sahasvaaniki

v ki dhvani suniye - hindi mein iske liye varn 'va' hai
w ki dhvani suniye - hindi mein iske liye bhi varn 'va' hi hai (iski dhvani 'v' se bhinn hai lekin hindi mein 'v' aur 'w' ki sahasvaaniki ke kaaran hindeebhaashiyon ko aksar frk bataane mein kathinaai hoti hai

bhaashaavijnyaaan mein sahasvaanik dhvaniyaaain, jinhein angreji mein elofon (allophone) kaha jaata hai, vah dhvaniyaaain hoti hain jo kisi bhaasha ke bolne vaalon ke liye ek hi varn ya varn-samooh ko bolne ke bhinn tareeke hon. sahasvaaniki mein bolne vaalon ko swayam gyaat naheen hota ke vah ek hi varn ko alag-alag prakaar se uchchaarit kar rahein hain. udahaaran ke taur par angreji mein 't', 't', 'th' aur 'th' mein sahasvaniki hoti hai. angreji maatrubhaashi (jo hindi na jaante hon) 'taali', 'thaali', 'taali' aur 'thaali' mein aksar frk naheen bata sakte kyonki unke liye yeh saare svar angreji akshar 't' se samandhit hain aur unhein sab ek hi jaise sunaai dete hain. usi tarah hindi mein 'v' aur 'w' sahasvanik dhvaniyaaain hoti hain. hindi maatrubhaashi aksar 'wow' (yaani 'vaah!') aur 'vow' (yaani 'shapath') ko ek jaisa uchchaarit karte hain, jo angreji mein glat hai.

samapoorak aur mukt sahasvaaniki

sahasvaaniki do tarah ki hoti hai -

  • samapoorak sahasvaaniki - ismein kisi varn ya varn samooh ko bhinn tarah se uchchaarit to kiya ja sakta hai, lekin kuchh niyamon ke tahat. jaise ki hindi mein 'vrat' shabd ko hamesha angreji ke 'vrat' ki tarah hi uchchaarit karna theek hai, jise antarraashtreeya dhvanyaatmak varnamaala mein /vrəaat̪/ likha jaata hai. agar 'wrat' (a॰adha॰ava॰ mein /ʋaarəaat̪/) kaha jaae to hindeebhaashiyon ko yeh 'aurat' jaisa sunaai deta hai. isliye hindi mein 'v' aur 'w' sahasvaanik dhvaniyaaain to hain lekin inmein samapoorak sahasvaaniki hai kyonki 'v' aur 'w' ka istemaal poori tarah se mukt naheen hai - usapar kuchh niyam laghu hote hain. isi tarah angreji mein agar 't' ho to shabd ya shabdaansh ke shuroo mein use 'th' jaisa aur ant ya beech mein use 't' jaisa bolna hota hai. 'Tip' ka sahi uchchaaran 'thip' hai (yahaaain 'tip' glat hoga) lekin 'stop' ka sahi uchchaaran 'stop' hai (yahaaain 'sthaiaap' glat hoga). kehne ka matlab hai ke angreji mein 't' aur 'th' ke beech mein samapoorak sahasvaaniki hai.
  • mukt sahasvaaniki - ismein kisi varn ya varn samooh ko bina kisi rok-tok ke apni vyaktigat pasand ke anusaar bhinn roopon se uchchaarit kiya ja sakta hai. hindi ke kuchh dehaati ilaakon mein 'j' aur 'za' mein aisa dekha jaata hai. aisi jagahon ki dehaati bhaasha mein 'jbaan' ko 'jabaan' aur 'ajagar' ko 'ajgar' kehna aam hai. 'jnjeer' jaise shabd ko (jo 'za' aur 'j' donon prayog karta hai) alag-alag log 'janjeer', 'janjeer', 'jnjeer' aur 'jnjeer' apni pasand ke mutaabik bolte hain. isi tarah kuchh pahaad ke taraai ilaakon mein 'sh' aur 's' mein mukt sahasvaaniki hoti hai - log 'shakkar' ko 'sakkar' bhi kehte hain lekin 'sarkaar' ko 'sharakaar' bhi kehte hain.

sahasvaaniki aur shabdon mein badlaav

sahasvaaniki ke kaaran kabhi-kabhi samay ke saath shabd apna roop badal lete hain. udahaaran ke liye sanskrut ke 'vyavahaar' shabd ke hindi mein do roop paae jaate hain. kuchh log ismein 'va' ko /v/ ki bhaaainti bolte hain aur kuchh log /w/ ki bhaaainti. kyonki /va/ ki dhvani teekhi hai isliye yadi uske saath bola jaae to uchchaaran naheen badalta aur 'vyavahaar' hi rahata hai. lekin agar 'va' ko /w/ ki tarah bola jaae to iski dhvani 'ua' se milti-si hoti hai aur shabd ka uchchaaran pehle 'vyuahaar' aur fir bolne ki saralata ke liye 'vyohaar' ban jaata hai. isi prakriya se kuchh log 'devapur' jaise naam ko angreji mein 'devpur' likhte hain aur anya kshetron ke log ise 'deopur' ki tarah uchchaarit kar ke angreji mein 'deopur' likhte hain.

inhein bhi dekhein