sakal ghareloo utpaad

is anuchhed ko vikipeediya lekh Gross domestic product ke is sanskaran se anuvaadit kiya gaya hai.

2008 sakal ghareloo utpaad (naamamaatr) prati vyakti ke dvaara desh (IMF, October 2008 anumaan)
CIA world fekt book 2007 ke kul naamamaatr sakal ghareloo utpaad (oopar) ke aankadon ki tulana PPP ke saath-samaayojit GDP (neeche)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) prati vyakti

sakal ghareloo utpaad (GDP) ya sakal ghareloo aay (GDI), ek arthavyavastha ke aarthik pradarshan ka ek buniyaadi maap hai, yeh ek varsh mein ek raashtra ki seema ke bheetar sabhi antim maal aur sevaao ka baajaar moolya hai.[1] GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko teen prakaar se paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai, jinmein se sabhi avadhaaranaatmak roop se samaan hain. pehla, yeh ek nishchit samay avadhi mein (aam taur par 365 din ka ek varsh) ek desh ke bheetar utpaadit sabhi antim maal aur sevaao ke liye kiye gaye kul vyaya ke baraabar hai. doosra, yeh ek desh ke bheetar ek avadhi mein sabhi udyogon ke dvaara utpaadan ki pratyek avastha (madhyavarti charan) par kul vardhit moolya aur utpaadon par subsidy rahit kar ke yog ke baraabar hai. teesara, yeh ek avadhi mein desh mein utpaadan ke dvaara utpann aay ke yog ke baraabar hai- arthaat karmachaariyon ki kshatipoorti ki raashi, utpaadan par kar aursubsidy rahit aayaat aur sakal parichaalan adhishesh (ya laabh)[2][3]

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke maapan aur maatr nirdhaaran ka sabse aam tareeka hai kharch ya vyaya vidhi (expenditure method):

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) = upabhog + sakal nivesh + sarkaari kharch + (niryaat - aayaat), ya,
GDP = C + I + G + (X − M).

"sakal" ka arth hai sakal ghareloo utpaad mein se poonji share ke moolyahraas ko ghataaya naheen gaya hai. yadi shuddh nivesh (jo sakal nivesh maainas moolyahraas hai) ko uparyukt sameekaran mein sakal nivesh ke sthaan par lagaaya jaae, to shuddh ghareloo utpaad ka sootr praapt hota hai.

is sameekaran mein upabhog aur nivesh antim maal aur sevaao par kiye jaane vaale vyaya hain.

sameekaran ka niryaat - aayaat wala bhaag (jo aksar shuddh niryaat kahalaata hai), ghareloo roop se utpann naheen hone vaale vyaya ke bhaag ko ghataakar (aayaat) aur ise fir se ghareloo kshetr mein jod kar (niryaat) samaayojit karta hai.

arthashaastri (keenej ke baad se) saamaanya upabhog ke pad ko do bhaagon mein baaaintana pasand karte hain; niji upabhog aur saarvajanik kshetr ka (ya sarkaari) kharch.

saiddhaantik maikroikaunaumiks mein kul upabhog ko is prakaar se vibhaajit karne ke do faayde hain:

  • niji upabhog kalyaanakaari arthashaastr ka ek kendreeya mudda hai. niji nivesh aur arthavyavastha ka vyaapaar wala bhaag antat: (mukhyadhaara aarthik model mein) deerghakaaleen niji upabhog mein vruddhi ko nirdeshit karte hain.
  • yadi antarjaat niji upabhog se alag kar diya jaae to sarkaari upabhog ko bahirjaat maana ja sakta hai,[tathya vaanchhit] jisse sarkaari vyaya ke vibhinn star ek arthapoorn vyaapak aarthik dhaanche ke bheetar maane ja sakte hain.

anukram

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka maapan

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GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke ghatak

pratyek char C (upabhog), I (nivesh), G (sarkaari vyaya) aur X − M (shuddh niryaat) (jahaaain GDP = C + I + G + (X − M) jaisa ki oopar diya gaya hai)

(dhyaan dein: *'sakal ghareloo utpaad (GDP)' ko ek GDP lekhaachitr ke sandarbh mein Y ke dvaara darshaaya jaata hai.


  • C (upabhog) arthavyavastha mein niji upabhog hai. ismein adhikaansh vyaktigat ghareloo vyaya jaise bhojan, kiraaya, chikitsa vyaya aur is tarah ke anya vyaya shaamil hain, lekin naya ghar ismein shaamil naheen hain.
  • I (nivesh) ko vyavasaaya ya ghar ke dvaara poonji ke roop mein lagaaye jaane vaale nivesh ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai. ek vyavasaaya ke dvaara nivesh ke udaaharanon mein shaamil hain ek nayi Khan ka nirmaan kaarya, ek software ko khareedna, ya ek factory ke liye ek machinery ya upakaran khareedna.

ek ghar ke dvaara (sarkaar naheen) nae aavaas par vyaya karna bhi nivesh mein shaamil hain. iske bolachaal ke arth ke vipreet, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaae) mein 'nivesh' ka arth vitteeya utpaadon ke kraya se naheen hai. vitteeya utpaadon ke kraya ko 'bachat' ke roop mein vargeekrut kiya jaata hai, nivesh ke roop mein naheen. vibhed (siddhaant mein) spasht hai: yadi dhan ko maal ya sevaao mein badla jaata hai, yeh nivesh hai ; lekin, yadi aap ek bond ya stok ka ek share khareedte hain, yeh hastaantaran bhugataan GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) se alag kar diya jaata hai.

kyonki stock aur baand vitteeya pooainji ko prabhaavit karte hain, jo badle mein utpaadan aur bikri ko prabhaavit karti hai, jo nivesh ko prabhaavit karte hai. 

to stock aur baand paroksh roop se GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko prabhaavit karte hain. haalaaainki aise kraya ko saamaanya bhaasha mein nivesh hi kaha jaata hai, kul aarthik drushtikon se yeh keval anubandhon ka vinimay hai aur vaastavik utpaadan ya GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka hissa naheen hai.


  • G (sarkaari vyaya) antim maal aur sevaaon sarkaari vyaya ka yog hai. ismein sarkaari karmachaariyon ka vetan, sena ke liye hathiyaaron ki khareed aur sarkaar ke dvaara nivesh vyaya shaamil hai.

ismein koi hastaantaran bhugataan jaise saamaajik suraksha ya berojgaari ke laabh shaamil naheen hain.

  • X (niryaat) sakal niryaat hai. GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) vah raashi hai jo ek desh utpaadan karta hai. ismein anya raashtron ke upabhog ke liye taiyaar kiya gaya maal aur sevaaen bhi shaamil hain, isliye niryaat ko joda jaata hai.
  • M (aayaat) sakal aayaat hai. aayaat ko ghataaya jaata hai chooainki aayaat ki gayi vastuon ko G, I, ya C, padon mein shaamil kiya jaaega aur inhein videshi aapoorti ko ghareloo aapoorti ke roop mein ganana karne se bachane ke liye ghataaya jaata hai.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ghatak char ke udaaharan

C, I, G aur NX ke udaaharan (shuddh niryaat) : yadi aap apne hotel ke naveeneekaran ke liye dhan kharch karte hain, taaki adhibhog ki daron mein vruddhi ho, to yeh niji nivesh hai, lekin yadi aap aisa hi karne ke liye ek sangh mein share khareedte hain ta yeh bachat hai.

GDP (sakal gharelu utpaad) ke maapan ke dauraan pehle wala ka upayog kiya jaata hai (I mein), baad vaale ka naheen.

lekin, jab sangh naveekaran par apne swayam ke kharch karta hai, tab is kharch ko GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein shaamil kiya jaaega.

udaaharan ke liye, yadi ek hotel niji ghar hai, tab naveeneekaran vyaya ko upabhog (C) maana jaaega, lekin yadi ek sarkaari agency hotel ko naagrik sevaao ke ek kaaryaalaya mein badal rahi hai, to naveeneekaran vyaya ko saarvajaanik kshetr vyaya (G) ka ek bhaag maana jaaega.

yadi naveeneekaran mein videsh se ek jhoomar ki khareed shaamil hai, to vyaya ki ganana bhi aayaat ki vruddhi ke roop mein ki jaati hai, taaki NX ka maan gir jaae aur kul GDP kraya ke dvaara prabhaavit hota hai.

(yeh is tathya par prakaash daalata hai ki GDP, kul upabhog ya vyaya ke bajaay ghareloo utpaadan ko maapane ke liye hai.

vyaya vaastav mein utpaadan ka aakalan karne ke liye ek suvidhaajanak tareeka hai.)

yadi ek ghareloo nirmaata ko ek videshi hotel ke liye jhoomar banaane ke liye bhugataan kiya jaata hai, to sthiti vipreet hogi aur bhugataan ki ganana NX mein ki jaaegi (dhanaatmak roop se ek niryaat ke roop mein). fir se, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) vyaya ke maadhyam se utpaadan ka maapan karta hai; yadi utpann jhoomar ko domestik roop se khreeda gaya hai, to ise GDP aankadon (C ya I mein) mein shaamil kiya gaya hoga, jab ek upabhokta ya vyaapar ke dvaara ise khreeda gaya hai, lekin kyonki iska niryaat kiya gaya tha to ghareloo roop se utpann raashi ko dene ke liye ghareloo roop se upabhog ki gayi raashi ko "theek" karna jaruri hai.


(jaisa ki sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) aur GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki vruddhi ke prakaar

2008 ke liye sakal ghareloo utpaad mein vaastavik vruddhi dar
  1. vartamaan GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) vah GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) hai jise maapan ki jaane waali avadhi ke vartamaan moolya mein abhivyakt kiya jaata hai.
  2. naamamaatr GDP vruddhi naamamaatr moolyon mein GDP (sakal gharelu utpaad) vruddhi hai (moolya parivartan ke liye asamaayojit).
  3. vaastavik GDP vruddhi moolya parivrtanon ke liye samaayojit GDP (sakal gharelu utpaad) vruddhi hai.

vaastavik GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) vruddhi ki ganana karne se arthashaastriyon ko yeh nirdhaarit karne mein madad milti hai ki mudra ki kraya kshamata mein parivartan se aprabhaavit rahate hue, utpaadan kam hua hai ya badha hai.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke aay khaate

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko maapane ka ek anya tareeka hai, kul deya aay ka maapan GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) aay ke khaaton mein karna.

is sthiti mein, kabhi kabhi sakal ghareloo utpaad ke bajaay sakal ghareloo aay (GDI) ka prayog kiya jaata hai. iske dvaara vahi aankade praapt hone chaahiye jo uparyukt vyaya vidhi mein praapt hote hain.

(paribhaasha se, GDI (sakal ghareloo aay)= GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad). vyavahaar mein, haalaanki, jab raashtreeya saankhyikeeya agencyon ne report di to maapan truti ki vajah se donon aankadon ka maapan halka sa alag paaya gaya.

aay drushtikon ka upayog karte hue, maapan kiye gaye GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke liye sootr GDP(I) kahalaata hai, yeh hai:

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) =karmachaariyon ka muaavaja + sakal parichaalan adhishesh + sakal mishrit aay + utpaadan aur aayaat par subsidy rahit kar.
  • karmachaariyon ka muaavaja (COE) kiye gaye kaarya ke liye karmachaariyon ko chukaae jaane vaale kul paarishramik ka maapan karta hai. ismein majadoori aur vetan shaamil hain, saath hi saamaajik suraksha aur aise anya kaaryakramon mein karmachaari ka yogadaan bhi shaamil hai.
  • sakal sanchaalan adhishesh (GOS) shaamil vyavasaayon ke maalikon ke kaaran adhishesh hai. ise aksar laabh kaha jaata hai, haalaanki GOS ki ganana karne ke liye sakal out put mein se kul laagat ka ek up samuchchaya hi ghataaya jaata hai.
  • mishrit sakal aay (GMI) GOS ke samaan maap hai, lekin un vyavasaayon ke liye hai jo shaamil naheen hain.

ismein aksar adhikaansh chhote vyavasaaya shaamil hain.

COE, GOS aur GMI ka kul yog kul kaarak aay kahalaata hai aur yeh kaarak (buniyaadi) moolyon par GDP ke maan ki ganana karta hai.

buniyaadi keematon aur antim keematon ke beech ka antar (jiska upayog vyaya ki ganana mein kiya jaata hai) kul kar aur sabsidiyaaain hain jinhein sarkaar ne utpaadan par laagoo kiya hai ya bhugataan kiya hai. to aayaat aur utpaadan par subsidy rahit kar ko jodne se GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) kaarak laagat par GDP(I) mein badal jaata hai.

ek anya sootr is prakaar se likha ja sakta hai: :[tathya vaanchhit][10]

GDP = R + I + P + SA + W

jahaaain R = kiraae
I = byaaj
P = laabh
SA = saankhyikeeya samaayojan (kaurporet aay kar, laabhaansh, avitrit kaurporet munaafa)
W = majadoori

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) banaam GNP (sakal raashtreeya utpaad)

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko sakal raashtreeya utpaad (GNP, ya sakal raashtreeya aay, GNI), ke vipreet maana ja sakta hai, jiska upayog sanyukt raajya America ne 1992 tak apne raashtreeya khaaton mein kiya. antar yeh hai ki GNP mein shuddh niryaat aur aayaat (vyaapaar ka santulan) ke bajaay shuddh videshi aay (chaaloo khaata) shaamil hoti hai. saadhaaran roop se kaha jaae to GDP ki tulana mein GNP mein shuddh videshi nivesh aay shaamil hoti hai.

sanyukt raajya America GDP, GNP aur GNI (sakal raashtreeya aay) ki tulana EconStats http://www.econstats.com/gdp/gdp__q10.htm par ki ja sakti hai.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) us kshetr se sambandhit hai jismein aay utpann hoti hai. yeh ek varsh mein ek raashtra mein utpann kul out put ka baajaar moolya hai. GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) is baat par dhyaan deta hai ki out put kahaaain utpann ho raha hai, is baat par naheen ki ise kaun utpann kar raha hai. GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) sabhi ghareloo utpaadanon ka maapan karta hai chaahe iski utpaadan ikaaiyon ki raashtreeyata koi bhi ho.

iske vipreet, GNP (sakal raashtreeya utpaad) ek kshetr ki 'raashtreeyata' ke dvaara utpann out put ke maan ka maapan karta hai. GNP (sakal raashtreeya utpaadan) is baat par dhyaan deta hai ki utpaadan ka maalik kaun hai. udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein, GNP (sakal raashtreeya utpaadan) ameriki companiyon dvaara utpaadit out put ke maan ka maapan karta hai chaahe ye kampaniyaaain kaheen par bhi sthit hon. saal dar saal, 2007 mein vaastavik GNP vruddhi 3.2% thi.

maapan

antarraashtreeya maanak

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) k maapan ke liye antarraashtreeya maanak ek pustak system of national akaaunts (1993) mein nihit hain, jise antararaashtreeya mudra kosh, Europeeya sangh, aarthik sahayog aur vikaas ke liye sangathan, sayunkt raashtra aur vishv bank ke pratinidhiyon ke dvaara taiyaar kiya gaya.

is prakaashan ko 1968 mein prakaashit pichhle sanskaran (jo SNA68 kahalaata hai) se vibhedit karne ke liye saamaanyataya SNA93 kaha jaata hai[tathya vaanchhit][11].

SNA93 raashtreeya khaaton ke maapan ke liye niyamon aur prakriyaaon ka ek samuchchaya upalabdh karaata hai. maanakon ko is prakaar se design kiya gaya hai ki ve itne lacheele hon ki sthaaneeya saankhyikeeya aavashyakataaon tatha sthitiyon ke beech vibhed karne mein madad karein.

raashtreeya maapan

har desh mein GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko aam taur par ek raashtreeya sarkaar saankhyikeeya agency dvaara maapa jaata hai, kyonki niji kshetr ke sangathanon ke paas aam taur par aavashyak jaankaari upalabdh naheen hoti hai (vishesh roop se sarkaar dvaara kiye gaye utpaadan aur kharchon ki jaankaari).


byaaj darein

shuddh byaaj vyaya, vitt kshetr ko chhodkar sabhi kshetron mein ek hastaantaran bhugataan hai. vitteeya kshetr mein shuddh byaaj vyaya ko utpaadan aur vardhit moolya ke roop mein dekha jaata hai aur ise GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein joda jaata hai.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko maapane ke liye teen drushtikon (vyaapak arthashaastr)

1.vyaya drushtikon:

sabhi antim maal aur sevaaon par kul vyaya (upabhog ki vastuen aur sevaaen (C) + sakal nivesh (I) + sarkaari khareed (G) + (niryaat (X) - aayaat (M))

GDP = C + I + G + (X-I)

2. aay drushtikon (NI = raashtreeya aay)

aay ke drushtikon ka prayog karte hue, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki ganana karne ke liye samaaj mein utpaadan ke kaarakon mein kaarak aay ko joda jaata hai.

inmein shaamil hain

karmachaari ka muaavaja + kaurporet munaafa + maalik ki aay + kiraaye ki aay + shuddh byaaj

3. vardhit moolya drushtikon:

maal ki bikri ka moolya - beche gaye maal ke utpaadan ke liye madhyavarti maal ki khareed.

seema paar tulana

vibhinn deshon mein GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke star ki tulana karne ke liye nimn mein se kisi ke anusaar unke maan ko raashtreeya mudra mein badla jaata hai.

  • maujooda mudra vinimay dar : GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki ganana antararaashtreeya mudra baajaar par prachalit vinimay daron ke dvaara ki jaati hai.
  • shakti samata vinimay dar ki khareed : GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki ganana ek chayanit maanak (aam taur par sanyukt raajya dollar) ki tulana mein pratyek mudra ki kraya shakti samata (PPP) ke dvaara ki jaati hai.

deshon ki tulanaatmak ranking mein donon drushtikonon ke beech antar ho sakta hai.

  • chaaloo vinimay dar paddhati maal aur sevaaon ke moolya ko vaishvik mudra vinimay daron ka upayog karte hue baal deti hai. yeh ek desh ki antararaashtreeya kraya shakti aur tulanaatmak aarthik kshamata ke behtar sanket de sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, yadi GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka 10% haai-tech videshi hathiyaaron ki khareed par kharch kiya ja raha hai, khreede gaye hathiyaaron ki sankhya ka niyantran poori tarah se chaaloo vinimay dar ke dvaara kiya jaata hai, choonki hathiyaar ek kaarobaar utpaad hain jinhein antararaashtreeya baajaar par khreeda jaata hai. (uchch praudyogiki maal ke liye "sthaaneeya" keemat ka antarraashtreeya keemat se koi arthapoorn vibhed naheen hai).
  • kraya shakti samata vidhi, ek arthavyavastha mein ausat utpaadak ya upabhokta ki saapeksh prabhaavi ghareloo kraya kshamata ka lekha jokha deti hai.

yeh alp viksit deshon ke jeevan star ke behtar sanket de sakti hai kyonki yeh duniya ke baajaaron mein sthaaneeya mudra ki kamjori ke liye kshatipoorti karti hai. (udaaharan ke liye, naamamaatr GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke aadhaar par Bhaarat ka raink 12 vaan hai lekin ppp ke dvaara 4tha). GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) roopaantaran ki PPP paddhati gair kaarobaari maal aur sevaaon ke liye sabse jyaada praasangik hai.

kraya shakti samata vidhi ka spasht pratiroop hai jo uchch aur alp aay (GDP) deshon ke beech GDP mein asamaanata ko kam karta hai, jab iski tulana chaaloo vinimay dar vidhi se ki jaati hai.

yeh khoj penn prabhaav kahalaati hai.

adhik jaankaari ke liye dekhein raashtreeya aay aur utpaadan ke maapan

jeevan star aur GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad)

audyogik kraanti se pehle maanav itihaas ke adhikaansh bhaag ke liye, prati vyakti vishv sakal ghareloo utpaad (1990 mein antar raashtreeya dollar) mein bahut kam parivartan hua. (dhyaan dein khaali kshetronka arth hai, koi aankada naheen, na hi bahut kam star. varsh 1, 1000, 1500, 1600, 1700, 1820, 1900, and 2003 ke liye aankade hain.)

prati vyakti GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ek arthavyavastha mein jeevan star ka maap naheen hai. haalaanki, aksar ise is prakaar ke sanketak ke roop mein prayukt kiya jaata hai, is tark par ki sabhi naagrik apne desh ke badhe hue aarthik utpaadan ka laabh praapt kareinge.

isi prakaar, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) prati vyakti vyaktigat aay ka maap naheen hai. ek desh ke adhikaansh naagrikon ki aay mein kami aane par ya an-anupaatik roop se parivartan hone par bhi GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein vruddhi ho sakti hai. udaaharan ke liye, America mein 1990 se 2006 ke beech ki avadhi mein niji udyogon aur sevaao mein vyaktigat shramikon ki aay (mudraasfeeti ke liye samaayojit) mein 0.5% prati varsh ki vruddhi hui jabki isi avadhi ke dauraan GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) (mudraasfeeti ke liye samaayojit) mein 3.6% prati varsh ki vruddhi hui.[4]

jeevan star ke ek sanketak ke roop mein prati vyakti GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka pramukh laabh hai ki ise baar baar, lagaataar aur vyaapak roop se maapa jaata hai; baar baar ka arth hai ki adhikaansh desh GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) par jaankaari traimaasik aadhaar par upalabdh karaate hain (jisse upayogakarta aasaani se pravrutiyon ka pata laga sakte hain), vyaapak roop se arthaat ismein GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka kuchh maap duniya ke har desh ke liye praayogik roop se upalabdh hota hai (jo bhinn deshon mein jeevan star ki tulana karne mein madad karta hai) aur lagaataar arthaat GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke bheetar prayukt takaneeki paribhaashaaen, deshon ke beech tulanaatmak roop se sthir rahati hain aur isliye yeh vishvaas bana rahata hai ki pratyek desh mein samaan maapan kiya ja raha hai.

jeevan star ke ek sanketak ke roop mein GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka upayog karne ka ek mukhya nuksaan yeh hai ki yeh kadaai ke saath jeevan star ka maap naheen hai. GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ek desh mein aarthik gatividhi ke kisi vishisht prakaar ka maapan karta hai. GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki paribhaasha ke anusaar aisa jaruri naheen hai ki yeh yeh jeevan star ka maap kare.

udaaharan ke liye, ek charam udaaharan mein, ek desh jisne apne 100 pratishat utpaadan ka niryaat kiya aur kuchh bhi aayaat naheen kiya to bhi usaka GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) uchch hoga, lekin jeevan star bahut hi nimn hoga.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke upayog ke paksh mein tark naheen hai ki yeh jeevan star ka ek achha sanketak hai, lekin iske bajaay yeh hai ki (anya sabhi cheejein baraabar hai) jeevan star us sthiti mein badhne ki pravruti rakhata hai jab GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) prati vyakti badhta hai.

yeh GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko jeevan star ke pratyaksh maap ke bajaay use iska pratinidhi banta hai.

prati vyakti GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko shram utpaadakata ke ek pratinidhi ke roop mein dekha ja sakta hai. jaise jaise shramikon ki utpaadakata badhti hai, karmachaariyon ko unke liye adhik majadoori dekar pratispardha karni chaahiye.[tathya vaanchhit][14]iske vipreet, yadi utpaadakata kam hai, to majadoori kam honi chaahiye ya vyaapaar laabh kamaane ke liye saksham naheen honge.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke is upayog ke baare mein kai vivaad hain.

ek arth vyavastha ke svaasthya ke nirdhaaran ke liye GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki seemaaeain

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka prayog arthashaastriyon ke dvaara arthavyavastha ke svaasthya ke maapan ke liye vyaapak roop se kiya jaata hai, kyonki iski kismon ko saapeksh roop se tunrat pahachaana jaata hai.

haalaanki, jeevan star ke sanketak ke roop mein iska maan seemit maana jaata hai.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka upayog kaise kiya jaata hai, iski aalochanaaon mein shaamil hain:

  • sampatti vitran - GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ameer aur gareeb ke beech aay mein asamaanata ka khaata naheen rakhata hai. haalaanki, kai-Nobel puraskaar vijeta arthashaastriyon ke beech deerghakaalik aarthik vruddhi ke sudhaar ke kaarak ke roop mein aay ki asamaanata ke mahattv ke baare mein vivaad hai.

vaastav mein, aay asamaanata mein alpakaalik vruddhi, aay ki asamaanata mein deerghakaalik kami ka kaarak ho sakti hai.

asamaanata aadhaarit aarthik maap ki ek kism ki charcha ke liye dekhein aay asamaanata meetriks

  • gair baajaar lenaden - GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein vah gatividhi shaamil naheen hai jo baajaar ke maadhyam se upalabdh naheen hoti hai, jaise ghareloo utpaadan aur swayamsevi ya avaitanik sevaaen.
ek parinaam ke roop mein, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) nyunokt hai. muft aur khule srot software par sanchaalit avaitanik kaarya (jaise links) GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein koi yogadaan naheen karta, lekin aisa anumaan lagaaya gaya ki ek vyaapaarik company ko viksit hone ke liye ek billion ameriki dollar se adhik kharch aata hai. 

saath hi yadi muft aur khula srot software, iske maalikaana software ke liye samakaksh ho jaata hai aur maalikaana software banaane vaal raashtra maalikaana software khareedna band kar deta hai aur muft aur khule srot software ki or rukh kar leta hai, to is raashtra ka GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) kam ho jaaega, haalaanki aarthik utpaadan or jeevan star mein koi kami naheen aaegi. New Zealand ke arthashaastri marilin vaaring ne is baat par prakaash daala ki avaitanik kaarya mein kaarak ke roop mein ek thos prayaas kiya jaata hai to yeh avaitanik (aur kuchh maamalon mein, gulaam) shram ke anyaaya ko nasht karne ka prayaas karega aur saath hi lokatantr ke liye aavashyak raajanaitik paaradarshita aur javaabadehi bhi upalabdh karaaega.

is daave par kuchh sandeh hai, baharahaal, isi siddhaant ne arthashaastri dagalas North ko 1993 mein Nobel puraskaar dilaaya. North ne tark diya ki niji aavishkaar aur udyam ko protsaahit karne ke dvaara, peteint pranaali ka nirmaan aur ise majabooti pradaan karna, England mein audyogik kraanti ke peechhe mool utprerak ban gaya.

  • bhoomigat arthavyavastha - adhikaarik GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke anumaan bhoomigat arthavyavastha ke khaate mein naheen aate hain, jismein lenaden utpaadan mein yogadaan deta hai, jaise gair kaanooni vyaapaar aur kar virodhi gatividhiyon ki report naheen di jaati hai, jisse GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka anumaan kam ho jaata hai.
  • gair-maudrik arthavyavastha - GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) un arthvyavaathaaon ko kam kar deta hai jinmein paisa chakr mein naheen aata hai, jiske parinaam svarup GDP aankade galat ho jaate hain aur asaamaanya roop se kam ho jaate hain.
udaaharan ke liye, jin deshon mein anaupachaarik roop se mukhya vyaapaar lenaden hota hai, sthaaneeya arthavyavastha ke bhaag aasaani se panjeekrut naheen hote hai. 
paise ke upayog ki tulana mein vastu vinimay adhik prabhaavi ho sakta hai, yahaaain tak ki yeh sevaaon ko bhi vistrut karta hai. (mainne das saal pehle tumhaara ghar banaane mein madad ki thi, isliye tum ab meri madad karo. 
  • GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) nirvaah utpaadan ki bhi upeksha karta hai.
  • maal ki gunavatta - log baar baar saste aur kam tikaaoo padaarth khareed sakte hain aur ve adhik tikaaoo saamaan kabhi kabhi hi khareed sakte hain.

yeh sambhav hai ki pehle maamale mein beche gaye item ka maudrik moolya doosare maamale se adhik ho, jis maamale mein uchch GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) adhik akushalata aur barbaadi ka parinaam hai.

(hamesha aisa naheen hota hai; kamjor maal ki tulana mein tikaaoo maal ka utpaadan aksar adhik kathin hota hai aur upabhoktaaon ke paas sabse saste deerghakaalik vikalp khojane ke liye ek vitteeya protsaahan hota hai. 

aisa maal jismein teevr parivartan aa rahe. hain, jaise fashion aur uchch takaneek, un utpaadon ki chhoti avadhi ke baavajood nae utpaad graahak ki santushti ko badha sakte hain.

  • gunavatta mein sudhaar aur nae utpaadon ka shaamil hona - gunavatta mein sudhaar aur nae utpaadon ke liye samaayojan naheen karne ke dvaara, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) vaastavik aarthik vikaas ko nyunokt karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, haalaanki vartamaan computer puraane kampyootaron ki tulana mein kam mahange aur adhik shaktishaali ho gaye hain, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) unhein maudrik moolya ke liye lekhaankan ke dvaara samaan utpaad hi maanata hai.

nae utpaadon ke aane ka maapan bhi mushkil hai, is tathya ke baavajood ki yeh jeevan star mein sudhaar kar sakta hai, yeh GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein pratibinbit naheen hota hai.

udaaharan ke liye, 1900 se sabse ameer vyakti bhi maanak utpaadon jaise enteebaayotiks aur selafon ko naheen khareed paate the, jinhein aaj ek ausat upabhokta khareed sakta hai, chooainki us samay itni aadhunik suvidhaaeain upalabdh naheen theen.


  • kya utpaadan kiya ja raha hai - GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) us kaarya ki ganana karta hai jo koi shuddh parivartan naheen laata hai, ya jo kisi kshati ki marammat ka parinaam hai.
 udaaharan ke liye, ek praakrutik aapada ya yuddh ke baad punarnirmaan ke dauraan paryaapt maatra mein aarthik gatividhiyaaain ho sakti hain aur is prakaar se GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko badhaava milta hai. svaasthya raksha ka aarthik moolya ek anya achha udahaaran hai- yeh GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko badha sakta hai yadi bahut se log beemaar hain aur va mahange ilaaj le rahe. hain, lekin yeh ek vaanchhaneeya sthiti naheen hai. 
vaikalpik aarthik gatividhiyaaain jaise jeevan star ya prati vyakti vivekaadheen aay aarthik gatividhi ki maanav upayogita ka behtar maapan karti hai. 
dekhein an-aarthik vruddhi 
  • baahari kaarak - GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) baahari kaarakon ya aarthik buraaiyon jaise paryaavaran ki kshati ki upeksha karta hai. ve utpaad, jo upayogita ko badhaate hain lekin buraaiyon ki katauti naheen karte hain ya uchch utpaadan ke nakaaraatmak prabhaav ka lekha jokha naheen rakhate hain, jaise adhik pradooshan, un utpaadon ki ganana ke dvaara GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) aarthik kalyaan ka adhik varnan karta hai.

is prakaar se paristhititk arthashaastriyon aur harit arthashaastriyon ne GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke ek vikalp ke roop mein vaastavik pragati sanketak ki prastaavana di hai. un deshon mein jo sansaadhan nikaas athva uchch paaristhitik pad chinhon par bahut adhik nirbhar hain, GDP aur GPI ke beech ki asamaanataaen bahut adhik ho sakti hain, jo paaristhitik over shoot ko ingit karti hain.

kuchh paryaavaraneeya laagat jaise tel spil ki safaai ko GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) mein shaamil kiya jaata hai.

  • vikaas ki nirantarata - GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) vikaas ki nirantarata ka maapan naheen karta hai. ek desh praakrutik sansaadhanon ka bahut adhik shoshan karke ya nivesh ke galat vitran ke dvaara asthaayi roop se uchch GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) praapt kar sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, fausfet ke bade jamaav ne nauroo ke logon ko dharati par prati vyakti uchchatam aay upalabdh karaayi lekin 1989 ke baad se unka jeevan star teji se niche gira hai. tel samruddh raajya audyogikeekaran ke bina uchch GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) praapt kar sakte hain, lekin agar tel khatm ho jaaega to yeh uchch stareeya sthiti or naheen chalegi. arthavyavasthaayein jo ek aarthik bulabule ka saamana kar raheen hain, jaise ek haaoosing bulabula ya stok bulabula, ya ek nimn niji bachat ki dar, unke badhne ki pravruti adhik hoti hai, kyonki unki khapat ki dar adhik hoti hai aur ve apni vartamaan vruddhi ke liye apne bhavishya ko girvi rakh dete hain.

paryaavaran ke ksharan ki keemat par aarthik vikaas bahut badi laagat par khtm hota hai; GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) iska lekha jokha naheen rakhata hai.

  • samay ke saath GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki vikaas dar ke aakalan mein ek mukhya samasya yeh hai ki alag alag vastuon ke liye dhan ki kraya kshamata alag alag anupaat mein hoti hai, isliye jab samay ke saath GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke aankadon mein sfeeti aati hai, tab istemaal ki jaane waali vastuon ki tokari ke aadhaar par ya GDP aankadon ko sfeet karne vaale tulanaatmak anupaat ke aadhaar par GDP ki vruddhi mein bahut adhik bhinnataaen ho sakti hain.

udaaharan ke liye, pichhle 80 varshon mein sanyukt raajya America ke prati vyakti GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ko yadi aaloo ki kraya kshamata ke dvaara maapa jaae to ismein ullekhaneeya vruddhi naheen hui hai. lekin agar ise ande ki kraya shakti se maapa jaata hai, to yeh kai baar hui hai. is kaaran se, aam taur par kai deshon ki tulana karne vaale arthashaastri kai prakaar ki vastuon se yukt tokari ka prayog karte hain.

  • GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki seema paar tulana, galat ho sakti hai kyonki ve vastuon ki gunavatta mein sthaaneeya antar ka lekha jokha naheen rakhate hain, yahaaain tak ki chaahe ise kraya shakti samata ke liye samaayojit kiya gaya ho.

ek vinimay dar ke liye is prakaar ka samaayojan vivaadaspad hota hai kyonki deshon mein kraya kshamata ki tulana karne ke liye vastuon ki tulaneeya tokari ki khoj mushkil hoti hai.

udaaharan ke liye, aisa ho sakta hai ki desh A mein sthaaneeya roop se utane hi sebon ka upabhog kiya ja raha hai jitne ki desh B mein. lekin desh A ke seb adhik svaadisht kism ke hain.

saamagri mein is prakaar ka antar GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke aankadon mein spasht naheen hoga. yeh vishesh roop se us maal ke liye sahi hai jinka vyaapar vishv star par naheen hota hai, jaise ki aavaas.

  • sambandhit companyon ke beech seema paar vyaapaar par hastaantaran moolya, aayaat aur niryaat ke maap ko vikrut kar sakta hai[tathya vaanchhit][16].
  • vaastavik bikri moolya ke ek maap ke roop mein, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) chukaae gaye moolya aur praapt kiye gaye vyaktiprak moolya ke beech aarthik adhishesh par kabja naheen sakta hai aur isliye samagr upayogita ki ganana ka kam anumaan laga sakta hai.
  • ostriya ke arthashaastri ki aalochna - GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke aankadon ki aalochanaaon ko ostriyaai arthashaastri Frank shostak ke dvaara vyakt kiya gaya,[5] unhonne nimnalikhit kathan diye:

    GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ki rooparekha hamein yeh naheen bata sakti ki ek vishisht avadhi ke dauraan utpann kiye gaye antim maal aur sevaaen, vaastavik samaapti vistaar ka ek pratibimb hain, ya poonji upabhog ka pratibimb hain.

unhonne jaari rakhate hue kaha:

udaaharan ke liye, yadi ek sarkaar ek piraamid ka nirmaan kar rahi hai jismein vyaktigat kalyaan ke liye kuchh naheen hai, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ise aarthik vruddhi mein shaamil karega. vaastavikta mein, tathaapi, is piraamid ka nirmaan, vaastavik dhan ko sampatti utpaadak gatividhiyon se hataaega, jiske dvaara sampatti ka utpaadan sthaanaatarit ho jaaega.

ostriya ke arthashaastri raashtreeya out put ke maatraatmak nirdhaaran ke prayaas ke mool vichaar ki aalochna karte hain. shostak ostriyaai arthashaastri ludavig vaun mises ke uddharan bataate hain:

is prayaas paise mein ek desh ya poori maanavata ke dhan ka nirdhaaran karne ke liye ke roop mein rahasyavaadi prayaason Cheops ke piraamid ke aayaam ke baare mein chinta ne brahmaand ki paheli ko hal karne ke liye bachchon ke roop mein kar rahe. hain.

Simon kujnets ne 1934 mein ameriki Congress ki apni sabse pehli report mein kaha:[6]

... ek raashtra ke kalyaan (kar sakta hai) ka anumaan raashtreeya aay ke maapan se kiya ja sakta hai. .....

1962 mein, kujnets ne kaha:[7]

vruddhi ki maatra aur gunavatta ke beech, laagat aur return ke beech aur deerghakaal aur alpakaal ke beech antar ko dhyaan mein rakhana chaahiye.

adhik vruddhi ke liye lakshya ko ye spasht karna chaahiye ki adhik vruddhi kiski ho rahi aur kiske liye ho rahi hai.

GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke liye vikalp

HDI, apni ganana ke ek bhaag ke roop mein aur fir jeevan pratyaasha aur shiksha star ke sanketak mein kaarak ke roop mein GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ka upayog karta hai.

  • vaastavik pragati sanketak (GPI) ya satat aarthik kalyaan ka soochakaank (ISEW)

is GPI aur isi tarah ke ISEW, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke liye di gayi samaan mool jaankaari ke dvaara uparyukt aalochanaaon ko bataane ka prayaas karte hain. aur fir aay vitran ke liye samaayojan karte hain, ghareloo aur swayamsevi kaarya ke moolya ko jodte hain aur aparaadh aur pradooshan ko ghataate hain.

  • dhan anumaan

vishv bank ne maudrik sampatti ko amoort sampatti (sansthaan aur maanav poonji) aur paryaavaran poonji ke saath sanyojit karne ke liye ek pranaali ka vikaas kiya hai.[8]

kuchh logon ne jeevan ki gunavata ke ek vyaapak arth par jeevan star ke pare dekha hai. saath hi iske anusaar GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ek vishisht desh ki safalta ke liye ek nirdisht aankada hai.

  • niji utpaad ka avashesh

moorre nyootan rothabard aur anya ostriyaai arthashaastriyon ka tark hai ki kyonki sarkaari kharch ko utpaadak kshetron se liya jaata hai aur yeh aise maal ka utpaadan karta hai jo graahakon ko naheen chaahiye, yeh arthavyavastha par bojh hai aur ise hata dena chaahiye.

apni pustak America'j great dipreshan mein, rothabard ne tark diya ki PPR ka anumaan lagaane ke liye kar se sarkaari adhishesh ko ghata dena chaahiye.

