samaachaarapatr

Argentina ki ek sadak par sthit ek samaachaarapatr ki tapari

samaachaar patra ya akhbaar, samaachaaro par aadhaarit ek prakaashan hai, jismein mukhyat: saamayik ghatanaayein, raajaneeti, khel-kood, vyaktitv, vigyaapan ityaadi jaanakaariyaan saste kaagaj par chhapi hoti hai. samaachaar patra sanchaar ke saadhano mein mahatvapoorn sthaan rakhate hain. samaachaarapatr praay: dainik hote hain lekin kuchh samaachaar patra saaptaahik, paakshik, maasik evam chhamaahi bhi hotein hain. adhiktar samaachaarapatr sthaaneeya bhaashaaon me aur sthaaneeya vishyon par kendrit hote hain.

anukram

samaachaarapatro ka itihaas

sabse pehla gyaat samaachaarapatr 59 E.poo. ka 'the roman ekta diurana' hai. jooliyes seesar ne janasaadharan ko mahatvapoorn raajanaitijnya aur samaajik ghatnaaon se avagat karaane ke liye unhe shaharo ke pramukh sthaano par preshit kiya. 8vi shataabdi me cheen me hastalikhit samaachaarapatro ka prachalan hua[1].

akhbaar ka itihaas aur yogadaan: yooain to british shaasan ke ek poorv adhikaari ke dvaara akhbaaron ki shuruaat maani jaati hai, lekin usaka svaroop akhbaaron ki tarah naheen tha. vah keval ek panne ka soochanaatmak parcha tha. poornaroopen akhbaar Bengal se 'Bengal-gazette' ke naam se vaayasaraaya hikki dvaara nikaala gaya tha. aarambh mein aaingrejon ne apne faayde ke liye akhbaaron ka istemaal kiya, chooainki saare akhbaar aaingreji mein hi nikal rahe the, isliye bahusankhyak logon tak khabarein aur soochanaaeain pahuainch naheen paati theen. jo khabarein baahar nikalkar aati theentr se gujarte, vahaaain apna aatank failaate rahate the. unke khilaaf na to mukadame hote aur na hi unhein koi dand hi diya jaata tha. in naarakeeya paristhitiyon ko jhelate hue bhi log khaamosh the. is dauraan Bhaarat mein 'the Hindustan times', 'national heraald', 'pioneer', 'Mumbai-mirror' jaise akhbaar aaingreji mein nikalte the, jismein un atyaachaaron ka door-door tak ullekh naheen rahata tha. in aaingreji patron ke atirikt bangala, urdoo aadi mein patron ka prakaashan to hota raha, lekin usaka daayara seemit tha. use koi bangaali padhne wala ya urdoo jaanane wala hi samajh sakta tha. aise mein pehli baar 30 May 1826 ko hindi ka pratham patra 'udant maartand' ka pehla ank prakaashit hua.

yeh patra saaptaahik tha. 'udant-maartand' ki shuruaat ne bhaashaayi star par logon ko ek sootr mein baaaindhane ka prayaas kiya. yeh keval ek patra naheen tha, balki un hajaaron logon ki jubaan tha, jo ab tak khaamosh aur bhayabheet the. hindi mein patron ki shuruaat se desh mein ek kraantikaari parivartan hua aur aajaadi ki jang. unhein kaafi tod-marodkar prastut kiya jaata tha, taaki aaingreji sarkaar ke atyaachaaron ki khabarein dabi rah jaaeain. aaingrej sipaahi kisi bhi kshetr mein ghuskar manamaana vyavahaar karte the. loot, hatya, balaatkaar jaisi ghatanaaeain aam hoti theen. vo jis bhi ksheko bhi ek nai disha mili. ab logon tak desh ke kone-kon mein ghat rahi ghatnaaon ki jaankaari pahuainchane lagi. lekin kuchh hi samay baad is patra ke sampaadak jugal kishor ko sahaayata ke abhaav mein 11 December 1827 ko patra band karna pada. 10 May 1829 ko Bengal se hindi akhbaar 'bangadoot' ka prakaashan hua. yeh patra bhi logon ki aavaaj bana aur unhein jode rakhane ka maadhyam. iske baad July, 1854 mein shyaamasundar sen ne Calcutta se 'samaachaar sudha varshan' ka prakaashan kiya. us dauraan jin bhi akhbaaron ne aaingreji hukoomat ke khilaaf koi bhi khabar ya aalekh chhapa, use usaki keemat chukaani padi. akhbaaron ko pratibandhit kar diya jaata tha. usaki pratiyaaain jalavaai jaati theen, uske prakaashakon, sampaadkon, lekhakon ko dand diya jaata tha. un par bhaari-bharakam jurmaana lagaaya jaata tha, taaki vo dubaara fir uthane ki himmat na juta paaeain.

