jriye parivaar ekak, vishesh roop se mool parivaar aur usaki apni alag laingik bhoomikaaon ke aadhunik aitihaasik utthaan ki jaanch karta hai. parivaar, praarambhik aur poorv-vishvavidyaalayeen shaikshik paathyakramon ka ek lokapriya vishay hai.

ling aur ling-bhed

ling aur ling-bhed ka samaajashaastreeya vishleshan, chhote paimaane par paarasparik pratikriya aurar vyaapak saamaajik sanrachana, donon staron par, vishishtat: saamarthya aur asamaanata ke sandarbh mein in shreniyon ka avlokan aur aalochna karta hai. is prakaar ke kaarya ka aitihaasik marm, naareevaad siddhaant aur pitrusatta ke maamale se juda hai: jo adhikaansh samaajon mein yathaakram mahilaaon ke daman ko spasht karta hai. yadyapi naareevaadi vichaar ko teen 'laharon', yatha (1)19veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein praarambhik lokataantrik mataadhikaar aandolan, (2)1960 ki naareevaad ki doosari lahar aur jatil shaikshanik siddhaant ka vikaas, tatha (3) vartamaan 'teesari lahar', jo sex aur ling ke vishay mein sabhi saamaanyeekaranon se door hoti prateet hoti hai, evam uttaraaadhunikta, gair-maanavataavaadi, pashchamaanavataavaadi, samalaingik siddhaant se najdeek se judi hui hai. maarksavaadi naareevaad aur syaah naareevaad bhi mahatvapoorn svaroop hain. ling aur ling-bhed ke adhyayan, samaajashaastr ke antargat hone ki bajaay, uske saath-saath viksit hue hain. haalaanki adhikaansh vishvavidyaalayon ke paas is kshetr mein adhyayan ke liye pruthak prakriya naheen hai, tathaapi ise saamaanya taur par saamaajik vibhaagon mein padhaaya jaata hai.

Internet

Internet samaajashaastriyon ke liye vibhinn tareekon se ruchikr hai. Internet anusandhaan ke liye ek upakaran (udaaharanaarth, online prashnaavali ka sanchaalan) aur charcha-manch tatha ek shodh vishay ke roop mein istemaal kiya ja sakta hai. vyaapak arthon mein Internet ke samaajashaastr mein online samudaayon (udaaharanaarth, samaachaar samooh, saamaajik networking site) aur aabhaasi duniya ka vishleshan bhi shaamil hai. sangathanaatmak parivartan Internet jaisi nai media se utprerit hoti hain aur taddvaara vishaal star par saamaajik badlaav ko prabhaavit karte hain. yeh ek audyogik se ek soochanaatmak samaaj mein badlaav ke liye rooparekha taiyaar karta hai (dekhein mainual kaistels tatha vishesh roop se unke "the Internet galaxy" mein sadi ke kaaya-palat ka varnan).online samudaayon ka saankhyikeeya taur par adhyayan network vishleshan ke maadhyam se kiya ja sakta hai aur saath hi, aabhaasi maanav-jaati-varnan ke maadhyam se usaki gunaatmak vyaakhya ki ja sakti hai. saamaajik badlaav ka adhyayan, saankhyikeeya janasaankhyiki ya online media adhyayanon mein badalate sandeshon aur prateekon ki vyaakhya ke maadhyam se kiya ja sakta hai.

gyaan

gyaan ka samaajashaastr, maanaveeya vichaaron aur saamaajik sandarbh ke beech sambandhon ka, jismein usaka udaya hua hai aur samaajon mein prachalit vichaaron ke prabhaav ka adhyayan karta hai. yeh shabd pehli baar 1920 ke dashak mein vyaapak roop se prayukt hua, jab kai jarman-bhaashi siddhaantakaaron ne bade paimaane par is baare mein likha, inmein sabse ullekhaneeya maiks shelar aur kaarl mainhem hain. 20veen sadi ke madhya ke varshon mein prakaaryavaad ke prabhutv ke saath, gyaan ka samaajashaastr, samaajashaastreeya vichaaron ki mukhyadhaara ki paridhi par hi bana raha. 1960 ke dashak mein ise vyaapak roop se pun: pariklpit kiya gaya tatha Peter L.bargar evam Thomas lakamain dvaara the social construction of riyaalti (1966) mein vishesh taur par rojmarra ki jindagi par aur bhi nikat se laagoo kiya gaya, tatha aur yeh abhi bhi maanav samaaj se gunaatmak samajh ke saath nipatne vaale tareekon ke kendra mein hai (saamaajik taur par nirmit yathaarth se tulana karein).Michelle fokaalt ke "puraataatvik" aur "vanshaavali" adhyayan kaafi samakaaleen prabhaav ke hain.

