sain fraansisko

sain Francisco shahar kailiforniya mein chauthi sabse adhik aabaadi wala shahar hai aur sanyukt raajya America mein 12 veen sabse adhik aabaadi wala shahar hai, ek 2008 808977 ki anumaanit janasankhya ke saath [9] keval California mein samekit shahar County, [11 yeh]. 46.7 varg meal (121 km2) [12] sain Francisco praayadveep ke uttari chhor par ek bhoomi kshetr shaamil hain, yeh doosra sabse adhik ghani aabaadi sanyukt raajya America mein bade shahar (200,000 se adhik aabaadi) banaane [13.] sen Francisco hai desh mein 13 veen sabse bada mahaanagareeya kshetr ke liye langar, yukt 4.3 million hai aur bada sen Francisco khaadi kshetr, 7.4 karod logon ka ek kshetr ke vitteeya, saanskrutik aur parivhan kendra hai [14 2009 ke liye.] - 2010 ke mausam, sen Francisco khaadi kshetr sanyukt raajya America mein sabse bada 6 television baajaar sthaan par tha. [15] 1776 mein, Spanish golden gate par ek kile ki sthaapana ki aur ek site par Francis Assisi ke liye naam mission 1848 mein. [16] California gold rash teji se vikaas ki avadhi mein shahar chalanevaala, ek saal mein janasankhya mein vruddhi se 1000 ke liye 25,000, [17] aur is prakaar yeh sabse bada shahar mein samay par pashchim tat par badalne. teen shahar ke quarter ke baad 1906 mein aae bhookamp aur aag se nasht ho gaya tha, [18] sain Francisco jaldi, banaaya gaya tha panaama prashaant antarraashtreeya pradarshani nau saal baad hosting. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan, sen Francisco seva prashaant theatre karne ke liye baahar shiping ke sadasyon ke liye aarohan ke bandargaah tha [19] yuddh ke baad sainikon ke lautane ke, bade paimaane par apravaas ke sangam, udaar drushtikon aur anya kaarakon pyaar ki garmi ke liye netrutv kiya. aur samalaingik adhikaar aandolan, sanyukt raajya America mein udaaravaadi sakriyta ke ek kendra ke roop mein sain Francisco jodnevaala. aaj, ek lokapriya sen Francisco antararaashtreeya paryatan sthal hai, [20 apni mirch garmiyon kohara, khadi roling pahaadiyon, viktoriyn aur aadhunik vaastukala aur apni prasiddh sthalon golden gate brij, kebal kaaron, cheenaataun aur sahit eclectic mishran ke liye prasiddh.] shahar mein bhi ek pramukh banking aur vitt kendra aur 30 se adhik antarraashtreeya vitteeya sansthaaon ka ghar hai, 21 ke liye [duniya ke sheersh utpaadak shaharon mein sain Francisco athaarahavein jagah banaane ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein nauvein madad] hai aur mein pandrahaveen jagah hai sheersh bees vaishvik vitteeya kendra

itihaas

jald se jald sain Francisco ke shahar ke kshetr ke dera ke puraataatvik saakshya 3000 E.poo. ke liye taareekhon Ohlone bhaasha samooh ka [22] log uttari California se kabja kar liya. kam se kam 6 veen shataabdi mein. [23] haalaanki unke kshetr Spain ne daava kiya tha shuruaati 16 veen sadi ke baad se, ve 1769, jab, ek ke liye Alta California, ek khoj Don Gaspar di Portola ke netrutv mein party ke upanivesh ke prayaas ke hisse ke roop mein sain Francisco khaadi ke astitv ke seekha tak goron ke saath apekshaakrut bahut kam sampark hoga. [24]

mission sain Francisco di ASIS (mission daalores) saat saal baad 1776 mein ek abhiyaan Juan Bautista de Anza ke netrutv mein, sen Francisco ke presidiyo jo jos jokin Moraga jald hi sthaapit hoga ke liye is site ko chuna hai. baad mein usi varsh, Franciscan mishnari Francisco Palóau mission sain Francisco di ASIS (mission daalores) [16] Ohlone, jo kshetr mein kai gaanvon ka tha Yelamu aadivaasi samooh. sthaapana ki, beech mein the aur mission mein gulaam banaaya Catholic vishvaas karne ke liye badalna hoga.

