sam-ooaingali khuradaar

dvikhureeyaganon ke khur

dvikhureeyagan ya sam-ooaingali khuradaar (aartiyodaiktaaila, Artiodactyla) gaaya, bhains, sooar, bakari, ooaint, harin aadi staniyon (mammals) ka gan hai, jinmein garbhanaal (placents), pair par sam sankhya ki aainguliyaaain tatha khur hote hain. is gan mein kharagosh se lekar bhains aur dariyaai ghode jaise bhinn-bhinn aakaar-prakaar ke praani sammilit hain.

anukram

pradhaan visheshataaeain

pratyek pair mein shalkeebhoot (cornified) khur se ghiri hui do kriyaasheel paadaanguliyaaain hoti hain, pairon ke aksh paadaanguliyon ke madhya mein hote hain. bahuton ke sir par seeng ya shrrungaabh (antlers) hote hain. sooar ko chhodkar sab ka dantavinyaas heen koti ka hota hai. inka aamaashaya chaar kakshon mein bainta hota hai or ye jugaali karte hain. kuchh paale jaate hain aur kuchh ka shikaar kiya jaata hai. Australia ko chhodkar ye sabhi mahaadveepon mein paae jaate hain. is gan ke kuchh mahatvapoorn parivaaron ka varnan nimnalikhit hai :

suidi (Suidae)

inka thoothan lamba evam shankvaakaar hota hai, jinke chakateenuma oordhvaadhar sire par cheere se naasaarandhr hote hain. inka sir lamba hota hai, aaainkh, kaan chhote hote hain aur muainh maansabhakshiyon ki tarah cheera (cleft) hota hai. inmein daaainton ka pura samooh (set) hota hai, kaatanevaale nichle daaaint baahar ki or ubhare hote hain aur nar ke bade bade bhedak daaaint (canines) haathi ke daaaint ke samaan muainh ke baahar nikle hote hain. ye daaaint kruntakon (rodent) ke daaainton ke samaan baraabar badhte rahate hain aur inka upayog prahaar karne mein hota hai. charvan dant saras khaadya khaane yogya hote hain aur ghaas, tahani jese rookhe khaadya khaane laayak naheen hote.

sooar sarvabhakshi hain. maans tatha ghaas, shaak, fal aadi vaanaspatik khaadya ye berok khaate hain. inke agrapaad khaane tatha khaadya ko pakadne mein sahaayak hote hain. tvacha patali aur shookayukt (bristly) hoti hai. bachche dhaareedaar hete hain. ye fasalon ko bahut haani pahuainchaate hain, paani aur keechad mein lotana pasand karte hain. nar sooar kabhi kabhi bade khatarnaak saabit hote hain. Bhaarat mein sooar ki keval teen jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain : bhaarateeya jangali sooar (dakshin bhaarateeya), pattit sooar (sus vittatus) tatha kshudr sooar (pigmy hog).

hippopotaimidi (Hippopotamidae)

hippopotaimas ko dariyaai ghoda bhi kehte hain. iska shareer aur visheshat: pair bahut majaboot hote hain, tvacha bhaari tatha virl romayukt hoti hain, yeh tairane mein kushal hota hai aur jaleeya paudhon par nirvaah karta hai. ubhayachar hippopotaimas lagbhag 12 foot lamba hota hai. yeh neel nadi mein aur uske dakshin bhaag mein Africa mein paaya jaata hai. keeropsis laaiberiynsis (Choeropsis Liberiensis, pigmy hippo) ubhayachar hippopotaimas se chhota hota hai aur pashchim Africa mein paaya jaata hai.

kaimelidi (Camelidae)

is kul ke praaniyon ke pair komal aur chaude hote hain, khur naheen hote, ek joda chhedak dant hote hain, bhedak (canine) dant chhote hote hain, ya hote hi naheen. aamaashaya mein teen ya chaar kaksh hote hain, jinmein se pehle do kakshon mein jalasangrah koshikaaeain hoti hain. inke koobad ka adhikaansh vasaanirmit hota hai aur aahaar ki kami hone par shareer poshan mein khap jaata hai. teevragaami ooaint ya saaaindani (dromedary) ke koobad alpaviksit hota hai. inka nirvaah sthool vanaspatiyon par hota hai. yaun uttejan ke samay nar barbar ho jaate hain aur taalu ko laal gubbare ke samaan fula lete hain. maansabhakshiyon ki tarah, kintu khureeya praaniyon ke vipreet, ye apne angon ko samet kar theek prakaar se let jaate hain. inki kuchh jaatiyaaain nimnalikhit hain :

(1) kaimelas baiktriyaanas (Camelus Bactrianus) Asia ka do koobadvaala ooaint tatha

(2) kaimelas dromederiys (Camelus Dromedarius) Africa, Asia tatha uttar Bhaarat ka ek koobadvaala ooaint tatha

