samaaj kaarya

samaaj-kaarya (social work) ya samaajaseva ek shaikshik evam vyaavasaayik vidha hai jo anusandhaan, neeti, saamudaayik sagathan evam anya vidhiyon dvaara logon evam samoohon ke jeevan-star ko unnat banaane ka prayatn karta hai. saamaajik kaarya ka arth hai sakaaraatmak, suchintit aur sakriya hastakshep ke maadhyam se logon aur unke saamaajik maahaul beech ant:kriya protsaahit karke vyaktiyon ki kshamataaon ko behtar karna taaki ve apni jindagi ki jrooratein poori karte hue apni takaleefon ko kam kar sakein. is prakriya mein samaaj-kaarya logon ki aakaankshaaon ki poorti karne aur unhein apne hi moolyon ki kasauti par khare utarane mein sahaayak hota hai.

samaajaseva vaiyaktik aadhaar par, samooh athva samudaaya mein vyaktiyon ki sahaayata karne ki ek prakriya hai, jisse vyakti apni sahaayata swayam kar sake. iske maadhyam se sevaarthi vartamaan saamaajik paristhitiyon mein utpann apni katipya samasyaaon ko swayam sulajhaane mein saksham hota hai. at: ham samaajaseva ko ek samarthakaari prakriya kah sakte hain. yeh anya sabhi vyavasaayon se sarvatha bhinn hoti hai, kyonki samaaj seva un sabhi saamaajik, aarthik evam manovaigyaanik kaarakon ka niroopan kar uske pariprekshya mein kriyaanvit hoti hai, jo vyakti evam uske paryaavaran-parivaar, samudaaya tatha samaaj ko prabhaavit karte hain. saamaajik kaaryakarta paryaavaran ki saamaajik, aarthik evam saanskrutik shaktiyon ke baad vyaktigat jaivikeeya, bhaavaatmak tatha manovaigyaanik tatvon ko gatisheel ant:kriya ko drushtigt kar hi sevaarthi ki seva pradaan karta hai. vah sevaarthi ke jeevan ke pratyek pahaloo tatha uske paryaavaran mein kriyaasheel, pratyek saamaajik sthiti se avagat rahata hai kyonki seva pradaan karne ki yojana bataate samay vah inki upeksha naheen kar sakta.

samaaj-kaarya ekdam naya anushaasan hai jiska praadurbhaav hue abhi sau varsh bhi naheen hue hain. aksar log samaajashaastr evam samaaj-kaarya ko ek hi samajh lete hain. haalaaainki samaaj-kaarya ka adhikaansh gyaan samaajashaastreeya siddhaanton se liya gaya hai, lekin samaajashaastr jahaaain maanav-samaaj aur maanav-sambandhon ke saiddhaantik paksh ka adhyayan karta hai, vaheen samaaj-kaarya in sambandhon mein aane vaale antaron evam saamaajik parivartan ke kaaranon ki khoj kshetreeya star par karne ke saath-saath vyakti ke manosaamaajik paksh ka bhi adhyayan karta hai. samaaj-kaarya karne vaale kartta ka aacharan vidvaan ki tarah na hokar samasyaaon mein hastakshep ke jriye vyaktiyon, parivaaron, chhote samoohon ya samudaayon ke saath sambandh sthaapit karne ki taraf unmukh hota hai. iske liye samaaj-kaarya ka anushaasan poorn roop se prashikshit aur peshevar kaaryakartaaon par bharosa karta hai.