Spain se 1821 mein svatantrata par, Mexico kshetr ka hissa ban gaya. maiksikn niyam ke tahat, mission pranaali dheere - dheere samaapt ho gaya aur iske liye bhoomi ka nijeekaran hona shuroo hua. 1835 mein, angrej William Richardson pehla svatantr riyaasat banavaaya, [ek naav ke aaspaas ke paas langar 25] aaj kya hai portsamaauth square. Alcalde Francisco di Haro ke saath, vah baahar ka vistaar niptaan ke liye ek sadak yojana rakhi hai aur shahar, Yerba Buena naam, ameriki settlers aakarshit karne ke liye shuroo kiya. commodore John di. Sloat 7 July 1846 ko sanyukt raajya America ke California, daava maiksikn ameriki yuddh ke dauraan aur kaptaan John bi montagomari ko Yerba Buena do din baad daava pahunche. Yerba Buena sain Francisco agale saal naam diya gaya tha,] 26 [aur maiksiko aadhikaarik taur par yuddh ke ant mein sanyukt raajya America ke kshetr mein saunp diya. iski ek bandargaah aur nausena base ke roop mein aakarshak sthaan ke baavajood, sain Francisco abhi bhi durgam bhoogol saath ek chhote se niptaan kiya gaya tha

1851 mein portsamaauth square California gold rash khajaana chaahane vaalon ki baadh le aaya. unke to, [28] prospectors pratidvandvi benishiaa, [29] par sen Francisco mein 1849 December 1000 se janasankhya sthaapana 1848 mein 25,000 jama mein khmeer roti ke saath. [17 shaanadaar dhan ka vaada] itna majaboot tha ki pahunchane par karmachaariyon vaahikaaon sunasaan aur gold Fields ke liye ravaana pahunche, sain Francisco bandargaah mein masts ke ek jungle peechhe chhod [30.] jaldi California raajya ka darja pradaan kiya gaya tha aur ameriki sena ke golden gate par kile point banaaya aur Alcatraz dweep par ek kile ko surakshit sen Francisco khaadi. 1859 mein Comstock parat rajat sahit khojon, aage teji se janasankhya vruddhi diya [31] bhaagya shahar ke maadhyam se streeming chaahane vaalon ki bheed ke saath, araajakata aam tha aur shahar ke baarbari tat anubhaag aparaadhiyon, veshyaavrutti ke liye ek hevan ke roop mein kukhyaati praapt ki. aur juaa. [32] kai udyamiyon ke liye sen Francisco gold rash dvaara utpann dhan par faayda uthaane ki maang ki. vijetaaon ke alaava banking udyog jo 1852 mein vels faarago ke sansthaapak dekha aur 1864 mein California ke bank the. sain Francisco ke bandargaah ke vikaas ke vyaapaar ka ek kendra ke roop mein shahar ki sthaapana ki. jaroorat hai aur badhti janasankhya ke svaad ke liye khaanapaan, levi straas ek sookhi maal vyaapaar khola aur domingo Ghirardelli chaukalet nirmaan shuroo kiya. aapravaasi majadooron ko shahar ke ek bahubhaashi sanskruti cheeni rel shahar ke cheenaataun timaahi banaane ke kaaryakartaaon ke saath banaai. pehla kle street kebal car ko 1873 mein sain Franciscans kiya. viktoriyn gharon ke shahar ke samudra aakaar lena shuroo kiya aur naagrik ek vishaal saarvajanik park ke liye abhiyaan chalaaya netaaon, golden gate park ke liye yojanaaon mein jiske parinaamasvaroop. sain Franciscans banaaya schoolon, charchon, theatre aur naagrik jeevan ke sabhi hallmarks. presidiyo sabse mahatvapoorn prashaant tat par ameriki sainya sthaapana ke roop mein viksit [33] shataabdi ke ant tak, sen Francisco ek pramukh apni tejatarraar shaili, aaleeshaan hotel, mastak hil par dikhaavati mansions shahar ke liye jaana jaata tha aur. ek sampann kala drushya. [34]

"itihaas mein naheen ek aadhunik shaahi shahar gaya to poori tarah se sain. Francisco nasht kar diya gaya hai." - Jack London ke baad 1906 mein aae bhookamp aur aag 35] [ 5:12 par 18 April 1906, ek pramukh bhookamp par hooain sen Francisco aur uttari California maara. imaaraton ke roop mein milaate hue, ruptured gas laainon aag prajvalit ki shahar bhar mein faila hai aur kai dinon ke liye hoga niyantran se baahar jalaane se dhah gayi. seva se baahar paani ke saadhan ke saath, presidiyo aartilri kor ke liye imaaraton ke block karne ke liye dynamiting firebreaks banaane ke dvaara narak hote hain teen shahar ke chauthaai se adhik hai. [36] aur adhik prayaas karna khandahar mein, lagbhag sabhi shahar kor sahit [18. ] samakaaleen report khaaton ki 498 logon ko unke jeevan kho diya hai, yadyapi aadhunik anumaanon ke kai hajaaron mein number daalne ke aadhe se adhik [37] shahar ke 400000 ki aabaadi. the beghar chhod diya hai. [38] asthaayi teint gaanvon mein asthaayi taur par golden gate mein base sharanaarthiyon park, presidiyo, samudra taton par aur doosari jagahon. poorv be karne ke liye bahut se sthaayi roop se bhaag gaye.

