saini

saini Bhaarat ki ek yoddha[1][2][3][4][5][6] jaati hai. saini, jinhein pauraanik saahitya mein shoorasaini[7] ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, unhein apne mool naam ke saath keval Punjab aur padosi raajya Haryana,[[Rajasthan Jammu aur Kashmir aur Himachal pradesh mein paaya jaata hai.

saini, hindu aur sikh, donon dharmon ko maanate hain. kai saini parivaar donon hi dharmon mein ek saath aastha rakhate hain aur Punjab ki sadiyon puraani bhakti aur sikh aadhyaatmik parampara ke anuroop svatantr roop se shaadi karte hain.

anukram

dharm

hindu saini

haalaanki saini ki ek badi sankhya hindu hain, unki dhaarmik prathaaon ko sanaatani vaidik aur sikkh paranparaaon ke vistrut paridhi mein varnit kiya ja sakta hai. adhikaansh sainiyon ko apne vaidik ateet par garv hai aur ve braahman pujaariyon ki aavabhagat karne ke liye saharsh taiyaar rahate hain. saath hi saath, shaayad hi koi hindu saini hoga jo sikh guruon ke prati aseem shraddha na rakhata ho.

Hoshiarpur ke aaspaas kuchh hindu saini, vaidik jyotish mein poorn nipun hai.

anya kheti karne vaale aur yoddha samudaayon ke vipreet, sainiyon mein islaam mein dharmaantarit logon ke baare mein aam taur par naheen soona gaya hai.

sikh saini

pandrahaveen sadi mein sikh dharm ke udaya ke saath kai sainiyon ne sikh dharm ko apna liya. isliye, aaj Punjab mein sikkh sainiyon ki ek badi aabaadi hai. hindu saini aur sikh sainiyon ke beech ki seema rekha kaafi dhundhali hai kyonki ve aasaani se aapas mein antar-vivaah karte hain. ek bade parivaar ke bheetar hinduon aur sikhon, donon ko paaya ja sakta hai.

1901 ke pashchaat sikh pehchaan ki or janasaankhyikeeya badlaav

1881 ki janaganana mein keval 10% sainiyon ko sikhon ke roop mein nirvaachit kiya gaya tha, lekin 1931 ki janaganana mein sikh sainiyon ki sankhya 57% se adhik pahunch gayi. yeh gaur kiya jaana chaahiye ki aisa hi janasaankhyikeeya badlaav Punjab ke anya graameen samudaayon mein paaya gaya hai jaise ki jaat, mahato, kamboh aadi.[8] sikkh dharm ki or 1901-pashchaat ke janasaankhyikeeya badlaav ke liye jin kaaranon ko aam taur par jimmedaar thaharaaya jaata hai unki vyaakhya nimnalikhit hai[9]:

  • british dvaara sena mein bharti ke liye sikhon ko hinduon aur musalmaanon ki tulana mein adhik pasand kiya jaata tha. ye sabhi graameen samudaaya jeevan yaapan ke liye krushi ke alaava sena ki naukariyon par nirbhar karte the. nateejatan, in samudaayon se punjabi hinduon ki badi sankhya khud ko sikh ke roop mein badalne lagi taaki sena ki bharti mein adhimaanya upachaar praapt ho. kyonki sikh aur punjabi hinduon ke rivaaj, vishvaas aur aitihaasik drushtikon jyaadaatar samaan the ya nikat roop se sambandhit the, is parivartan ne kisi bhi saamaajik chunauti ko utpann naheen kiya;
  • sikh dharm ke andar 20veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein sudhaar aandolanon ne vivaah prathaaon ko saraleekrut kiya jisse fasal kharaab ho jaane ke alaava graameen rinagrastata ka ek pramukh kaarak samaapt hone laga. is kaaran se kheti ki prushthabhoomi vaale kai graameen hindu bhi is vyaapak samasya ki ek pratikriya svaroop sikkh dharm ki or aakarshit hone lage. 1900 ka Punjab bhoomi vibhaajan adhiniyam ko bhi aupaniveshik sarkaar dvaara isi uddeshya se banaaya gaya tha taaki udhaaradaataaon dvaara jo aam taur par baniya aur khatri prushthabhoomi hote the in graameen samudaayon ki jameen ke samaayojan ko roka ja sake, kyonki yeh samudaaya bhaarateeya sena ki reedh ki haddi tha;
  • 1881 ki janaganana ke baad Singh sabha aur aarya samaaj aandolan ke beech shaastraarth sambandhi vivaad ke kaaran hindu aur sikh pehchaan ka aam dhruveekaran. 1881 se pehle, sikhon ke beech alagaavavaadi chetna bahut majaboot naheen thi ya achhi tarah se spasht naheen thi. 1881 ki janaganana ke anusaar Punjab ki janasankhya ka keval 13% sikh ke roop mein nirvaachit hua aur sikh prushthabhoomi ke kai samoohon ne khud ko hindu bana liya.