kaanoon aur dand

kaanoon ka samaajashaastr, samaajashaastr ki up-shaakha aur kaanooni shiksha ke kshetraantargat abhigm, donon ko sandarbhit karta hai. kaanoon ka samaajashaastreeya adhyayan vividhtaapoorn hai, jo samaaj ke anya pahaluon jaise ki kaanooni sansthaaen, siddhaant aur anya saamaajik ghatnaaen aur inke vipreet prabhaavon ka kaanoon ke saath paarasparik sampark ka pareekshan karta hai. uske anusandhaan ke katipya kshetron mein kaanooni sansthaaon ke saamaajik vikaas, kaanooni muddon ke saamaajik nirmaan aur saamaajik parivartan ke saath kaanoon se sambandh shaamil hain. kaanoon ka samaajashaastr nyaayashaastr, kaanoon ka aarthik vishleshan, aparaadh vigyaan jaise adhik vishisht vishay kshetron ke aar-paar jaata hai. [33] kaanoon aupachaarik hai aur isliye 'maanak' ke samaan naheen hai. iske vipreet, vichlan ka samaajashaastr, saamaanya se aupachaarik aur anaupachaarik donon vichlanon, yatha aparaadh aur vichlan ke saanskrutik roopon, donon ka pareekshan karta hai.

media

saanskrutik adhyayan ke samaan hi, media adhyayan ek alag vishay hai, jo samaajashaastr aur anya saamaajik-vigyaan tatha maanaviki, vishesh roop se saahityik aalochna aur vivechanaatmak siddhaant ka sammiln chaahata hai. haalaanki utpaadan prakriya ya suroochipoorn svaroopon ki aalochna ki chhoot samaajashaastriyon ko naheen hai, arthaat saamaajik ghatakon ka vishleshan, jaise ki vaichaarik prabhaav aur darshakon ki pratikriya, saamaajik siddhaant aur paddhati se hi panape hain. is prakaar 'media ka samaajashaastr' svat: ek up-vishay naheen hai, balki media ek saamaanya aur aksar ati-aavashyak vishay hai.

sainya

sainya samaajashaastr ka lakshya, sainya ka ek sangathan ke bajaay saamaajik samooh ke roop mein vyavasthit adhyayan karna hai. yeh ek bahut hi vishisht up-kshetr hai, jo sainikon se sambandhit maamalon ki ek alag samooh ke roop mein, aajeevika aur yuddh mein jeevit rahane se jude saajha hiton par aadhaarit, baadhyakaari saamoohik kaaryon ki, naagrik samaaj ke antargat adhik nishchit aur parimit uddeshyon aur moolyon sahit jaanch karta hai. sainya samaajashaastr, naagrik-sainya sambandhon aur anya samoohon ya sarkaari agencyon ke beech paarasparik kriyaaon se bhi sambandhit hai. inhein bhi dekhein: aatankvaad ka samaajashaastr. shaamil vishay hain:

  1. sainya dvaara dhaarit prabal dhaaranaaen,
  2. sena ke sadasyon ki ladne ki ichha mein parivartan,
  3. sainya ekta,
  4. sainya vrutti-dakshata,
  5. mahilaaon ka vardhit upayog,
  6. sainya audyogik-shaikshanik parisar,
  7. sainya ki anusandhaan nirbharata aur
  8. sena ki sansthaagat aur sangathanaatmak sanrachana.[34]

raajaneetik samaajashaastr

agrani jarman samaajashaastri aur mahatvapoorn vichaarak, yurgen haibaramaas

raajaneetik samaajashaastr, satta aur vyaktitv ke pratichhedan, saamaajik sanrachana aur raajaneeti ka adhyayan hai. yeh ant:vishya hai, jahaan raajaneeti vigyaan aur samaajashaastr ek doosare ke vipreet rahate hain. yahaan vishay samaajon ke raajaneetik maahaul ko samajhne ke liye, sarkaari aur aarthik sangathanon ki pranaali ke vishleshan hetu, tulanaatmak itihaas ka upayog karta hai. itihaas aur saamaajik aankadon ki tulana aur vishleshan ke baad, raajaneetik rujhaan aur svaroop ubhar kar saamane aate hain. raajaneetik samaajashaastr ke sansthaapak maiks vebar, moise ostrogorski aur Robert mishels the.

samakaaleen raajaneetik samaajashaastr ke anusandhaan ka dhyaan chaar mukhya kshetron mein keindrit hai:

  1. aadhunik raashtra ka saamaajik-raajanaitik gathan.
  2. "kiska shaasan hai?" samoohon ke beech saamaajik asamaanata (varg, jaati, ling, aadi) kaise raajaneeti ko prabhaavit karti hai.
  3. raajaneetik satta ke aupachaarik sansthaanon ke baahar kis prakaar saarvajanik hastiyaan, saamaajik aandolan aur pravrutiyaan raajaneeti ko prabhaavit karti hain.
  4. saamaajik samoohon (udaaharanaarth, parivaar, kaaryasthal, naukarashaahi, media, aadi) ke bheetar aur paraspar satta sambandh

varg evam jaateeya sambandh

varg evam jaateeya sambandh samaajashaastr ke kshetr hain, jo samaaj ke sabhi staron par maanav jaati ke beech saamaajik, raajaneetik aur aarthik sanbandho ka adhyayan karte hain. yeh jaati aur naslavaad tatha vibhinn samoohon ke sadasyon ke beech jatil raajaneetik paarasparik kriyaaon ke adhyayan ko aavrut karta hai. raajanaitik neeti ke star par, is mudde ki aam taur par charcha ya to sameekaranavaad ya bahusanskrutivaad ke sandarbh mein ki jaati hai. naslavaad-virodhi aur uttar-aupaniveshikta bhi abhinn avadhaaranaaen hain. pramukh siddhaantakaaron mein paul gilrauya, stuart hall, John reks aur taarik madood shaamil hain.

dharm

dharm ka samaajashaastr, dhaarmik prathaaon, saamaajik dhaanchon, aitihaasik prushthabhoomi, vikaas, saarvabhaumik vishyon aur samaaj mein dharm ki bhoomika se sambandhit hai. sabhi samaajon aur poore abhilikhit aitihaasik kaal mein, dharm ki punaraavarti bhoomika par vishisht jor diya jaata raha hai. nirnaayak taur par dharm ke samaajashaastr mein kisi vishisht dharm se jude sachchaai ke daavon ka moolyaankan shaamil naheen hai, yadyapi kai virodhi siddhaanton ki tulana ke liye, Peter L.bargar dvaara varnit, antarnihit 'vidhik naastikta' ki aavashyakta ho sakti hai. dharm ke samaajashaastriyon ne dharm par samaaj ke prabhaav aur samaaj par dharm ke prabhaav ko, doosare shabdon mein unke dvandaatmak sambandh ko spasht karne ka prayaas kiya hai. yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki samaajashaastr vishay durkhim ke 1897 mein kiye gaye Catholic aur protesteint logon ke aatmahatya adhyayan daron mein dharm vishleshan se aarambh hua.

vaigyaanik gyaan evam sansthaaen

vigyaan ke samaajashaastr mein vigyaan ka adhyayan, ek saamaajik gatividhi ke roop mein shaamil hai, visheshat: jo "vaigyaanik gatividhiyon ki saamaajik sanrachana aur prakriyaaon sahit, vigyaan ki saamaajik paristhitiyaan aur prabhaavon" se vaasta rakhata hai. [35] siddhaantakaaron mein gestan bekelaard, kaarl paupar, paul feyarabeind, Thomas kun, Martin kash, broono letar, Michelle faaukaalt, enselm straus Lucy sachamain, sail ristivo, kerin naur-setina, rainadaul kaulins, bairi baarnes, David bloor,Harry kaulins aur Steve fularashaamil hain.