ne 1915 mein panaama prashaant pradarshani mein lalit kala pailes teji se punarnirmaan kiya gaya tha aur ek bhavya paimaane par pradarshan kiya. call ko asveekaar karne ke liye poori tarah se sadak marammat grid, sain Franciscans gati ke liye chuna [39.] Amadeo hai Giannini Italy ke bank, baad mein bank of America ke banane se kai ke liye rin pradaan ki hai, un jinki aajeevika tabaah ho gaya tha. mastak hil ke makaan nasht bhavya hotel ban gaya. city hall bhavya Beaux kala shaili mein fir se gulaab aur shahar panaama prashaant antarraashtreeya pradarshani mein 1915 mein apne punarjanm manaaya. [40]

aagaami varshon mein, shahar ke ek vitteeya rajdhani ke roop mein apne khade jam 1929 share baajaar durghatana ke maddenajar mein, vifal rahi ek sen Francisco aadhaarit bank naheen [41.] vaastav mein, yeh great dipreshan ki oonchaai par tha ki sen Francisco do mahaan civil engineering pariyojanaaon, saath hi saath sain Francisco - Oakland be brij aur golden gate brij ka nirmaan, unhein 1936 mein poora karne aur 1937 mein kramash: chalaaya. yeh is avadhi mein tha ki Alcatraz, ek poorv sainya stauked ke dweep ek sangheeya adhiktam suraksha jail ke roop mein apni seva shuroo hui, al kaipon, George "machine gan" Kelly jaise aavaas kukhyaat kaidiyon aur Robert freinkalin Stroud, Alcatraz ke Birdman . sain Francisco baad mein ek vishv mele ke saath apni bhavyata aa manaaya, 1939-40 mein golden gate antarraashtreeya pradarshani, khaadi ke beech mein khajaana dweep banaane ke liye yeh ghar. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan, Hunters point nausena shipyaard gatividhi ka ek kendra ban gaya hai aur kile mesan seva sanchaalan ke prashaant theatre karne ke liye baahar shiping ke sadasyon ke liye potaarohan ke praathamik bandargaah ban gaya [19] naukariyon ke visfot mein kai logon ko, khaaskar afreeki aakarshit kiya. dakshin se kshetr ke amerikiyon,. yuddh ke ant ke baad, kai sainya seva se videsh aur naagrikon, jo mool roop se rahane ka faisala kaam aaya tha laut karmiyon. sanyukt raashtra ke sanyukt raashtra ke chaartar ka masauda taiyaar paida kiya gaya tha aur 1945 mein sain Francisco mein hastaakshar kiye aur 1951 mein, sain Francisco ki sandhi aadhikaarik taur par Japan ke saath yuddh samaapt ho gaya.