vivaah

kathor antarvivaahi

saini, kuchh dashak pehle tak sakhti se antarvivaahi the, lekin sajaati prajanan ko rokane ke liye unke paas sakht niyam the. aam taur par niymaanusaar aisi sthiti mein shaadi naheen ho sakti agar:[10]

yahaan tak ki agar ladke ki or se chaar mein se ek bhi got ladki ke paksh ke chaar got se milta ho. donon pakshon se ye chaar got hote the: 1) Patrick daada 2) Patrick daadi 3) naana aur 4) naani. yeh kehne ki aavashyakta naheen hai ki chachere ya mamere rishton ke beech vivaah asambhav tha;

donon pakshon mein uparokt kisi bhi got ke ek na hone par bhi agar donon hi parivaaron ka gaanv ek hi. is sthiti mein praacheen sammaan pranaali ke anusaar is maamale mein, ladke aur ladki ko ek doosare ko paarasparik roop se bhaai-bahan samjha jaana chaahiye.

1950 ke dashak se pehle, saini dulhan aur doolhe ke liye ek doosare ko shaadi se pehle dekhan sambhav naheen tha. shaadi ka nirnaya sakhti se donon parivaaron ke vruddh logon dvaara liya jaata tha. doolha aur dulhan shaadi ke baad hi ek doosare ko dekhte the. agar doolhe ne apni hone waali dulhan ko chhipkar dekhne ki koshish ki to adhikaansh maamalon mein ya har maamale mein yeh sagaai ladki ke parivaar dvaara tod di jaati hai.

haalaanki 1950 ke dashak ke baad se, is samudaaya ke bheetar ab aisi vyavastha naheen hai yahaan tak ki niyojit shaadiyon mein bhi.


saini up kul

punjabi saini samudaaya mein kai up kul hain.

aam taur par sabse aam hain: anhe, bimb (bimbh), badavaal, baloriya, banvait (banait), banga, basuta (basotra), bouncer, bhela, bola, bhondi (bondi), mundh.cher, chandel, chilna, daule (doll), dauraka, dhak, dhamrait, dhanota (dhanotra), dhaul, dheri, dhoore, dulkoo, dokal, faraad, maheroo, mundh (moondada) mangar, masuta (masotra), mehindvaan, gehalen (gahalon/gil), gahir (gihir), gahuniya (gahoon/gahan), girn, gidda, jadore, japra, jagait (jaggi), jangaliya, kalyaani, kaloti (kalotiya), kaberaval (kabaadvaal), khargal, kheroo, khuthe, kuhada (kuhar), longiya (longiye), saagar, sahanaan (shanan), salaariya (salehari), sooji, nanuaa (nanuan), naru, paabala, pavan, pamma (pamma/paama), pangliya, pantaaliya, partola, tambar (tumbar/tanvar/tomar), thind, taunk (tonk/taank/taunk/tak), togar (togad/taggar), ugre, vaid aadi.

Haryana mein aam taur par sabse aam hain: Agrawal , dahiya , baagadi , tikoreeya , kapoorakhatri , girnoo , baaval, banait, bharal, bhutaral, kachhal, sandal (sandal), tondavaal/tadavaal (tandoovaal) aadi

Rajasthan ke saini gotr- dahiya chauhaan tanvar Pawar solanki gaud raaksiya paapataan kataariya kamma gahalot singodiya saankhala taak khadoliya padihaar jamaalapuriya bhaati Yadav ajamera aadi.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • saini itihaas
  • saini logon ki soochi
  • sainya puraskaar aur alankaran praapt karne vaale sainiyon ki soochi

sandarbh

  1. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Saini_Rajput naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  2. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Saini_Rajput3 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  3. "jadeja, saini, bhaati, jadonn," avibhaajit Bhaarat ke maarshal daud, 189 pi, vidya prakaash tyaagi, Delhi kalpaj pablikeshans, 2009.
  4. "is janajaati ke purush shaayad hi kabhi ashvadal mein kaam karte the." Punjab mein Jalandhar jila, 84 pi, parsar, BCS, "naagrik aur sainya raajapatr" press, thekedaar ki sanshodhit Punjab sarkaar, Lahore, 1892 ko samjhaute ki antim report
  5. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; Saini_recruitment_1904 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  6. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; 2nd_Punjab naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  7. "samay granthon vartamaan aur dauraan upalabdh apne aitihaasik sandarbhit aur samudaaya ke Krishna ke roop mein mool ke saini Bhagwan ka raajavansh (chandra vansh) pradarshan chandra aur nishkarsh nikaala vansh ka poora chandr vah:" chandra vanshi raaja yadu ki santaan ko Yadav kaha jaane laga. ek hi vansh mein 42 peedhiyon ke baad kshetr ke aaspaas ek shaasak ka janm hua jiska naam tha raaja shoorasen jisne niyantrit kiya Mathura aur aaspaas ke kshetron ko ... chaudhari laal saini ki 'taareekh kuaam shoorasaini' ke baad se shoorasaini samudaaya (jise saini samudaaya bhi kaha jaata hai) ke anya itihaasakaaron ne Shiv laal ke kaamon ko apne anusandhaan aur prakaashan ka aadhaar maana hai ", dau॰ preetam saini ne jaisa ki jagat saini mein uddhrut kiya hai: utpatti aate vikaas, professor surajeet Singh nanuaa, 115 pi, manajot prakaashan, Patiala, 2008
  8. itihaas aur vichaaradhaara: 300 varshon mein khaalasa, sikh itihaas par yogadaan ke prapatr, vibhinn bhaarateeya itihaas Congress mein prastut, 124 peepi, J S grevaal, indu banga, tulika, 1999
  9. "is prakaar hindu jaat, 1901 mein 15,39574 se ghatkar 1931 mein 9,92309 ho gaye, jabki sikh jaat isi samay avadhi mein 13,88877 se badhkar 21,33152 ho gaye", Punjab ka aarthik aur saamaajik itihaas, Haryana aur 1901-1939 Himachal pradesh, BS saini, iesaes iesaes prakaashan, 1975
  10. sagotr vivaah aur gaanv/gotr stareeya eksogaami : saini antarvivaahi samudaaya hai aur gaanv aur gotr star par eksogaami ka paalan karte hain." vartamaan ka vidhva vivaah aur talaak udaareekaran: "aajkal, saini samudaaya vidhva aur vidhur ke punarvivaah ki aur donon lingon ke talaak ki anumati deta hai. kathit taur par samudaaya ke bheetar shaadi ke niyamon mein ek udaareekaran kiya gaya hai. " Bhaarat ke log, raashtreeya series khand VI, Bhaarat ke samudaaya NZ, 3090 pi, ke.S Singh, Bhaarat ka maanav vigyaan sarvekshan, Oxford university press, 1998

baahya link