saiksoni

saiksoni

saiksoni Germany ka ek praant hai. yeh Europe ka kisi kaal ka shaktishaali raajya hai jisne ab poorvi Germany ke dakshini poorvi praant ke roop mein apna astitv bana rakha hai. iske dakshin poorv mein chekoslovaakiya raajya, poorv mein neesa nadi, jo ise Poland se pruthak karti hai, uttar mein prasha pradesh tatha pashchim mein thoorinjiya evam dakshin mein baveriya ke praant sthit hain. is praant ki adhiktam lanbaai poorv pashchim mein lagbhag 130 meal evam chaudaai uttar dakshin mein lagbhag 93 meal tatha iska kshetrafal 5789 varg meal hai.

parichay

uttari bhaag ko chhodkar praant ka adhikaansh Europe ke madhyavarti parvateeya kshetron mein sthit hai. ye parvat paramokaakhoneeferas yug mein nirmit moddaar parvaton ke avashesh ke roop mein hai. dakshini seema par arjavarg (Erzgeberg) ki shreni 90 meal lambi hai jiski sarvochch choti fitbarg (Fichteberg) 3979 foot ooainchi hai. dakshini evam pashchimi bhaag mein isi ki up shreniyaaain faili hui hain jinhein madhya saiksani ki shreni evam osyaaj (Oschatz) ki shreni kehte hain. dakshini poorvi bhaag mein 2600 foot tak ooainchi lusaatiya parvat shreni hai. inke uttar poorv mein elb nadi ke donon or aakarshak saiksan Switzerland sthit hain. is patthar ke chattaani pradesh mein jal evam himaani ksharan dvaara gahari nadi ghaatiyon evam chhinn-bhinn parvat shikharon ka nirmaan hua hai jinki adhiktam ooainchaai 1805 foot hai. lilinsteen, koningsteen evam vaasti apekshaakrut adhik aakarshak hai. saiksani praant ki mukhya nadi elb hai jiska 72 meal lamba maarg navya hai. isi ki sahaayak myoolde anya ullekhaneeya nadi hai. elb rimensabarg parvat shreni se nikalkar uttari saagar mein girti hai. anya nadiyaaain black elstar, hvaait elstar paneeje, aur spri aadi hain jo elb ki pranaali mein hi sammilit hain. sampoorn kshetr mein jheelon ka abhaav hai. pradesh ka ekamaatr khanij srot votalaind ke sameep vaid elstar par hai. jalavaayu elb, yoolde evam paneeje ki ghaatiyon mein sam par arjabarg ki uchch bhoomi mein ati visham hai. ausat taap 5 degree celcius se 10 degree se. tak rahata hai. arjabarg kshetr mein sarvaadhik varsha 27.5 inch se 33.5 inch tak hoti hai. pashchimottar disha mein maatra ksheen hoti jaati hai. laaipajing mein maatr 17 inch rah jaati hai.

saiksani ke maidaani bhaag ki mitti adhik upajaaoo hai. krushi ki is kshetr mein vishesh unnati hui hai. dakshin ki or pathaari evam pahaadi bhaagon par urvarata evam krushi vyavasaaya bhi ksheen hota jaata hai. aadhunik krushi paddhati ka praadurbhaav praaya: 1834 E. se maana ja sakta hai jab chakabandi kaanoon laagoo kiya gaya. krushi ke liye misen, grimma, vaatjan, dabelan evam pirna ke sameepavarti kshetr adhik upayukt hain. pradesh ki mukhya upaj raai evam ot hai. gehooain evam jau ka krushi kshetr apekshaakrut kam hai. vogtalaind mein aaloo evam arjebovarg evam lusaariya mein san (flax) ki krushi vishesh prasiddh hai. san ki upaj ke kaaran hi praacheen kaal mein is kshetr mein lilen kapda bunane ka vyavasaaya gruh udyog ho gaya tha. veri, chereen, anaar ki paidaavaar, laaipajing dresden evam koldij ke sameepavarti kshetron mein hoti hai. mijen evam dresden ke nikat elb ke tatavarti bhaagon mein angoor ki krushi dheere-dheere apna mahatva khoti ja rahi hai. chhathi shataabdi se hi prachalit pashuchaaran ab bhi arjagebarg evam vogaralaind ke charaagaahon par hota hai. 1765 E. mein 300 Spain ki nar bhedon dvaara nasl sudhaarane ke uparaant yahaaain ki bhedon evam oon ki maaaing vishv mein badh gayi thi par ab yeh dheere-dheere ksheen hoti ja rahi hai. sooar, hans, murge evam murgiyaaain ab khaadya padaarthon mein prayukt ho rahi hai. saiksani mein van sampatti bhi prachur maatra mein hai jo votalaind evam arjagevarg mein hai.