yooesaes sen Francisco 1942 mein golden gate brij ke tahat dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan, steams. shahari 1950 aur 1960 ke dashak mein pariyojanaaon ki yojana bana vyaapak vinaash aur pashchim ki or pados ke punarnirmaan aur nae freeways, jismein se keval chhote kshetron ki ek shrrunkhala ke naagrik hone ke netrutv waali vipakshi dvaara rok se pehle banaaya gaya tha ke nirmaan dekha [42] Transamerica piraamid. tha 1972 mein poora ho, [43] aur 1980 mein sain Francisco ki Manhattanization dekha vyaapak uchch vruddhi shahar vikaas [44] port gatividhi. okalaind mein le jaaya gaya, shahar ke audyogik naukri kho shuroo kiya aur sen Francisco ke roop mein paryatan ke liye baari hai shuroo kiya apni arthavyavastha ka sabse mahatvapoorn khand. upanagaron teji se vikaas anubhavi aur sain Francisco ullekhaneeya janasaankhyikeeya parivartan aaya aur safed aabaadi ke bade varg ke roop mein shahar chhod diya hai, Asia aur laitin America se aavrajan ke ek badhti hui lahar dvaara supplanted. [45] [46] is avadhi ke dauraan, sen Francisco America ke counterculture ke liye ek chunbak bane. maaro janareshan lekhakon sen Francisco navajaagaran fueled aur 1950 ke dashak mein uttari samudra tat par kendrit pados [47.] hippi 1960 ke dashak mein Haight-Ashbury karne ke liye flocked, 1967 ke pyaar ki garmi ke saath ek choti tak pahunch gaya. [48] 1970 ke dashak mein shahar mein samalaingik adhikaar aandolan ka kendra ek shahari samalaingik gaanv ke roop mein kaastro ke udbhav ke saath, ban gaya hai, haarve doodh ke paryavekshakon ke board ke chunaav aur unki hatya, mayor George Moscone ki, ke saath 1978 mein [49. ] 1989 ke Loma Prieta bhookamp ke vinaash aur jeevan ki haani bhar khaadi kshetr ke kaaran hota hai. sen Francisco mein, bhookamp gambhir Marina aur baajaar jilon ke dakshin mein kshatigrast sanrachanaaon aur kshatigrast Embarcadero freeve ke vidhvans aur kshatigrast precipitated keindreeya freeve se jyaada hai, shahar apne aitihaasik waterfront shahar ko pun: praapt karne ke liye anumati deta hai. ke dauraan-com der se 1990 ke dashak ke boom, staartaap arthavyavastha invigorated companiyon dot. udyamiyon aur computer anuprayog devalapars ke badi sankhya mein shahar mein le jaaya gaya, vipnan aur bikri peshevaron dvaara peechha kiya, saamaajik paridrushya ko badalne ke roop mein ek baar gareeb neighborhoods gentrified ban gaya. jab 2001 mein bulabula fat, in companiyon ke kai tah aur apne karmachaariyon ko chhod diya, haalaanki uchch praudyogiki aur udyamasheelata ko sain Francisco ki arthavyavastha ke mainstays bane hue hain. [

bhoogol

sain Francisco praayadveep sain Francisco sanyukt raajya America ke pashchimi tat par sen Francisco praayadveep ke sire par sthit hai aur iski seemaaon ke bheetar prashaant mahaasaagar aur sain Francisco khaadi ke mahatvapoorn hisson shaamil hain. kai dveepon, Alcatraz, khajaana dweep aur aasann Yerba Buena dweep aur almida dweep ka ek chhota sa hissa, red rock dweep aur enjil dweep shahar ka hissa hain. bhi shaamil hain Farallon dweep samooh, 27 meal (43 kimi) apatateeya prashaant mahaasaagar mein nirjan., ek aam colloquialism sthaaneeya shahar ke bheetar mukhya bhoomi ki seema lagbhag ek "saat se saat meal chauraahe roopon" shahar ke aakaar ki baat hai, haalaanki iske paani sahit kul kshetr, lagbhag 232 varg meal (600 ki॰amee॰aa2 hai).

kaaron lombaarad street neviget karne ke liye roosi hil utar. sain Francisco apne pahaadiyon ke liye prasiddh hai. vahaaain shahar ki seema ke bheetar 50 se adhik pahaadiyaan hain. [51 kuchh ilaakon] pahaadi jis par ve sthit hain mastak hil, prashaant haaits sahit ke naam hain aur roosi hil. shahar ki bhaugolik kendra ke paas, shahar kshetr ke dakshin pashchim, kam ghani aabaadi pahaadiyon ki ek shrrunkhala rahe hain. Twin Peaks, ek shahar ke sarvochch ank ki pahaadiyon par aaraam ki ek jodi, roopon ek lokapriya sthaan anadekhi. sain Francisco ki tallest pahaad, parvat devidsan, 925 feet (282 mi) uchch aur ek 103 foot (31 mi) lamba 1934 mein banaaya paar [52 is kshetr haavi.] ke saath chhaaya hua hai Sutro tauvar, ek laal bade aur safed radio aur hai television prasaaran tauvar. paas mein San Andreas dosh aur Hayward bhookamp gatividhi ke liye jyaada jimmedaar hain, haalaanki na to shaareerik roop se shahar ke maadhyam se hi gujarata hai. yeh tha San Andreas dosh jo fisl gaya aur 1906 aur 1989 mein bhookamp ke kaaran hota hai. maamooli bhookamp ek niyamit aadhaar par hote hain. pramukh bhookanpon ka khatra shahar ke buniyaadi dhaanche ke vikaas mein ek badi bhoomika nibhaata hai. shahar mein baar baar apni bilding code unnat kiya gaya hai, puraane bhavanon aur adhik nae nirmaan ke liye engineering maanakon ke liye retrofits ki aavashyakta [53.] haalaanki, vahaaain abhi bhi chhote bhavanon ki bhookamp ke nuksaan ke liye samvedansheel rahane ke hajaaron [54]. sain Francisco shoreline apni praakrutik seemaaon se pare ho gayi hai. Marina aur Hunters point, saath hi Embarcadero ke bade vargon ke roop mein poore pados, landfill ke kshetron par baitho. khajaana dweep khaadi se dredged ke saath hi be pul ke nirmaan ke dauraan Yerba Buena dweep ke maadhyam se tunneling se utpann saamagri saamagri se nirmit kiya gaya tha. aise desh mein bhookanpon ke dauraan asthir ho jaata hai; parinaami draveekaran par banaaya gaya yeh sampatti ko vyaapak nuksaan ka kaaran banta hai, jaisa ki Marina jile mein 1989 ke Loma Prieta bhookamp ke dauraan evidenced tha