star-vinyaas

saamaajik star-vinyaas, samaaj mein vyaktiyon ke saamaajik varg, jaati aur vibhaag ki padaanukramit vyavastha hai. aadhunik pashchimi samaaj mein star-vinyaas, paaramparik roop se saanskrutik aur aarthik varg ke teen mukhya staron se sambandhit hain : uchch varg, madhyam varg aur nimn varg, lekin har ek varg aage jaakar aur chhote vargon mein up-vibhaajit ho sakta hai (udaaharanaarth, vyaavasaayik)[36].saamaajik star-vinyaas samaajashaastr mein bilkul bhinn prakaar se ullikhit hai. sanrachanaatmak kriyaavaad ke samarthakon ka sujhaav hai ki, saamaajik star-vinyaas adhikaansh raashtra samaajon mein maujood hone ki vajah se, unke astitv ko sthir karne hetu madad dene mein padaanukram laabhakaari hona chaahiye. iske vipreet, vivaadit siddhaantakaaron ne vibhjit samaaj mein sansaadhanon ke abhaav aur saamaajik gatisheelata ke abhaav ki aalochna ki.kaarl maarks ne poonjeevaadi vyavastha mein saamaajik vargon ko unki utpaadakata ke aadhaar par vibhaajit kiya: poonjeepati-varg ka hi dabadaba hai, lekin yeh swayam hi daridratam shramik varg ko shaamil karta hai, choonki kaaryakarta keval apni shram shakti ko bech sakte hain (thos bhavan ke dhaanche ki neenv taiyaar karte hue). anya vichaarak jaise ki maiks vebar ne maarksavaadi aarthik niytatvavaad ki aalochna ki aur is baat par dhyaan diya ki saamaajik star-vinyaas vishuddh roop se aarthik asamaanataaon par nirbhar naheen hai, balki sthiti aur shakti mein bhinnata par bhi nirbhar hai. (udaaharan ke liye pitrusatta par). raalf dahreindorf jaise siddhaantakaaron ne aadhunik pashchimi samaaj mein vishesh roop se takaneeki athva seva aadhaarit arthavyavasthaaon mein ek shikshit kaarya bal ki jaroorat ke liye ek vistrut madhyam varg ki or jhukaav ko ullikhit kiya. bhoomandaleekaran se jude drushtikon, jaise ki nirbharata siddhaant sujhaav dete hain ki yeh prabhaav teesari duniya mein kaamagaaron ke badlaav ke kaaran hai.

shahari aur graameen sthal

shahari samaajashaastr mein saamaajik jeevan aur mahaanagareeya kshetr mein maanaveeya sambandhon ka vishleshan bhi shaamil hai. yeh ek maanak ka adhyayan hai, jismein sanrachanaaon, prakriyaayon, parivartan aur shahari kshetr ki samasyaaon ki jaankaari dene ka prayaas kiya jaata hai aur aisa kar aayojana aur neeti nirmaan ke liye shakti pradaan ki jaati hai. samaajashaastr ke adhikaansh kshetron ki tarah, shahari samaajashaastri saankhyiki vishleshan, nireekshan, saamaajik siddhaant, saakshaatkaar aur anya tareekon ka upayog, kai vishyon jaise palaayan aur janasaankhyiki pravruttiyon, arthashaastr, gareebi, vanshaanugat sambandh, aarthik rujhaan ityaadi ke adhyayan ke liye kiya jaata hai. audyogik kraanti ke baad George simel jaise siddhaantakaaron ne the metropolis end meintal life (1903) mein shahareekaran ki prakriya aur prabhaavit saamaajik alagaav aur gumanaami par dhyaan kendrit kiya. 1920 aur 1930 ke dashak mein Chicago school ne shahari samaajashaastr mein prateekaatmak paarasparik sambaddhata ko kshetr mein anusandhaan ki ek vidhi ke roop mein upayog mein laakar ek vishesh kaam kiya hai. graameen samaajashaastr, iske vipreet, gair saamaajik jeevan mahaanagareeya kshetron ke adhyayan se jude samaajashaastr ka ek kshetr hai.

shodh vidhiyaan

sinhaavalokan

samaajashaastr mein saamaajik anyonyakriya aur uske parinaamon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai

saamaajik shodh vidhiyon ko do vyaapak shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai:

  • maatraatmak design, kai maamalon ke madhya chhoti maatra ke lakshanon ke beech sanbandho par prakaash daalte hue, saamaajik ghatna ki maatra nirdhaarit karne aur sankhyaatmak aankadon ke vishleshan ke prayaas se sambaddh hai.
  • gunaatmak design, maatraatmakata ki bajaay vyaktigat anubhavon aur vishleshan par jor deta hai aur saamaajik ghatna ke prayojan ko samajhne se juda hua hai aur apekshaakrut chand maamalon ke madhya kai lakshanon ke beech sambandhon par kendrit hai.

jabki kai pahaluon mein kaafi had tak bhinn hote hue, gunaatmak aur maatraatmak, donon drushtikonon mein siddhaant aur aankadon ke beech vyavasthit anyonya-kriya shaamil hai. vidhi ka chunaav kaafi had tak is baat par nirbhar karta hai ki shodhakarta kya khoj raha hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek poori aabaadi ke saankhyikeeya saamaanyeekaran ka khaaka kheenchne se juda shodhakarta, ek pratinidhi namoona janasankhya ko ek sarvekshan prashnaavali vitrit kar sakta hai. iske vipreet, ek shodhakarta, jo kisi vyakti ke saamaajik kaaryon ke poorn prasang ko samajhna chaahata hai, nruvanshavijnyaaan aadhaarit pratibhaagi avlokan ya mukt saakshaatkaar chun sakta hai. aam taur par adhyayan ek 'bahu-rananeeti' design ke hisse ke roop mein maatraatmak aur gunaatmak vidhiyon ko mila dete hain. udaaharan ke liye, ek saankhyikeeya svaroop ya ek lakshit namoona haasil karne ke liye maatraatmak adhyayan kiya ja sakta hai aur fir ek saadhan ki apni pratikriya ko nirdhaarit karne ke liye gunaatmak saakshaatkaar ke saath sanyukt kiya ja sakta hai.

jaisa ki adhikaansh vishyon ke maamalon mein hai, aksar samaajashaastri vishesh anusandhaan takaneekon ke samarthan shiviron mein vibhaajit kiye gaye hain. ye vivaad saamaajik siddhaant ke aitihaasik kor se sambandhit hain (pratyakshavaad aur gair-pratyakshavaad, tatha sanrachana aur saadhan).

paddhatiyon ke prakaar

shodh vidhiyon ki nimnalikhit soochi na to ananya hai aur na hi vistrut hai :

'nods' naamak, ek-ek vyakti (ya sangathanon) se bana ek saamaajik network dhaancha, jo ek ya ek se adhik, vishesh prakaar ki paarasparik nirbharata dvaara juda hota hai
  • abhilekheeya anusandhaan: kabhi-kabhi "aitihaasik vidhi" ke roop mein sambodhit.yeh shodh jaankaari ke liye vibhinn aitihaasik abhilekhon ka upayog karta hai jaise aatmakathaaen, sansmaran aur samaachaar vigyapti.
  • saamagri vishleshan: saakshaatkaar aur prashnaavali ki saamagri ka vishleshan, vyavasthit abhigm ke upayog se kiya jaata hai. is prakaar ki anusandhaan pranaali ka ek udaaharan "pratipaadit siddhaant" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. pustakon aur patra-patrikaaon ka bhi vishleshan yeh jaanane ke liye kiya jaata hai ki log kaise samvaad karte hain aur ve sandesh, jinke baare mein log baatein karte hain ya likhte hain.
  • prayogaatmak anusandhaan: shodhakarta ek ekal saamaajik prakriya ya saamaajik ghatna ko pruthak karta hai aur data ka upayog saamaajik siddhaant ki ya to pushti athva nirmaan ke liye karta hai. pratibhaagiyon ("vishay" ke roop mein bhi uddhrut) ko vibhinn sthitiyon ya "upachaar" ke liye betarateeb dhang se niyat kiya jaata hai aur fir samoohon ke beech vishleshan kiya jaata hai. yaadruchhikta shodhakarta ko yeh sunishchit karaati hai ki yeh vyavahaar samooh ki bhinnataaon par prabhaav daalata hai na ki anya baahari kaarakon par.
  • sarvekshan shodh: shodhakarta saakshaatkaar, prashnaavali, ya ek vishesh aabaadi ka pratinidhitv karne ke liye chune gaye logon ke ek samooh se (yaadruchhik chayan sahit) samaan punarnivesh praapt karta hai. ek saakshaatkaar ya prashnaavali se praapt sarvekshan vastuen, khule-ant waali athva band-ant waali ho sakti hain.
  • jeevan itihaas: yeh vyaktigat jeevan prakshep path ka adhyayan hai. saakshaatkaar ki ek shrrunkhala ke maadhyam se, shodhakarta unke jeevan ke nirnaayak palon ya vibhinn prabhaavon ko parakh sakte hain.
  • anudairdhya adhyayan: yeh ek vishisht vyakti ya samooh ka ek lambi avadhi mein kiya gaya vyaapak vishleshan hai.
  • avlokan: indriyjanya data ka upayog karte hue, koi vyakti saamaajik ghatna ya vyavahaar ke baare mein jaankaari record karta hai. avlokan takaneek ya to pratibhaagi avlokan athva gair-pratibhaagi avlokan ho sakti hai. pratibhaagi avlokan mein, shodhakarta kshetr mein jaata hai (jaise ek samudaaya ya kaam ki jagah par) aur use gaharaai se samajhne hetu ek lambi avadhi ke liye kshetr ki gatividhiyon mein bhaageedaari karta hai. in takaneekon ke maadhyam se praapt data ka maatraatmak ya gunaatmak tareekon se vishleshan kiya ja sakta hai.

vyaavahaarik anuprayog

saamaajik anusandhaan, arthashaastriyon,raajanetabalatkar|shikshaavidon, yojanaakaaron, kaanoon nirmaataaon, prashaasakon, vikaasakon, dhanaadhya vyavasaayiyon, prabandhakon, gair-sarkaari sangathanon aur laabh nirpeksh sangathanon, saamaajik kaaryakartaaon, saarvajanik neetiyon ke nirmaan tatha saamaanya roop se saamaajik muddon ko hal karne mein ruchi rakhane vaale logon ko jaankaari deta hai.

Michael Bravo ne saarvajanik samaajashaastr, vyaavahaarik anuprayogon se spasht roop se jude pahaloo aur academic samaajashaastr, jo peshevar aur chhaatron ke beech saiddhaantik bahas ke liye mote taur par sambandhit hai, ke beech antar ko darshaaya hai.

samaajashaastr aur anya saamaajik vigyaan

samaajashaastr vibhinn vishyon ke saath atichhaadan karta hai, jo samaaj ka adhyayan karte hain; "samaajashaastr" aur "saamaajik vigyaan" anaupachaarik roop se paryaayavaachi hain. nruvijnyaaan, arthashaastr, darshanashaastr, raajaneeti vigyaan aur manovijnyaaan ne samaajashaastr ko prabhaavit kiya hai aur isse prabhaavit bhi hue hain; choonki ye kshetr ek hi itihaas aur saamayik roochi ko saajha karte hain.

saamaajik manovijnyaaan ka vishisht kshetr[37] saamaajik aur manovaigyaanik hiton ke kai raaston se ubhar kar aaya hai; yeh kshetr aage chal kar saamaajik ya manovaigyaanik bal ke aadhaar par pahachaana gaya hai. vivechanaatmak siddhaant, samaajashaastr aur saahityik siddhaanton ki sansruti se prabhaavit hai.

saamaajik jaiviki, is baat ka adhyayan hai ki kaise saamaajik vyavahaar aur sangathan, vikaas aur anya jaivik prakriyaaon dvaara prabhaavit hue hain. yeh kshetr samaajashaastr ko anya kai vigyaan se mishrit karta hai jaise nruvijnyaaan, jeev vigyaan, praani shaastr va anya. saamaajik jaiviki ne, samaajeekaran aur paryaavaraneeya kaarakon ke bajaay jeen abhivyakti par bahut adhik dhyaan dene ke kaaran, saamaajik academy ke bheetar vivaad ko utpann kiya hai ('prakruti athva poshan' dekhein).

yeh bhi dekhein

  • samaajashaastriyon ki soochi
  • samaajashaastr mein vaigyaanik patrikaaon ki soochi
  • samaajashaastr mein mahatvapoorn prakaashanon ki soochi
  • saamaajik maanadand
  • saamaajik darshan
  • saamaajik manovijnyaaan
  • sanrachana aur saadhan
  • saamaajik siddhaant
  • samaajashaastr ke up-kshetr
  • samaajashaastr ki samay-rekha

sambandhit siddhaant, tareeke aur jaanch ke kshetr

paad tippaniyaan

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granth soochi

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atirikt pathan

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baahya link

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vikivishvavidyaalaya mein aap samaajashaastr par aur adhik jaankaari praapt kar sakte hai:

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