samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan

samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan (Sociolinguistics) ke antargat samaaj ka bhaasha par evam bhaasha ke samaaj par prabhaav ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. yeh bhaashaavaijnyaaanik adhyayan ka vah kshetr hai jo bhaasha aur samaaj ke beech paaye jaanevaale har prakaar ke sambandhon ka adhyayan vishleshan karta hai.

arthaat samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan vah hai jo bhaasha ki sanrachana aur prayog ke un sabhi pakshon evam sandarbhon ka adhyayan karta hai jinka sambandh saamaajik evam saanskrutik prakaarya ke saath hota hai at: iske adhyayan kshetr ke bheetar vibhinn saamaajik vargon ki bhaashik asmita, bhaasha ke prati saamaajik drushtikon evam abhivrutti, bhaasha ki saamaajik shailiyaaain, bahubhaashikta ka saamaajik aadhaar, bhaasha niyojan aadi bhaasha-adhyayan ke ve sabhi sandarbh aa jaate hai, jinka sambandh saamaajik sansthaan se rahata hai.

anukram

itihaas

samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan mein saamaajik prateek, sanpreshan, shaabdik ghatna, sanpoornabhaasha, vaartaalaap tatha bhoomika aadhaarit hoti hai. samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan ki dharana ko aage badhaane vaalon mein 'lebaav' ka naam sabse pramukh hai. yeh varg maanata hai ki bhaasha aur samaaj ke sanbandho ko bhaashaavijnyaaan ke apne sandarbh se alag naheen kiya ja sakta. bhaasha svanya mein ek saamaajik vastu hai, at: usaki mool prakruti mein hi saamaajik tatv antarbhoot hote hain. ye hi tatv bhaasha ko vishmaroopi aur viklpanayukt banaate hain. bhaasha-vyavahaar mein praapt in viklpanon ka adhyayan bhaasha ki vaastavik prakruti ka uddhaatan karta hai. lebaav ka yeh kathan hai ki samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan aisi koi alag vidha naheen maani ja sakti, kyonki samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan hi to vaastavik bhaashaavijnyaaan hai.

parichay

aaj jis saamaajabhaashaavijnyaaan ki charcha ki jaati hai, vah samaajashaastr aur bhaashaavijnyaaan ke maatr avamishran ka na to parinaam hai aur na hi vah saamaajik-vyavastha aur bhaashik vyavastha ki koi sah-sankalpana hai vah yeh maankar chalta hai ki bhaasha, samaaj saapeksh prateek vyavastha hai aur is prateek-vyavastha ke mool mein hi saamaajik tatv nihit rahate hai ham kisi ek vyakti ke liye kehte hain-

aap idhar aaie.

to doosare vyakti se bolte hai -

too idhar aa.

jab ham pratishtha praapt Doctor ya professor se kehte hai-

krupaya bataaie ki....

jabki kisi dhobi ya mochi se baat karte hue bolte hain -

too yeh bata ki...

isi prakaar apne maata-pita ya daada naana se bahuvachan ka prayog karte hue bolte hain-

aap yahaaain baithein.

jabki chhote bete-beti ya naati-poton se baatcheet karte samay ekavachan ka prayog karte hue kehte hain-

too yahaaain baith, ya fir tum yahaaain baitho.

too, tum, ya aap mein kisi ek ke prayog athva ekavachan ya bahuvachan mein ek ke sthaan par doosare ke chayan ke peechhe ka nirdhaarak tatv bhaasha-prayog ka saamaajik bodh hi hota hai. saamaajabhaashaavijnyaaan ki yeh maanyata hai ki bhaasha ko is saamaajik bodh athva uske saamaajik prayojan se alag kar dekhna asangat hai. at: vah bhaasha ko shudhd bhaashik prateekon ki vyavastha naheen maanata, jaisa ki saidhdaantik bhaashaavaijnyaaanikon ka ek varg sveekaar karta hai. vah ek varg sveekaar karta hai. vah to bhaasha ko saamaajik prateekon ki ek upavyavastha ke roop mein paribhaashit karta hai. is prakaar ham dekhte hai ki samaajabhaasha mein samaaj dvaara jahaan nirvaadh gati se bolata hai vah kabhi bhaasha ka dhyaan na dekar vah sampreshan par vishesh dhyaan dete hue mukh sukh ka suvidha dena chaahata hai. usako bhaasha vigyaan mein samaajabhaashaavijnyaaan kehte hai.

bhaasha ka samaajashaastr

ek taaja bhaashaai anumaan ke mutaabik duniya mein ek vakt kul chhah hajaar aath sau nau bhaashaaeain boli jaati theen[tathya vaanchhit] lekin unki sankhya teji se kam ho rahi hai. kyonki 90 pratishat bhaashaaeain aisi hain jinke bolne vaalon ki sankhya ek lakh se kam hai. 537 bhaashaaeain aisi bhi hain jinke bolne vaale pachaas se bhi kam rah gaye hain lekin zyaada afsosanaak haalat un 46 bhaashaaon ki hai jo aane vaale chand saalon mein khtm hone waali hain kyonki unke baalane wala sirf ek-ek hi inasaan baaki rah gaya hai. cheen mein boli jaane waali mandaarin bhaasha aabaadi ke lihaaj se duniya ki sabse badi bhaasha samajhi jaati hai jabki angreji bhaasha doosare number par hai.hindi aur urdoo ko agar ek bhaasha maana jaae to aabaadi ke lihaaj se vo vishv ki teesari badi bhaasha hai lekin agar hindi ko alag bhaasha ke taur par dekha jaae to duniya bhar ki jbaanon ki soochi mein usaka number chhatha banta hai. paaainchavein number par baangla hai aur urdoo 22vein number par chali jaati hai. iske alaava arabi aur hasapaanavi bhi duniya ki badi bhaashaaon mein shaamil hai lekin angreji ka maamala sabse alag hai. chooainki duniya mein sirf 32 karod log ki maatrubhaasha angreji hai jinki bahutaayat amareeka, Canada, Britain, Australia aur nyoojeelaind mein hai. lekin duniya bhar ke deshon mein anya 35 karod log aise hain jo angreji ko ek sampark bhaasha ke taur par istemaal karte hain yaani apni maatru bhaasha ke saath-saath ve angreji bhi usi suvidha aur raftaar se bol lete hain.

unke alaava das se pandrah karod tak aise log bhi hain jinhonne apni zaroorat ke liye angreji seekhi hai lekin aise logon ki sankhya ab teji se badh rahi hai jinki na to yeh maatru bhaasha hai aur na hi sampark bhaasha.alabatta shiksha, rojgaar ya keval bauddhik gyaan ke vistaar ke uddeshya se unhonne angreji mein mahaarat haasil ki hai. radio, TV, film aur khaasataur par Internet ka istemaal badhne ke saath-saath angreji ka istemaal bhi badhta ja raha hai. ek bhaasha ke taur par angreji ki prakruti ko poori tarah samajhne ke liye bhaasha vigyaan ke kuchh aadhaarbhoot siddhaanton ka jaanana zaroori hai. masalan hamein maaloom hona chaahiye ki duniya bhar ki bhaashaaeain kin samoohon mein bainti hain aur kisi bhi bhaasha ke samajhne ke liye usaki utpatti jaanana zaroori hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain