saimuel Richardson

saimuel Richardson (1689-1761) ki ganana angreji upanyaas ke nirmaataaon mein ki jaati hai.

saadhaaran pratibha ke is lekhak ka saahityakshetr mein pravesh akasmaat‌ hi hua. lagbhag pachaas varsh ki avastha tak inka poora samay apne niji mudran vyavasaaya ke safal sanchaalan mein hi laga. isi beech do pustakavikretaaon ne inse patron ki shaili mein ek upadeshaatmak granth likhne ka aagrah kiya jisse sarvasaadhaaran, visheshataya mahilaaon ko, jeevan ki vibhinn paristhitiyon mein uchit aacharan ki shiksha mil sake. is prakaar 'femiliyr letars on inporteint akejans' ke prakaashan se inke saahityik jeevan ka praarambh hua. fir to inhonne Pamela (Pamela), klairisa haarlo tatha sar Charles graidisn naamak teen bade bade upanyaas likhe jinke kaaran inhein England ke baahar Europe mein bhi khyaati mili.

Richardson ke sabhi upanyaas patron ki shaili mein hain. patron ke maadhyam se ve apne paatron ke bhaavon ka sookshm manovaigyaanik adhyayan prastut karte hain. angreji upanyaas apne praarambhik yug mein ghatanaapradhaan hi tha. charitrachitran ki drushti se use ek lambi manjil tay karni thi. Richardson ne pehli baar usamein chaaritrik vivechan ka samaavesh kiya. visheshataya naari hrudaya ke paraspar virodhi bhaavon ka unke upanyaason mein goodh adhyayan milta hai.

Richardson ke upanyaason ki doosari visheshata unka naitik uddeshya hai. upanyaas unke liye keval manoranjan ka saadhan na hokar paathakon ka dharm tatha naitikta mein shikshit karne ka maadhyam tha. 'Pamela' ki rachana, jaisa lekhak ne upanyaas ke mukh prushth par hi spasht kar diya hai, isi uddeshya se ki gayi. naitikta ka yeh aagrah sambhavat: pyuritn prabhaav tatha Charles dviteeya ke samay ke naatya saahitya mein ashleelta ke viruddh pratikriya ke kaaran aaya.

Richardson mein ek doosare prakaar ki pratikriya bhi dekhne ko milti hai. jahaaain 18veen shataabdi mein saahitya tatha jeevan ke vyaapak kshetr mein buddhi paksh ko hi pradhaanata di jaati thi, unhonne apne upanyaason mein bhaav paksh par jor diya.

baahari kadiyaaain