jalavaayu

kohare sen Francisco mein ek niyamit visheshata hai. . ek uddharan galat mark judvaan ke liye jimmedaar thaharaaya "thande sardiyon main kabhi kharch kiya jaata hai sen Francisco mein ek garmi tha," 56] [57] sain Francisco ki jalavaayu [shaant garmi bhoomadhya jalavaayu ki visheshata hai halke ke saath California ke tat 58] [, geela sardiyon aur shushk garmi choonki yeh [59]. paani, sain Francisco ke mausam se teen taraf se ghira hua hai jordaar prashaant mahaasaagar ke thande dhaaraaon jo udaaravaadi taapamaan ke jhoolon ke liye jaate hain aur chhote mausami taapamaan parivartan ke saath ek ullekhaneeya halke jalavaayu nirmaan se prabhaavit . taapamaan keval 28 din ek varsh 75 ° (ausat mahila 24 degree celcius) se adhik [60] May ke shushk October ki avadhi ke liye halke garm hai. 64-70 ° ef (18-21 degree celcius ke ausat uchch taapamaan ke saath) aur 51-56 ° ef (11-13 degree celcius ke lows). November ki barasaat April tak ki avadhi 58-64 ° ef (14-18 degree celcius ke uchch taapamaan ke saath achha hai) aur 46-51 ° ef (8-11 degree celcius ke lows). ausat par, vahaaain 67 barasaat ke din ek varsh hai aur vaarshik ausat varsha 20.4 inch (518.16 mimi) [60.] himpaat ho raha hai asaadhaaran durlabh, ke saath keval 10 udaaharan 1852 ke baad se darj ki gayi. [61] aadhikaarik raashtreeya mausam seva ke kaaryaalaya mein darj ki gayi uchchatam taapamaan 103 ° (17 July 1988 par ef 39 degree celcius) tha 14 June 2000 aur. nyoonatam taapamaan 27 degree darj (ef -3 degree celcius 11 December), 1932 tha. [62] garm, California ke inteeriyr se uchch dabaav hava thandi uttari prashaant California vartamaan ke roop mein jaana mahaasaagar ke oopar kam dabaav hava mein kheench se shahar ki visheshata kohare ki aksar shahar ke pashchimi aadha shaamil kiya hai aur kabhi kabhi kshetr mein poore din ki sabse banaata hai der aur garmiyon mein vasant. kohare kam der se garmiyon mein aur giraavat ke dauraan, jo varsh ki haardik maheene ho raha hai poorvi ilaakon mein sunaaya. apni tej talaroop aur samudri prabhaavit karti hai, sain Francisco alag microclimates ke ek bheed pradarshan ke kaaran. shahar ki bhaugolik kendra mein oonchi pahaadiyon shahar ke vibhinn bhaagon ke beech vaarshik varsha mein ek 20% vichran liye jimmedaar hain. ve bhi pados seedhe dhoomil aur kabhi kabhi bahut thandi hava aur sooryaast jile mein anubhavi sthitiyon se unki poorv ki raksha ke liye, jo shahar ke poorvi hisse mein rahane ke liye, sain Francisco sunnier hai, spasht 260 dinon ki ek ausat ke saath aur prati varsh keval 105 baadal din. pramukh ameriki shaharon mein, sen Francisco dainik thande matlab hai, adhik se adhik hai aur June, July aur August ke liye nyoonatam taapamaan.