samaaj

samaaj ek se adhik logon ke samudaaya ko kehte hain jismein sabhi vyakti maanaveeya kriyaakalaap karte hai. maanaveeya kriyaakalaap mein aacharan, saamaajik suraksha aur nirvaah aadi ki kriyaaen sammilit hoti hai. samaaj logon ka aisa samooh hota hai jo apne andar ke logon ke mukaabale anya samoohon se kaafi kam melajol rakhata hai. kisi samaaj ke antargat aane vaale vyakti ek doosare ke prati paraspar sneh tatha sahrudayata ka bhaav rakhate hain. duniya ke sabhi samaaj apni ek alag pehchaan banaate hue alag-alag rasmon-rivaajon ka paalan karte hain.

parichay

samaaj maanaveeya ant:kriyaaon ke prakram ki ek pranaali hai. maanaveeya kriyaaeain chetan aur achetan donon sthitiyon mein saabhipraaya hoti hain. vyakti ka vyavahaar kuchh nishchit lakshyon ki poorti ke prayaas ki abhivyakti hai. usaki kuchh naisargik tatha arjit aavashyakataaeain hoti hain - kaam, kshudha, suraksha aadi. inki poorti ke abhaav mein vyakti mein kuntha aur maanasik tanaav vyaapt ho jaata hai. vah inki poorti swayam karne mein saksham naheen hota at: in aavashyakataaon ki samyak santushti ke liye apne deergh vikaasakram mein manushya ne ek samashtigt vyavastha ko viksit kiya hai. is vyavastha ko hi ham samaaj ke naam se sambodhit karte hain. yeh vyaktiyon ka aisa sankalan hai jismein ve nishchit sambandh aur vishisht vyavahaar dvaara ek doosare se baindhe hote hain. vyaktiyon ki vah sangathit vyavastha vibhinn kaaryon ke liye vibhinn maanadandon ko viksit karti hai, jinke kuchh vyavahaar anumat aur kuchh nishiddh hote hain.

samaaj mein vibhinn kartaaon ka samaavesh hota hai, jinmein ant:kriya hoti hai. is ant:kriya ka bhautik aur paryaavaranaatmak aadhaar hota hai. pratyek karta adhiktam santushti ki or unmukh hota hai. saarvabhaumik aavashyakataaon ki poorti samaaj ke astitv ko akshunn banaae rakhane ke liye anivaarya hai. taadaatmyajanit aavashyakataaeain sanrachanaatmak tatvon ke sahaastitv ke kshetr ka niyman karti hai. kriya ke unmesh ki pranaali tatha sthitijnya tatv, jinki or kriya unmukh hai, samaaj ki sanrachana ka nirdhaaran karte hain. sanyojak tatv ant:kriya ki prakriya ko santulit karte hai tatha viyojak tatv saamaajik santulan mein vyavadhaan upasthit karte hain. viyojak tatvon ke niyantran hetu sansthaakaran dvaara kartaaon ke sambandhon tatha kriyaaon ka samaayojan hota hai jisse paarasparik sahayog ki vruddhi hoti hai aur antarvirodhon ka shaman hota hai. saamaajik pranaali mein vyakti ko kaarya aur pad, dand aur puraskar, yogyata tatha gunon se sambandhit saamaanya niyamon aur sveekrut maanadandon ke aadhaar par pradaan kiye jaate hain. in avadhaaraanaaon ki visangati ki sthiti mein vyakti samaaj ki maanyataaon aur vidhaaon ke anusaar apna vyavasthaapan naheen kar paata aur usaka saamaajik vyavahaar vifal ho jaata hai, aisi sthiti utpann hone par uske lakshya ko siddhi naheen ho paati, kyonki use samaaj ke anya sadasyon ka sahayog naheen praapt hota. saamaajik dand ke isi bhaya se saamaanyat: vyakti samaaj mein prachalit maanya paranparaaon ki upeksha naheen kar paata, vah unase samaayojan ka har sambhav prayaas karta hai.

chooainki samaaj vyaktiyon ke paarasparik sambandhon ki ek vyavastha hai isliye iska koi moort svaroop naheen hota; iski avadhaarana anubhootimoolak hai. par iske sadasyon mein ek doosare ki satta aur astitv ki prateeti hoti hai. gyaan aur prateeti ke abhaav mein saamaajik sambandhon ka vikaas sambhav naheen hai. paarasparik sahayog evam sambandh ka aadhaar samaan svaarth hota hai. samaan svaarth ki siddhi samaan aacharan dvaara sambhav hoti hai. is prakaar ka saamoohik aacharan samaaj dvaara nirdhaarit aur nirdeshit hota hai. vartamaan saamaajik maanyataaon ki samaan lakshyon se sangati ke sambandh mein sahamati anivaarya hoti hai. yeh sahamati paarasparik vimarsh tatha saamaajik prateekon ke aatmeekaran par aadhaarit hoti hai. iske atirikt pratyek sadasya ko yeh vishvaas rahata hai ki vah jin saamaajik vidhaaon ko uchit maanata aur unka paalan karta hai, unka paalan doosare bhi karte hai. is prakaar ki sahamati, vishvaas evam tadanuroop aacharan saamaajik vyavastha ko sthir rakhate hai. vyaktiyon dvaara seemit aavashyakataaon ki poorti hetu sthaapit vibhinn sansthaaeain is prakaar kaarya karti hai, jisse ek samavet ikaai ke roop mein samaaj ka sangathan aprabhaavit rahata hai. asahamati ki sthiti antarvaiyaktik evam ant:sansthaatmak sangharshon ko janm deti hai jo samaaj ke vightan ke kaaran bante hai. yeh asahamati us sthiti mein paida hoti hai jab vyakti saamoohikta ke saath aatmeekaran mein asafal rahata hai. aatmeekaran aur niyamon ko sveekaar karne mein vifalta kulagati adhikaaron evam seemit sadasyon ke prabhutv ke prati moolabhoot abhivruttiyon se sambaddh ki ja sakti hai. iske atirikt dhyeya nishchit ho jaane ke pashchaat avsar is vifalta ka kaaran banta hai.

saamaajik sangathan ka svaroop kabhi shaashvat naheen bana rahata. samaaj vyaktiyon ka samuchchaya hai aur vibhinn lakshyon ki praapti ke liye vibhinn samoohon mein vibhkt hai. at: maanav man aur samooh man ki gatisheelata use nirantar prabhaavit karti rahati hai. parinaamasvaroop samaaj parivrtanasheel hota hai. usaki yeh gatisheelata hi uske vikaas ka mool hai. saamaajik vikaas parivartan ki ek chirantan prakriya hai jo sadasyon ki aakaankshaaon aur punarnirdhaarit lakshyon ki praapti ki disha mein unmukh rahati hai. sankraman ki nirantarata mein sadasyon ka upakram, unki sahamati aur nootanata se anukoolan ki pravrutti kriyaasheel rahati hai.

baahari kadiyaaain