anukram

parichay

inglaind aur sanyukt raajya America mein pehle church ke maadhyam se hi jan-kalyaanakaari kaarya kiye jaate the. dheere-dheere sthiti badli aur jan-sahaayata ko vidhik roop pradaan kiya jaane laga. inglaind mein 1536 mein ek kaanoon bana jismein nirdhanon ki sahaayata ke liye kaarya-yojana banaayi gayi. atthaarahaveen sadi mein audyogik kraanti ke baad inglaind aur America mein sarkaaron dvaara nirdhanon va ashakton ko samaaj ki mukhyadhaara se jodne ke liye kai kaanoonon ka nirmaan kiya gaya. vyaktiyon ka manosaamaajik paksh sudhaarane hetu 1869 mein London chairiti sangathan tatha America mein 1877 mein chairiti organaaijeshan society ne pahal li. in sansthaaon ne samuchit sahaayata karne ke liye jrooraton ki padtaal tatha sambandhit vyaktiyon ka panjeekaran karna praarambh kiya. is prakriya mein manosaamaajik sthiti sudhaarane ke liye baatcheet karna evam bhautik sahaayata ko bhi shaamil kiya. yeh ek aisi prakriya thi jiske jriye sanstha ke kaaryakartta apne paas aaye vyakti arthaat sevaarthi ko svaavalambi banaate the. dheere- dheere is prakriya ne suchintit pranaaleebaddh roop grahan kar liya. 1887 mein New York mein kaaryakarttaaon ko in kaamon ke liye prashikshan dena praarambh kiya gaya. America mein is prakaar ke prashikshan hetu 1910 mein do varsh ka paathyakram shuroo hua.

Bhaarat mein bhi samaaj-kalyaan hetu raajaaon dvaara daan dene ka chalan tha, yagya karavaaye jaate the evam dharmashaalaaon ityaadi ka nirmaan hota tha. atthaarahaveen shataabdi mein audyogik kraanti ke falasvaroop hone vaale sudhaar kaaryakramon ne bhaarateeya janamaanas ko prabhaavit kiya aur ishvarachand vidyaasaagar tatha raaja raamamohan rai vagairah ke prayaason dvaara vidhva vivaah praarambh hua aur sati pratha par rok lagi. iske atirikt gopaal Krishna gokhale, eni beseint aadi ne Bhaarat mein aadhunik samaaj sudhaaron ko nayi disha di. 1905 mein gokhale ne sarveints of indiya ki sthaapana karke snaatakon ko samaaj seva ke liye prashikshan dena praarambh kiya. in prashikshuon ko vetan bhi diya jaata tha. is tarah inglaind, America tatha Bhaarat mein samaaj-kalyaan ke lakshya ko praapt karne hetu samaaj-kaarya ki neenv padi jiske tahat saamaajik kaaryakartta vyakti ki poorn sahaayata hetu prashikshan praapt karta hai. 1936 mein Bhaarat mein samaaj-kaarya ke shikshan evam prashikshan hetu Mumbai mein sar doraab ji tata graduate school of social vark ki sthaapana hui. aaj desh mein sau se bhi adhik sansthaanon mein samaaj-kaarya ki shiksha di jaati hai. samaaj-kaaryakarta keval unheen ko kaha jaata hai jinhonne samaaj-kaarya ki poori tarah se peshevar shiksha praapt ki ho, na ki unhein jo svaichhik roop se samaaj kalyaan ka kaarya karte hain. svaichhik samaaj- kalyaan ke prayaason ko samaaj-seva ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai aur in gatividhiyon mein lage log samaaj-sevi kahalaate hain.

1926 mein Alice cheni ne samaaj-kaarya ki gatividhi paribhaashit karte hue kaha ki iske tahat aisi aavashyakataaon, jo saamaajik sambandhon se sambandhit hain tatha jo vaigyaanik gyaan evam dhangon ka upayog karti hain, ke sandarbh mein laabh pradaan karne ke sabhi aichhik prayaas sammilit hain. iske pashchaat kai vidvaanon ne samaaj-kaarya ko apne-apne shabdon mein paribhaashit karne ka prayaas kiya. July, 2000 mein antarraashtreeya federashan of social vark ne samaaj-kaarya ki naveenatam paribhaasha dete hue kaha ki samaaj-kaarya ka kaam saamaajik parivartan, maanav-sambandhon mein samasya samaadhaan, vyaktiyon ke sashakteekaran aur svatantrata ko badhaava deta hai. maanav-vyavahaar evam saamaajik vyavastha ke siddhaanton ka upayog karte hue samaaj-kaarya us bindu par hastakshep karta hai jahaaain vyakti apne paryaavaran ke saath ant:kriya karte hain. maanavaadhikaar evam saamaajik nyaaya ke siddhaant samaaj-kaarya ke liye buniyaadi mahattv ke hain. at: kaha ja sakta hai ki samaaj-kaarya vyakti ke saamaajik paryaavaran se taaratamya sthaapit karne ke prayaas ka naam hai. vah dhyaan rakhata hai ki yadi is paryaavaran se vyakti ka saamanjasya sthaapit naheen hota, to samaaj tootane ki sthiti mein pahuainch jaaega. aajkal samaaj-kaarya ke kaaryakshetr mein bahut vruddhi ho chuki hai. ab vah vyakti ke praakrutik aur bhautik paryaavaran mein hone waali samasyaaon ke niraakaran mein bhi hastakshep karta hai.