(3) laama (Llama) aur alpaaka (Alpaca), jo pashchimi dakshin amareeka mein paae jaate hain aur parivhan, maans, chamada aur oon ke kaam aate hain.

mundi kul (Tragulidae) maatruka mrug (Chevrotains or Mouse deer)

is kuchh ke sadasyon ke aamaashaya mein truteeya aamaashaya ya omesam (omasum) kaksh naheen hota. sanrachana ki drushti se ye sooar aur ooaint se kaafi samaanata rakhate hain. bhaarateeya maatruka mrug (Indian chevrotains) dakshin Bhaarat aur lanka mein paae jaate hain. ye ooainton ke samaan letate hain. ye akele ghoomate hain tatha chhipne vaale (secretive) aur vanavaasi hote hain. maada ek baar mein ek ya do bachchon ko janm deti hain.

jiraaf kul (Giraffidae)

Africa mein paae jaanevaale is kul ke jiraaf ki gardan tatha pair bahut lambe hote hain. chitroshtr (Camelopardalis) 18 se 20 foot tak lamba hota hai. iske sir par teen se paaainch tak tvachaaveshtit seeng hote hain. yeh chhui mui aur anya pedon ki pattiyaaain khaakar nirvaah karta hai. okaapiya (Ocapia) apekshaakrut chhota hota hai aur iski gardan bhi chhoti hoti hai.

mrug kul (Cervidae)

is kul mein mrug, vaahamrug (reindeer), vaahakurang (caribou) aadi sammilit hain. nar mrug ko thos choornamaya (asthimya) do shrrungaabh (antlers) hote hain, jo har saal jhadte hain aur unki jagah par nae ug aate hain. iski nimnalikhit jaatiyaaain hain :

1. kastoori mrug (Musk deer) - yeh parvateeya pashu hai tatha madhya Asia, saaibeeriya aur 8,000- 12,000 foot se adhik ooainchaai par himaalaya aur Tibet mein paaya jaata hai. yeh keval do foot lamba hota hai aur sabhi mrugon mein chhota hai. iske seeng naheen hoti tatha aavaran mota aur rookhe baalon se yukt hota hai. iski saadi dum do inch lambi hoti hai. iske pet ke neeche ki ek thaili mein kastoori hoti hai. iska rang nishchit naheen hai.

kastoori mrug kharagosh ke samaan asaamaajik praani hai aur sada apni maaaind mein pada rahata hai. dhaaloo sthaanon par yeh aad mein rahata hai. pairon ki vichitr banaavat ke kaaran yeh chaukadi bharta hua chalta hai. ghaasapaat, fool evam kaai par yeh nirvaah karta hai. yeh prajananakushal pashu hai. ek varsh ki umr mein hi yeh garbh-dhaaran-yogya ho jaata hai. iske maans mein kastoori ka svaad naheen hota. kastoori ka vyaapaar sadiyon puraana dhandha hai. iski gandh bahut tej hoti hai aur yeh sugandhit vastuon aur davaaon ke nirmaan mein kaam aati hai.

2. shanbar mahaamrug (Cervus unicolour, sdamar) - yeh dakshin Bhaarat aur lanka ke parvateeya jangalon mein paaya jaata hai tatha foot ooaincha, teen nokavaale shrrungaabhon se yukt, bhaari bharakam harin hai. ise maar paana kathin haata hai. iska maans kuchh ghatiya, lekin svaadishth hota hai.

3. prushat mahaamrug (Cervus axis, chitteedaar harin, chittal) - yeh dakshin Bhaarat aur lanka mein paaya jaata hai. nar maada se bada hota hai. yeh mrug halake laal-bhoore rang ka hota hai aur iske badan par safed chittiyaaain hoti hain. iski seeng teen shaakhaaonvaali hoti hai. yeh giroh mein rahata hai. iska maans svaadisht hota hai aur chamade se galeeche bante hain.

4. shaakhishrrung mahaamrug (Cervus devanceli, baaraasinga ya daladali mrug) - yeh keval Bhaarat mein himaalaya ki taraai aur ganga tatha sindh nadi ke maidaanon mein paaya jaata hai. iska sir lamba aur thoothan sainkara hota hai. iski maada ka rang nar ki apeksha halaka hota hai. mrugachhaune par safed chittiyaaain hoti hain. iske do shrrungaabh hote hain, jinpar 12 nokein hoti hain. iske kaaran iska naam baaraasinga pada hai. yeh yoothachaari hai tatha ghaas khaata hai aur garamiyon mein jalaashayon ke nikat rahata hai.

bovidi kul (Bovidae)

is kul ke nar aur maada donon ke seeng khokhale hote hain. seeng yugmin, shaakhaaheen aur keraatin (keratin) se bane hote hain. ye lalaataasthiyon ke asthimya krod ke aadhaar par dheere dheere aur lagaataar badhte rahate hain. kuchh vanshon ka varnan nimnalikhit hai :