aajaadi ki lahar jis tarah poore desh mein fail rahi thi, akhbaar bhi atyaachaaron ko sahakar aur mukhar ho rahe the. yahi vajah thi ki Bengal vibhaajan ke uparaant hindi patron ki aavaaj aur buland ho gayi. lokamaanya tilk ne 'kesari' ka sanpaadan kiya aur laala laajapat rai ne Punjab se 'vande maataram' patra nikaala. in patron ne yuvaaon ko aajaadi ki ladaai mein adhik-se-adhik sahayog dene ka aahvaan kiya. in patron ne aajaadi paane ka ek jajba paida kar diya. 'kesari' ko Nagpur se maadhavaraav sapre ne nikaala, lekin tilk ke uttejak lekhon ke kaaran is patra par paabandi laga di gayi.

uttar Bhaarat mein aajaadi ki jang mein jaan fooainkane ke liye ganesh shankar vidyaarthi ne 1913 mein Kanpur se saaptaahik patra 'prataap' ka prakaashan aarambh kiya. ismein desh ke har hisse mein ho rahe atyaachaaron ke baare mein jaanakaariyaaain prakaashit hoti theen. isse logon mein aakrosh bhadkane laga tha aur ve british hukoomat ko ukhaad feinkane ke liye aur bhi utsaahit ho uthe the. iski aakraamakata ko dekhte hue aaingrej prashaasan ne iske lekhakon, sampaadkon ko tarah-tarah ki prataadnaaeain Dean, lekin yeh patra apne lakshya par data raha.

isi prakaar Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra ke kshetron se patron ka prakaashan hota raha. un patron ne logon mein svatantrata ko paane ki lalak aur jaagrukta failaane ka prayaas kiya. agar yeh kaha jaae ki svatantrata senaaniyon ke liye ye akhbaar kisi hathiyaar se kamtar naheen the, to koi atishyokti naheen hogi.


akhbaar bane aajaadi ka hathiyaar press aaj jitna svatantr aur mukhar dikhta hai, aajaadi ki jang mein yeh utani hi bandishon aur paabandiyon se baindha hua tha. na to usamein manoranjan ka put tha aur na hi ye kisi ki kamaai ka jariya hi. ye akhbaar aur patra-patrikaaeain aajaadi ke jaaainbaajon ka ek hathiyaar aur maadhyam the, jo unhein logon aur ghatnaaon se jode rakhata tha. aajaadi ki ladaai ka koi bhi aisa yoddha naheen tha, jisne akhbaaron ke jariye apni baat kehne ka prayaas na kiya ho. gaaaindheeji ne bhi 'harijn', 'yang-India' ke naam se akhbaaron ka prakaashan kiya tha to maulaana abul kalaam aajaad ne 'al-hilaal' patra ka prakaashan. aise aur kitne hi udaaharan hain, jo yeh saabit karte hain ki patra-patrikaaon ki aajaadi ki ladaai mein mahati bhoomika thi.

yeh vah daur tha, jab logon ke paas samvaad ka koi saadhan naheen tha. us par bhi aaingrejon ke atyaachaaron ke shikaar asahaaya log chupachaap saare atyaachar sahate the. na to koi unki sunane wala tha aur na unke du:khon ko harane wala. vo kehte bhi to kisase aur kaise? har koi to usi prataadna ko jhel rahe the. aise mein patra-patrikaaon ki shuruaat ne logon ko himmat di, unhein dhaaaindhas baindhaaya. yahi kaaran tha ki kraantikaariyon ke ek-ek lekh janta mein nai sfoorti aur deshbhakti ka sanchaar karte the. bhaarateindu ka naatak 'Bhaarat-durdasha' jab prakaashit hua tha to logon ko yeh anubhav hua tha ki Bhaarat ke log kaise daur se gujar rahe hain aur aaingrejon ki mansha kya hai.

yeh bhi dekhe

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

srot