samaaj-kaarya ke tahat vyaavasaayik drushti se viksit chhah pranaaliyon ke maadhyam se logon ki madad ki jaati hai. ye hain : saamaajik vaiyaktik kaarya, samooh samaaj-kaarya, saamudaayik sangathan, samaaj-kalyaan prashaasan, samaaj-kaarya shodh aur saamaajik kriya.

saamaajik vaiyaktik kaarya ke tahat ek samay mein keval ek vyakti hi seva-kaarya ka kendra hota hai. ismein vyakti ki aantarik evam baahari kshamataaon ka pata lagaakar usaka uske paryaavaran se samaayojan sthaapit karaaya jaata hai. samooh samaaj-kaarya mein vyakti ki sahaayata samooh ke maadhyam se ki jaati hai. haalaaainki samooh-kaarya ek praacheen vidha hone ke baavajood ise vyaavasaayikta ke pratimaanon par viksit karke nayi takaneek se sampann kiya gaya hai. ismein samooh mein lokataantrik gunon ka vikaas kar netrutv taiyaar kiya jaata hai taaki samooh ke sadasya apni samasyaaon ka samaadhaan lokataantrik tareeke se kar sakein. samooh-kaaryakartta sanstha ke maadhyam se samooh ka vikaas vibhinn staron par karta hai. vah sadasyon mein main ke bajaay ham ki bhaavana ka vikaas karta hai. saamudaayik sangathan ek prakriya hai jiska taatparya kisi samudaaya ya samooh mein logon dvaara aapas mein mil kar kalyaan kaaryon ki yojana banaakar use kriyaanvit karna hai. samudaaya ek nagar ka, kshetr ka ya poora nagar, raajya, desh ya sabhi kuchh ho sakta hai. samaaj-kaaryakartta samudaaya ko sansaadhanon ki khoj karne mein sahaayata karta hai evam samasya vishesh ke samaadhaan hetu unka maargadarshan karta hai. samaaj-kalyaan prashaasan ka taatparya aisi prakriya se hai jiske tahat samaaj kalyaan kshetr ki saarvajanik aur niji sansthaaon ka sangathan evam unka prabandhan kiya jaata hai. iska mukhya uddeshya saamaajik, aarthik, saanskrutik aur naitik vikaas hetu lokataantrik niyojan dvaara kalyaanakaari samaaj ki sthaapana karna hai. samaaj-kalyaan prashaasak na keval sanstha ke kaaryon ko sampaadit karta hai balki vah sansthaaon ko nirantar unnati ki disha mein badhaane ka prayaas karta hai. samaaj-kaarya shodh kisi bhi sambandhit samasya ke peechhe chhipe kaaranon ka pata lagta hai aur fir unka samaadhaan prastut karta hai. samaaj- kaarya shodh ek prakriya hai jiske maadhyam se samaaj-kaarya ki pranaaliyon ka pareekshan ke taur par prayog kiya jaata hai. pareekshan safal hone par vah najeer banta hai aur bhavishya mein samasya vishesh hetu usi pranaali vishesh ka upayog kiya jaata hai. jahaaain samaajashaastreeya shodh maatr samasya ke kaaranon ki khoj karta hai vahaaain samaaj-kaarya shodh kaaranon ki khoj ke saath-saath unka nirodhaatmak aur sudhaaraatmak samaadhaan bhi prastut karta hai. saamaajik kriya ke tahat aavashyakataanusaar saamaajik sansthaaon, paristhition tatha saamaajik vyavastha mein parivartan laane ka prayaas karne ke saath hi saath avaanchhit parivartan rokane ka prayaas bhi kiya jaata hai. saamaajik kriya ka uddeshya saamaajik unnati, saamaajik parivrtanon ka sootrapaat, saamaajik vidhaanon tatha samaaj kalyaan sambandhi neetiyon ke nirmaan mein sahayog dena hai. saamaajik kriya ke antargat uthaaya gaya koi bhi kadam maanaveeya aur vyaavasaayik moolyon par aadhaarit hota hai.