  • jeevan sarvekshan ki Europeeya gunavatta

is sarvekshan, jiski pehli lahar ka prakaashan 2005 mein hua, ne Europeeya deshon mein jeevan ki gunavatta ka anumaan lagaaya, iske liye vishay parak jeevan ki santushti ke vishay par sab prakaar ke prashn poochhe gaye, jeevan ke vibhinn pahaluon ko lekar santushti ke baare mein savaal poochhe gaye aur prashnon ke ek samooh ka upayog karte hue samay ki kami, pyaar, hona aur paaya jaana ki ganana ki gayi.[9]

  • gini gunaank

ek raashtra ke bheetar aay ki asamaanata par vichaar karta hai.

  • sakal raashtreeya khushi

bhootaan mein bhootaani adhyayan ka kendra vartamaan mein vibhinn domen maanakon (svaasthya, shiksha, paaristhitik tantr ki vividhta aur lacheelaapan, saanskrutik jeevan shakti aur vividhta, samay prayog aur santulan, achha niyantran, saamudaayik jeevan aur manovaigyaanik jeevan) mein 'raashtreeya khushi' ke maapan ke liye vishay parak aur viklpi sanketak ke ek jatil samuchchaya par kaam kar raha hai.

sanketakon ka yeh samuchchaya sakal raashtreeya khushi ki disha mein pragati ki upalabdhi mein prayukt kiya jaaega, jise ve pehle se hi, GDP (sakal ghareloo utpaad) ke oopar, raashtra ki praathamikta ke roop mein pehchaan chuke hain.

  • heppi plenet soochakaank

heppi plenet soochakaank (HPI) maanav aur paryaavaran prabhaav ka ek soochakaank hai, jise July 2006 mein new ikonomiks foundation (NEF) ke dvaara shuroo kiya gaya.

yeh paryaavaran ki dakshata ka maapan karta hai jiske saath maanav ek diye gaye samooh ya desh mein kuchh praapti karta hai.

maanav ko vyaktiprak jeevan santosh aur jeevan pratyaasha ke sandarbh mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai.

apne sakal ghareloo utpaad ke dvaara deshon ki soochi

  • sakal ghareloo utpaad ke dvaara deshon ki soochi (naamamaatr), (prati vyakti)


  • sakal ghareloo utpaad ke dvaara deshon ki soochi (PPP), (prati vyakti), (prati ghanta)
  • sakal ghareloo utpaad vruddhi ke dvaara deshon ki soochi
  • sakal ghareloo utpaad (vaastavik) vruddhi dar ke dvaara deshon ki soochi (prati vyakti)
  • sakal ghareloo utpaad kshetr ki sanrachana dvaara deshon ki soochi
  • bhavishya ke sakal ghareloo utpaad anumaan (PPP) ke dvaara deshon ki soochi, (prati vyakti), (naamamaatr)
  • ateet ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ke dvaara deshon ki soochi (PPP), (naamamaatr)

yeh bhi dekhiye

  • karmachaariyon ka muaavaja (prati ghanta)
  • paaristhitiki paryaaptata
  • aarthik vikaas
  • aarthik report
  • sakal ghareloo utpaad kam karne wala
  • vaastavik pragati sanketak (GPI)
  • gini gunaank
  • jeeenapi
  • green sakal ghareloo utpaad
  • sakal raashtreeya prasannata
  • sakal raashtreeya aay
  • sakal aautaput
  • sakal kshetreeya ghareloo utpaad
  • sakal vardhit moolya
  • sakal vishv utpaad
  • maanav vikaas soochakaank
  • haippi plenet soochakaank (HPI)
  • aay asamaanata metriks
  • madhyavarti upabhog
  • raashtreeya aay aur aautaput ka maapan
  • raashtreeya khaate
  • raashtreeya ausat vetan
  • raashtreeya aay aur utpaad lekha
  • praakrutik sakal ghareloo utpaad
  • kraya shakti samaanata
  • vardhit moolya

sandarbh

  1. Sullivan, arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (1996). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. pp. 57, 305. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-13-063085-3. http://www.pearsonschool.com/index.cfm?locator=PSZ3R9&PMDbSiteId=2781&PMDbSolutionId=6724&PMDbCategoryId=&PMDbProgramId=12881&level=4.
  2. "User's guide: Background information on GDP and GDP deflator". HM Treasury. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/data_gdp_backgd.htm.
  3. "Measuring the Economy: A Primer on GDP and the National Income and Product Accounts" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis. http://www.bea.gov/national/pdf/nipa_primer.pdf.
  4. [13] ^ sanyukt raajya America ka saankhyikeeya saar 2008 saaraniyaaain 623 aur 647
  5. [17] ^ http://mises.org/story/770
  6. shamaun kujnets, 1934. "raashtreeya aay, 1929-1932". 73 vaan ameriki Congress, doosra satr, senate dastaavej sankhya 124, prushth 7. http://library.bea.gov/u?/SOD, 888
  7. [19] ^ shamaun kujnets "gunavatta ka nirdhaaran kaise kiya jaae". di new ripblik, 20 October 1962
  8. "World Bank wealth estimates". http://go.worldbank.org/KB1R94JYF0.
  9. "First European Quality of Life Survey". http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/htmlfiles/ef0591.htm.

baahari sambandh

vaishvik

]

]

aankade

ai tihaasik ameriki sakal ghareloo utpaad (traimaasik aankade), 1947 - vartamaan

lekh aur pustakein

  • klifford kabb, ted helsated aur jonaathan rove. "yadi sakal ghareloo utpaad oopar hai to America neeche kyon hai?" di atalaantik manthali, khand 276, sankhya 4, October 1995, prushth 59-78.