saayanaaid vidhi

saayanaaid vidhi (Cyanide process) nimn shreni ke svarn ayaskon se sona nikaalne ki ek dhaatukaarmik takaneek (metallurgical technique) hai. iska aavishkaar 1887 E. mein hua tha. isse kam sone vaale khanijon se sona nikaalne mein badi sahaayata mili hai.

isse pehle paaradan (amalgamation) vidhi ke khanijon se keval 60 pratishat ke lagbhag sona nikaala ja sakta tha. paaradan vidhi se sona ke adhikaansh sookshm kan nikal naheen paate the. saayanaaid vidhi ke aavishkaarak maik‌aaaarthar (J.S. Mac Arthur) aur faurest (R.W. & W. Forrest) the. aavishkaar ke samay is vidhi ka upahaas kiya jaata tha kyonki iska abhikrmak saayanaaid ghaatak vish aur tab saralata se praapya naheen tha. par sheegra hi is vidhi ka upayog 1889 E. mein New Zealand mein, 1890 E mein dakshin Africa mein hua aur 1925 E. tak to yeh vidhi saamaanya roop se vyavahaar mein aane lagi.

is vidhi mein sone ke choornit khanij ko potaishiym saayanaaid ya sodiym saayanaaid ke tanu vilyan se upachaarit karte hain, jisse sona aur chaaaindi to ghulakar khanij se pruthak‌ ho jaate hain aur svachh vilyan ko jaste ke chheelan (shavings) ya choorn ke saath upachaar se sone aur chaaaindi jaste ke chheelan ya choorn ke tal par kaale avarpak (slime) ke roop mein avakshipt ho jaate hain. inmein kuchh jasta bhi ghula rahata hai. kaale avarpank ko pighlaakar sone aur chaaaindi ko chhad ke roop mein praapt karte hain. yahaaain jo raasaayanik abhikriyaaeain hoti hain ve jatil hain. yahaaain sona potaishiym saayanaaid mein ghulakar svarn aur potaishiym ka yugm saayanaaid banta hai. is kriya mein vaayu ke okseejan ka bhi haath rahata hai, jaisa nimnalikhit sameekaran se spasht ho jaata hai. vaayu ke abhaav mein abhikriya ruk jaati hai.

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aadhunik kaal mein sone ke khanij ko jal ke sthaan mein potaishiym saayanaaid ke tanu vilyan ke saath hi daalate hain. daalane ke liye stainp baitariyon ka upayog hota hai. baitariyon mein khanij aadhe inch vyaas ke tukadon mein todkar tab peshani mein peese jaate hain. peese jaane ke baad kon klaisifaayar (cone classifier) mein vargeekrut kar avarpak ke roop mein praapt karte hain. avarpak ko ab prakshobhak pachuk (pachuka) tanki mein le jaate hain jismein peinde se vaayu dabaav se pravisht karaaya jaata hai aur vah avarpak ko uthaakar oopar le jaata hai. is prakaar vaatan aur mishran saath-saath chalta hai aur sona ghul jaata hai. av vilyan ko chhalni mein chhaanakar alag kar lete hain. puraani vidhi mein sone ke saayanaaid ke vilyan ko nithaarakar pruthak‌ karte the. nithaar mein sheeghrata laane ke liye tanki mein choona daalte the. is vidhi ki visheshata yeh hai ki saayanaaid ke bahut tanu vilyan ka keval 0.27 pratishat (ek tan khanij ke liye lagbhag 0.27 pound) potaishiym saayanaaid ka upayog hota hai. isse prati tan khanij ke upachaar mein pachees se tees paisa kharch hota hai. isse samast khanij ka 80% sona nikal aata hai. kuchh sthaanon mein paaradan aur saayanaaid donon vidhiyaaain kaam mein aati hain. is prakaar chaaaindi ke khanijon se bhi chaaaindi pruthak‌ ki jaati hai. par is dasha mein vilyan kuchh adhik prabal (saayanaaid ka 0.1% se 0.5%) upayukt hota hai. saayanaaid vidhi se sansaar ke sone aur chaaaindi ke utpaadan mein bahut vruddhi hui hai.

baahari kadiyaaain