samaaj-kaarya ko isliye ek vyavasaaya ki sanjnyaa di jaati hai kyonki vah mukhyat: yeh ek vyavasthit aur kramabaddh gyaan aadhaarit hai. iski apni kuchh vishesh pranaaliyaaain, pravidhiyaaain tatha yantr hain. vishv bhar mein iske shikshan evam prashikshan hetu sansthaanon ki sthaapana ho chuki hai aur nirantar inmein vruddhi ho rahi hai. samaaj-kaarya ke vikaas ke saath-saath iske vyaavasaayik sangathan bhi ban rahe hai, jinse iska star ooaincha uth raha hai. samaaj-kaarya ek vyavasaaya ke roop mein sarkaar dvaara anumodit hai. iski ek nishchit aachaar sanhita hai jiska paalan sabhi kaaryakartaaon ke liye bahut aavashyak hai. samaaj-kaarya bhi samaaj-vigyaan hai parantu iski prakruti anya vishyon se bhinn hai. iski visheshataaeain hi ise anya samaaj-vijnyaaanon se alag karti hai. samaaj-kaarya prabhaavapoorn saamaajik kriya evam saamaajik anukoolan ke maarg mein aane waali saamaajik evam manovaigyaanik samasyaaon ka vaigyaanik dhang se samaadhaan prastut karta hai.

uddeshya

samaajaseva ka uddeshya vyaktiyon, samoohon aur samudaayon ka adhiktam hitsaadhan hota hai. at: saamaajik kaaryakarta sevaarthi ko usaki samasyaaon ka samaadhaan karne mein saksham banaane ke saath uske paryaavaran mein apekshit sudhaar laane ka prayaas karta hai aur apne lakshya ki praapti ke nimitt sevaarthi ki kshamata tatha paryaavaran ki rachanaatmak shaktiyon ka prayog karta hai. samaajaseva sevaarthi tatha uske paryaavaran ke hiton mein saamajasya sthaapit karne ka prayaas karti hai.

samaajaseva ka vartamaan svaroop nimnalikhit janataantrik moolyon ke aadhaar par nirmit hua hai :

(1) vyakti ki antanirhit kshamata, samagrata evam garima mein vishvaas-samaajaseva sevaarthi ki parivartan aur pragati ki kshamata mein vishvaas karti hai.

(2) svanirnaya ka adhikaar - saamaajik kaaryakarta sevaarthi ko apni aavashyakataaon aur unki poorti ki yojana ke nirdhaaran ki poorn svatantrata pradaan karta hai. nissandeh kaaryakarta sevaarthi ko spasht antardrushti praapt karne mein sahaayata karta hai jisse vah vaastavikta ko sveekaar kar lakshyapraapti ki disha mein unmukh ho.

(3) avsar ki samaanata mein vishvaas - samaaj seva sabko samaan roop se upalabdh rahati hai aur sabhi prakaar ke pakshapaaton aur poorvaagrahon se mukt kaaryakartaasamooh athva samudaaya ke sabhi sadasyon ko unki kshamata aur aavashyakta ke anuroop sahaayata pradaan karta hai.

(4) vyaktigat adhikaaron evam saamaajik uttaradaayitvon mein ant: sambandh vyakti ke svanirnaya evam samaan avasarapraapti ke adhikaar, uske parivaar, samooh evam samaaj ke prati uske uttaradaayitv se sanbanddh hote hain. at: saamaajik kaaryakarta vyakti ki abhivruttiyon evam samooh tatha samudaaya ke sadasyon ki ant:kriyaaon, vyavahaaron tatha unke lakshyon ke nirdhaaran ko is prakaar nideshit karta hai ki unke hit ke saath unke bruhad samaaj ka bhi hitsaadhan ho.