is pradesh mein chaaaindi ka utpaadan 12veen sadi se hi ho raha hai aur arjeinteeferas led ab bhi khanijon mein mahatvapoorn hai. anya khanijon mein tin, loha, kobaalt, koyala, taaainba, jasta evam vismath hai. madhyam koti ke koyale ka bhandaar evam utpaadan yahaaain Europe ke sabhi raajyon se adhik hota hai. khanij padaarthon ke chaar pramukh kshetr hain:

  • (1) freebarg kshetr jahaaain ka pramukh khanij sees evam chaaaindi hai,
  • (2) altenabarg kshetr, jiski visheshata tin utpaadan mein hai,
  • (3) sneebarg, jahaaain kobaalt, nikel evam lauh prastar (Iron stone) nikaala jaata hai, evam
  • (4) johaan jaarjestaad kshetr, jahaaain chaaaindi evam lauh prastar mukhya hain.

koyala utpaadan ka mukhya kshetr jvikaaoo evam dresden hain. peeth koyala arjagebarg mein milta hai. yeh kshetr koyale ka niryaat bhi karta hai. in khanijon ke atirikt imaarati patthar evam porsaleen kle (cheeni mitti) kramash: elb ki uchch bhoomi evam mijen ke sameep paae jaate hain.

is praant ki madhyavarti sthiti evam jal vidyut shakti ne kramash: vyaapaar evam udyogon ko badhaaya hai. 50% se adhik shakti jal vidyut ki hai. ismein myoolde nadi ka ansh sarvochch hai. laaipajing vishv mela evam prashaasakon ki neeti ne bhi vyaapaar evam udyog ke sansaadhanon ke upayog ko badhaaya hai. vastrodyog yahaaain ka vishesh prasiddh udyog hai. jvikaaoo, keminitj (kaarl maarks staad) glaakaaoo, miren, hohensteen, kaameinj, pulsanits viskaafavarda mein soot evam kapde ki mile hain. keminitj mein hojiri, votalaind mein maslin, kaameinj, viskaafen varda evam graasenahen mein ooni vastrodyog, keminitj, glaakaaoo, meeren, richetavaak mein ardh ooni vastrodyog evam lusaatiya mein lilen vastrodyog prasiddh hai. got lyooga evam laak vij ke madhyavarti parvateeya kshetron ki dhaalon par mukhya vyavasaaya stra ploting hai. laaipajing mein momajaama (Wax cloth) banaaya jaata hai. patthar evam mitti ke bartan keminitj, jvikaaoo, vaajen evam mijen mein bante hain. laaipajing evam sameepavarti kshetron mein raasaayanik udyog evam sigaar, dalvin, vardaaoo evam laasanij mein charm udyog evam vyaapaar tatha laaipajing, dresden, keminitj mein hait aadi bante hain. pashchim Germany mein kaagaj banaane ka udyog keminitj evam dresden mein masheenon ka nirmaan kaarya hota hai. keminitj ek bruhad lauh ispaat udyog kendra hai. yahaaain vaashp injin, jalayaan aadi banaae jaate hain par loha anya kshetron se hi maingaana padta hai. saiksani ke niryaat vyaapaar mein oon, ooni vastueain, lilen ke saamaan, masheenein, cheeni mitti ke saamaan, cigarette, flaanel, parde, les, ghadiyaaain aur khilauna ka vishesh haath hai.

12veen shataabdi mein saiksani poorv mein elb se pashchimein raain nadi tak faila hua tha. dheere-dheere keval poorvi bhaag hi rah gaya. yahaaain ke prashaasakon dvaara sthaapit chaar vishvavidyaalayon laaipajing, jena, vihenabarg evam arfart mein se keval pratham hi ab is praant mein rah gaya hai. saiksani mein audyogik shikshan sansthaanon ki adhikta hai. ismein teksataails udyog, maaining prashikshan kendra evam van vidyaalaya vishesh prasiddh hain.

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