Invitation and Recommendations for writing articles on Hindi Wikipedia
Hindi wikipedia invites and welcomes Wikipedians to contribute for the cause of spreading knowledge and the Hindi language. This page contains guidelines for writing a wiki-article on any topic at the Hindi Wikipedia, with special recommendations for writing in Hindi (Note: The script/font-family for Hindi is Devanāagari; the script/font-system for English is Roman script, also, the Hindi spelling system is not completely standardized). This article is yet in English language (mostly), in order to encourage even non-native/foreign people who have learnt/are learning Hindi to contribute to the Hindi wikipedia, and native Hindi speakers who normally write in English. The examples given below are only for explanation.
- Firstly for proper viewing, it is recommended to keep all links NOT-UNDERLINED. Otherwise the maatra below the Hindi alphabets might get partly hidden behind the underlines. For this, please go to My Preferences (meri pasand) at the top of the page, then click Misc., and then choose "underline links -> Never". Save your settings. Also, do not click yes for "justify paragraphs", otherwise on some browsers, the devanagari script will appear highly distorted.
- All users are requested and encouraged to contribute articles here, especially, to create new articles on general topics. They are also encouraged to expand the existing articles, and improve upon them. A non-user can also do the same; it is recommended but not required to register yourself as a wikipedian user at the Hindi wikipedia. As far as possible, each article should be written with a Neutral Point of View (NPOV)—ano nationalistic or partiality or hatred based articles are welcome. The articles should be based on facts—aand appropriate references should be provided as and where needed. See the English wiki's help page for editing in general. Almost all the general wiki-features are available for editing on Hindi wiki too. Guidelines for the content matter is mostly the same as given in English wiki.
- Since the Hindi wiki is at its initial stages, users are welcome to take introduction and basic points from the English (or another) wikipedia's corresponding article and translate them for small articles. An in-page link to the English wiki's article will be deemed sufficient for references (a template might be created stating this). For longer articles, it is recommended to mention the references separately.
- Since most computer users in India and elsewhere have the standard Western-type keyboard, it is best recommended (but not necessarily required) to use the virtual (software) keyboard like the one of Hindimozhi or of ISIS (Tavultesoft Keyman)—awhich are freewares. These are advantageous because the contemporary Hindi-speakers in India often write messages/chat using Hindi words but written in Roman (English) script, and the layout of these keyboards is quite the same that such people use. For example, using the "normal" keyboard with this software, typing ga would give g and ghaa would give gha.
- Create the article with its name written in Hindi (devanagari script). Always take care to include the nukta (dot below) for foreign / Urdu loanwords wherever it occurs in the standard spelling. For non-Indian names, use that spelling (for article name and other words) which is commonly encountered in Hindi newspapers, G.K.-books, Hindi-dubbed TV documentaries and Hollywood films and magazines. e.g., America-amareeka (ya America), China-cheen, French-fraansisi. For English acronyms/short-forms, use the initials in Roman script, and again create a full form in Hindi and redirect it to the short form. e.g. IPA (antarraashtreeya dhvani varnaakshar); UNO (sanyukt raashtra sangh). Doing the opposite is also fine. But creating the article with the Hindi short form, as san0raa0san0, is not recommended. Also, the article proper must be written with the proper nukta, as faarasi, and then, a non-nukta (mis-)spelt version faarasi should preferably be created to redirect to the correct spelling.
- Hindi wikipedia strongly recommends the users to write articles in everyday common Hindi in the khadeeboli dialect (Hindustani or Hindi-Urdu, i.e., bolachaal waali hindi, which may include many loanwords from Persian and Arabic). The use of shuddh sanskrutanishth hindi is in general neither required nor recommended. E.g., use: vajah instead of kaaran, khaas instead of vishesh, vagairah instead of ityaadi, lekin instead of parantu etc. However, for technical and specialized vocabulary, the use of shuddh sanskrutanishth hindi is recommended and usually mandatory. Thus: upper House of Parliament—asansad ka uchch sadan, but not Urdu—amajilis ka aivaan-A-baala ; Foreign Minister—avideshamantri, but not Urdu—avajeer-A-khaarija ; knowledge/science—ajnyaaan/vigyaan, but not ilm. Use spoken Hindi's ye and vo instead of yeh and vah / ve. Do not use the title of respect ji after names, it is unencyclopedic. Thus: Krishna / shri Krishna but not Krishna ji. Use the aap form and its corresponding 3rd person verbal conjugation for writing about respectable persons. Thus: shri Vajpayee madhya pradesh mein janme the. But not: Vajpayee madhya pradesh mein janma tha. But do not use the pronoun "aap" itself in-text in biographies.
- English should be used sparingly, only when required; i.e., if the corresponding shuddh hindi word is too "difficult and not generally encountered", or if it is a proper name of non-Indian person/place/terminology/title, or if the user is highly unsure of the proper translation. It is recommended (but not required) for English-to-Hindi translation while writing articles, the Shabdkosh online dictionary should be used. For each English word, that alternative should be used which is generally encountered in everyday spoken Hindi, and also fits well into the context. Use of intelligent guesses for newly encountered words is also allowed, and so are translations encountered in Hindi-dubbed TV documentaries, Hollywood films, Hindi-translated books, etc. e.g., damapishaach for en:Dementor (used in dubbed HP films).
- If used, it is recommended to use the English words within the articles using the English (Roman) alphabets rather than devanagari (or better, the devanagari transliteration should be used in the sentence, followed by the English word in Roman alphabet in parentheses). Such words should be italicized and not put in quotation marks. Preferably, there should be an in-page interwiki link (like :en:) on the word to the English wikipedia. If the word comes as an integral part of a sentence, so as not to break the continuity, the en: prefix should be hidden by writing the word again after the pipe sign (piped link). Thus, recommended:
Harry pautar ne ''[[:en:Pensieve|Pensieve]]'' ke andar ''[[:en:Little Hangleton|Little Hangleton]]'' gaaainv mein Lord voldemaurt ki maaain ''[[:en:Merope Gaunt|Merope Gaunt]]'' ko dekha. ''[[:en:Resplendent Quetzal|Resplendent Quetzal]]'' pakshi ke oopar ek meksikn paadari daa0 ''[[:en:Pablo de la Llave|Pablo de la Llave]]'' ne kaafi shodh kiya tha.Whence,
- Harry pautar ne Pensieve ke andar Little Hangleton gaaainv mein Lord voldemaurt ki maaain Merope Gaunt ko dekha
- Resplendent Quetzal pakshi ke oopar ek meksikn paadari daa0 Pablo de la Llave ne kaafi shodh kiya tha
- Always start the first 1 or 2 lines of the article giving its definition (from any standard dictionary/other wiki) or suitable introduction. Thus, recommended: lalita sahasranaaman hindu dharmasudhaarak aadi shankaraachaarya dvaara rachit devi durga ko samarpit ek pooja-mantr hai, jise kai hindu roj shraddha se japate hain . But not: lalita sahasranaaman mantr japane ke liye laddoo-peda, taambul, sindoor, laal chunari ke saath nitya is mantr ka paath karein, to jald hi gada hua khjaana milega . Recommended: vaimaanik abhiyaantriki (en:Aeronautical engineering) vimaanon (en:Aircrafts) ki abhiklpana, nirmaan aur prachaalan karne ka vigyaan, kala aur kaarya hai . (translated from Eng. Webster's New World Dictionary). But not: aajkal vaimaanik abhiyaantriki ke liye deshbhar mein kai college khul gaye hain, jinmein agrani sthaan yootopiya sthit laaloo-Yadav teklink college ka hai .
- For names of countries, cities, places, languages, people, books, films, technical vocabulary, mythology, etc, start the article like this:
The name in bold ('''Apollo''')
starting parenthesis, then English name in Roman script, in-page interwiki-linked to English wiki ff. by semicolon ((angreji : [[:en:Apollo]];)
The native name(s) if applicable in the italicized native script, preferably followed either by its italicized approximate Hindi pronunciation or non-italicizedphonological transcription
within / /, ff. by closed parenthesis (yoonaani : ''Aπaollωaν apollon''))
the rest of the definition or introduction (praacheen [[yoonaani dharm]] (greek dharm) aur praacheen [[roman dharm]] ke sarvochch devata the .)For country names, only the standard short form of the name is needed in the first line. If there is a common name for a difficult word in Hindustani, also mention it. Whence: Apollo (angreji : en:Apollo; yoonaani : Aπaollωaν apollon) praacheen yoonaani dharm (greek dharm) aur praacheen roman dharm ke sarvochch devata the . If you don't give the interwiki English/another language link (which would be deemed to be the default reference), then you MUST provide an appropriate reference.
- Please leave no article without an appropriate category. See the list of created categories here; you can also make a new category (pref. in Hindi). Please leave no article without at least ONE off page (like en:) interwiki link. E.g., the user can check the article name (say Apollo) on the finally redirected English page and append to the Hindi article (
[[en:Appolo]])). These interlanguage links will help a bot to update all interwiki links for that article in all wikipedias. The category and the aforementioned link should be typed at the end of the article. If the article is very small, mention it as a stub/substub.
- Use of templates is welcome. See the list of templates here. If creating a template, name it pref. in Hindi.
- Use poornaviraam ( . ) instead of a period (.) for ending statements. The poornaviraam, semicolon, colon and dash (but not comma) must come after one space after the word to prevent ambiguity. Use the international form of the Hindu-Arabic numerals (1,2,3 instead of 1,2,3), as used by the Constitution and the Government of India (even for Hindi). There is no need to use the halant at the end of Sanskrit words wherever it occurs. Hence, prefer: sansad over sansad; atharvan over atharvan. Use the proper quotation marks “a” from the Insert toolbox, not "". Write dates as 2 May 2006 (isavi or isaapoorv). Write time as 3:45 pm. Separate common suffix-words like shaastr, vigyaan, gyaan with a hyphen. Thus: rasaayan-shaastr. For most others, leave both the words of the noun-cluster free. Combine them into one word only if it is very common to do so. Thus: saamaved.
- The use of za for the en:voiced alveolar fricative (/z/, as in zoo, rose) is fundamentally wrong. Its nearest counterpart is the en:voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ (as in sea), and not Hindi j (en:voiced palatal plosive). Hence, it is suggested and recommended that for the sound /z/, whether it comes in English (etc.) spellings (z) for while pronunciation otherwise, should be transcribed as s (s with a dot below, available in the Insert toolbox). Hence: Reason reesn, not reejn ; Roses roses, not rojej. But common Hindi words borrowed from Persian/Arabic (so-called Urdu words) are allowed to continue with za spelling. Thus: jra, nazar, tarj. The en:voiced postalveolar fricative (/ʒ/ as in treasure), inexistent in Hindi, can similarly be transcribed with sh. Thus: treasure traishr. The nukta (dot) available in the Insert toolbox can be combined with various consonants to suggest a more exact phonetic devanagari rendering of foreign sounds. E.g., since phonetically, English Think and this are not equal to think and dis, a better transcription could be think and dis. Please take care of the dot below in so-called Urdu words, otherwise the Hindi spelling is deemed incorrect.
- For the following English vowels met, mate, mat, transcribe as mait (short vowel), met (not meit), Matt (not mait, as popular in Marathi). However in contemporary Hindi and here, it is acceptable to use A instead of ऍ. Thus: America is more popular than amairika. For cot, coat, caught, transcribe as kaut, kot, kaut (not kaut). Transcribe English /t/ and /d/ as t and d.
- Use half-na before t, th, the, dh, na, instead of anuswaar an. Use half-m before p, f, b, bh, m. Use the anuswaar before all the rest of the consonants (not half-ङ, nya, n). If the maatra is not above the alphabet, use chandra-bindu, but only for nasalization. Thus: andar, not andar ; ant, not ant ; hindi, not hindi ; sambhav, not sambhav ; panchami, not panyachami ; anda, not anda ; kanth, not kanth ; land, not laind ; aaainkh, not aankh. However, both forms are acceptable in contemporary Hindi as well as here; the prec. are just recommendations.
- When proceded by another vowel, use the pure vowels instead of ya (unless the ya is clearly articulated while pronouncing). Thus : jaaeain, not jaayein (not jaavein) ; aaega, not aayega . However, both forms are acceptable in contemporary Hindi as well as here.
- Please pay careful attention to the masculine/feminine gender (and singular/plural) in adjectives and verbs, else the sentence becomes ungrammatical.
For more information/suggestions/criticisms, please contact any one of the administrators of Hindi wiki here, preferably en:User:Magicalsaumy.
This page can also be found
Deeptrivia 04:07, 15 June 2006 (UTC)
priya Bhoomi~hiwiki, hindi vikipeediya par aapka svaagat hai!
vikipeediya ek mukt jnyaaanakosh hai jo vishvabhar ke yogadaanakartaaon dvaara likha ja raha hai.
kisi bhi vaarta/samvaad prushth, chaupaal ya anya kaheen bhi jahaan sadasyon ke madhya vaarta hoti hai, par apna sandesh chhodne ke baad apna hastaakshar avashya chhode. iske liye apne sandesh ki samaapti par --~~~~ likh dein.ham aasha karte hai ki aapko vikipeediya se judne mein aanand aaega.
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