samaajaseva is prayojan ke nimitt sthaapit vibhinn sansthaaon ke maadhyam se vahaaain niyukt prashikshit saamaajik kaaryakartaaon dvaara pradaan ki jaati hai. kaaryakartaaon ka gyaan, anubhav, vyaktigat kushalata ek seva karne ki unki manovrutti seva ke star ki nirdhaarak hoti hai. kaaryakarta mein vyaktivikaas ki sampoorn prakriya evam maanav vyavahaar tatha samooh vyavahaar ki gatisheelata tatha unke nirdhaarak tatvon ka samyak‌ gyaan samaajaseva ki pratham anivaaryata hai. is prakaar gyaan par aadhaarit samaajaseva vyakti ki samoohon athva samudaaya ki sahaj yogyataaon tatha sarjanaatmak shaktiyon ko unmukt evam viksit kar svanirdhaarit lakshya ki disha mein kriyaasheel banti hai, jisse ve apni sanvegaatmak, manovaigyaanik, aarthik, evam saamaajik samasyaaon ka samaadhaan dhooaindhane mein swayam sakriya roop se pravrutt hote hain. sevaarthi apni durbalataaon-kuntha, nairaashya, heenata, asahaayata evam asanpruktata ki bhaavagranthiyon aur maanasik tanaav, dvandv tatha vidveshajanit aakramanaatmak manovruttiyon ka parityaag kar kaaryakarta ke saath kis seema tak sahayog karta hai, yeh kaaryakarta aur sevaarth ke madhya sthaapit sambandh par nirbhar karta hai. yadi sevaatheen samooh ya samudaaya hai to lakshyapraapti mein uske sadasyon ke madhya vartamaan sambandh ka vishesh mahatva hota hai. samaajaseva mein sambandh hi sampoorn sahaayata ka aadhaar hai aur yeh vyaavasaayik sambandh sadaiv saabhipraya hota hai.

prakaar

samaajaseva ke teen prakaar hote hain-

(1) vaiyaktik samaajaseva - is prakriya ke maadhyam se ek vyakti doosare vyakti ki sahaayata vartamaan saamaajik paristhitiyon mein utpann usaki katipya samasyaaon ke samaadhaan ke liye karta hai jismein vah samaaj dvaara sveekaarya santoshapoorn jeevan vyateet kar sake.

(2) saamoohik samaajaseva - ek vidhi hai jiske maadhyam se kisi saamaajik samooh ke sadasyon ki sahaayata ek kaaryakarta dvaara ki jaati hai, jo samooh ke kaaryakramon aur uske sadasyon ki ant:kriyaaon ko nirdeshit karta hai. jisse ve vyakti ki pragati evam samooh ke lakshyon ki praapti mein yogadaan kar sakein.

(3) saamudaayik sangathan - vah prakriya hai jiske dvaara ek sangathanakarta ki sahaayata se ek samudaaya ke sadasya ko samudaaya aur lakshyon se avagat hokar, upalabdh saadhanon dvaara unki poorti aavashyataaon ke nimitt saamoohik evam sangathit prayaas karte hain.

is prakaar samast seva ki teenon vidhiyon ka lakshya vyaktiyon ki aavashyakataaon ki poorti hai. unki sahaayata is prakaar ki jaati hai ki ve apni aavashyakataaon, vyaktigat kshamata tatha praapya saadhanon se bhali-bhaaainti avagat hokar pragati kar sake tatha svasth samaaj vyavastha ke nirmaan mein sahaayak hon.

Bhaarat ke pramukh samaajasevi

samaajaseva karne vaale vyaktiyon ko samaajasevi athva saamaajik kaaryakarta kaha jaata hai. saamaajik kaaryakarta vyakti evam anya jeev jantuon ke hit ke liye kaarya karte hain. ve maanav adhikaaron evam usaki unnati ke liye kaarya karte hain. kuchh bhaarateeya saamaajik kaaryakarta nimn hai:-

inhein bhi dekhein

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

1. helen hairis parlamain (1957), social case vark : a praublam saulving prauses, the yunivrsiti of Chicago press, Chicago.

2. sureindr Singh aur pi.di. mishr (2001), samaaj-kaarya : itihaas, darshan evam pranaaliyaaain, new royal book company, Lucknow.

3. meri richmand (1917), social daayagnosis, Russel sej faaundeshan, New York.

4. reks skidmor, miltan Thackeray aur William faarali (1997), introduction too social vark, elin aind bekan, Boston.