1. avi vansh, bhed (Ovis sheep) - ye chhoti pooainchhavaale pashu hain. inki taaaing lambi, khur sugathit aur chhote, seeng aadhaar par mote, shundaakaar aur chaapaakaar mein sarpil (spiral) ke samaan, baahar tatha neeche ki or faile hote hain. bakari jaisi bhed ki daadhi naheen hoti aur na uske samaan durgandh hi.

bhed tej chalanevaala parvateeya pashu hai. yeh pahaadon par chadhne utarane mein tej hai, ghaas paat par nirvaah karti hai aur iski drushti sookshm tatha ghraan shakti tej hoti hai. iska maans svaadishth hota hai. yeh niraapad pashu hai tatha iske khuron ke beech granthi gart (gland pits) hote hain. ovis aimaan (Ovis ammon), madhya aur uttari Asia mein hadppa bhed (Ovis vignei) sindh Punjab aur madhya Asia mein paai jaati hain.

2. chhaag (Capra) bakari - yeh bhed jaisi hoti hai. antar itna hi hai ki ismein khuron ke beech granthigrt naheen hote aur bhedon ki apeksha iski dum lambi hoti hai. iski thuddi par daadhi hoti hai tatha iski ghraanashakti teevr hoti hai. bhedon ki apeksha chaal dheemi hoti hai, kintu yeh chadhne mein bhed se tej hoti hai. maada ka maans nar ke maans ki apeksha adhik svaadishth hota hai. kepra megaasiroj (Capra megaceros) Afghanistan ke parvaton par aur kepra egraagras (Capra oegragrus) pashchim Asia se sindh tak ke ooainche bhoobhaagon mein pai jaati hain.

3. en (Antelope, kurang Gazelle) - ye khule, sookhe bhoobhaagon mein paae jaate hain tatha ye bakari ke aakaar ke, aakarshak evam sukumaar hote hain. inki gardan aur taaaingein lambi aur patali, aaainkhein badi aur kaali hoti hain. inke seengon par valaya hote hain tatha ve kuchh peechhe aur baahar ki or mude hote hain. maada ko seeng praaya: naheen hoti. ye giroh banaakar rahate hain aur kaafi tej daudte hain. inka rang baaloo ke rang ke sadrush baluaa ya baadaami hota hai. Bhaarat mein inki nimnalikhit jaatiyaaain pai jaati hain :

  • bhaarateeya kurang (gazelle) ya chinkaara - yeh madhyabhaarat aur Mysore mein paaya jaata hai tatha
  • neelagaaya (porteinks piktas, portex pictus) - Bhaarat mein yeh sarvatr khule bhoobhaagon mein pai jaati hai, par yeh uttar-pashchim aur madhya bhaagon mein bahutaayat se milti hain. yeh bair, aaainvala aadi ki pattiyon aur unke falon par nirvaah karti hain.

4. go vansh (Bos) - is vansh ke pashuon ka shareer sugathit hota hai aur jugaali karanevaale anya pashuon ki apeksha inki dum lambi haati hai. inke thoothan lamba, nam aur niraakaran hota hai. nar aur maada donon ko seeng hote hain, tatha chehare ya pair par granthiyaaain naheen hoteen. ye sabhi stanapaayiyon mein utkrusht hain, adhiktar ghaas khaate hain aur paani tatha namak pasand karte hain. inki kuchh bhaarateeya jaatiyaaain nimnalikhit hain :

  • bhaarateeya gaaya (Bos Indicus) - yeh vividh rangon mein paaya jaanevaala yeh paalatoo pashu hai. is jaati ki gaaya Europeeya gaaya se is drushti se bhinn hoti hai ki iske seeng Europeeya gaayon se kam faile aur peechhe ki or adhik mude hote hain. iske ek vasaamaya koobad bhi hota hai. doodh denevaale pashu ke roop mein yeh atishya upayogi hai. Africa aur dakshin poorvi Asia poorvi Asia mein yeh sarvatr pai jaati hai.
  • bhains (Bos bubalus) - yeh poorv tatha madhya Bhaarat ke maidaanon mein pai jaati hai. iska maatha lamba, taaaing chhoti, khur bade, peeth seedhi, pichhle ghutanon ko chhooti hui dum, baal patale aur khuradare, tatha ubhari hui raikhaaon se chinhit, trikonaakaar, vichitr seeng hota hai. paalatoo bhainse ka upayog karshak pashu ke roop mein hota hai. yeh bahut balavaan par mand chaalavaala hota hai. ise jal priya hai, praaya: garmiyon mein din ka samay paani mein pade pade bitaata hai. dugdh pashu ke roop mein bhains moolyavaan hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • visham-ooaingali khuradaar