saayan

saayan ya aachaarya saayan (chaudahaveen sadi, mrutyu 1387 isvi) vedon ke sarvamaanya bhaashyakarta the. saayan ne anek granthon ka pranayan kiya hai, parantu inki keerti ka merudand vedabhaashya hi hai. inse pehle kisi ka likha, chaaron vedon ka bhaashya naheen milta. ye vijyanagar saamraajya ke senaapati evam amaatya 24 varshon tak rahe (1364-1387 isvi). yorop ke praarambhik vaidik vidvaan tatha aadhunik Bhaarat ke shri arobindo tatha shreeraam sharma aachaarya bhi inke bhaashya ke prashansak rahe hain. yaask ke vaidik shabdon ke kosh likhne ke baad saayan ki teeka hi sarvamaanya hai.

anukram

jeevani

saayan ne apni rachanaaon mein apne charitra ke vishay mein aavashyak tathyon ka nirdesh kiya hai. ye dakshin Bhaarat ke nivaasi the. inke pita ka naam tha maayan aur maata ka shreemati. inka gotr Bhardwaj tha. Krishna yajurved ki taittireeya shaakha ke anuyaayi shrotriya the. inke agraj vijyanagar saamraajya ke sansthaapak mahaaraaj harihr ke mukhyamantri tatha aadhyaatmik guru the. unka naam tha - maadhavaachaarya jo apne jeevan ke antim samay mein shrrungereepeeth ke vidyaacharan svaami ke naam se adhipti hue the. saayan ke anuj ka naam tha bhoganaath jo sangamanaresh ke narmasachiv tatha kamaneeya kavi the. saayan ne apne alankaar sudhaanidhi naamak granth mein apne teen putron ka naamollekh kiya hai jinmein kanpan sangeet shaastr mein praveen the, maayan gadya-padya rachana mein vichkshan kavi the tatha shingan ved ki kramajata aadi paathon ke marmajnya vaidik the.

saayan ke aashrayadaata

vedabhaashyon tatha itar granthon ke anusholan se saayan ke aashrayadaataaon ke naam ka spasht parichay praapt hota hai. saayan shaasan kaarya mein bhi daksh the tatha sangraam ke maidaan mein sena naayak ke kaarya mein bhi ve nipun na the. vijyanagar ke in chaar raajanyon ke saath saayan ka sambandh tha - kanpan, sangam (dviteeya), bukk (pratham) tatha harihr (dviteeya). inmein se kanpan sangam pratham ke dviteeya putr the. aur harihr pratham ke anuj the jinhonne vijyanagar saamraajya ki sthaapana ki thi. kanpan vijyanagar ke poorvi pradesh par raajya karte the. sangam dviteeya kanpan ke aatmaj the tatha saayan ke pradhaan shishya the. baalyakaal se hi ve saayan ke shikshan tatha dekharekh mein the. saayan ne unke adheenasth praant ka badi yogyata se shaasan kiya. tadantar ve mahaaraaj bukkaraaya (1350 E.-1379 E.) ke mantripd par aaseen hue aur unke putr tatha uttaraadhikaari harihr dviteeya (1379 E.-1399 E.) ke shaasanakaal mein bhi usi amaatyapad par pratishthit rahe. saayan ki mrutyu san. 1444 (1387 E.) mein maani jaati hai. is prakaar ye ve. san. 1421-1437 (1364 E.-1378 E.) tak lagbhag 16 varshon tak bukk mahaaraaj ke pradhaanamantri the aur vi. san. 1438-1444 vi. (1379 E.-1387 E.) tak lagbhag aath varshon tak harihr dviteeya ke pradhaan amaatya the. prateet hota hai ki lagbhag pachchees varshon mein saayanaachaarya ne vedon ke bhaashya praneet kiye (vi. san. 1420-vi. san. 1444). is prakaar saayan ka aavirbhaav 15veen shati vikrami ke prathamaardh mein sampann hua.

maadhavaachaarya

saayan ka jeevan agraj maadhav ke dvaara itna prabhaavit tha tatha unke saath ghulamil gaya tha ki panditon ko bhi in donon ke pruthak vyaktitv mein paryaapt sandeh hai. iska niraakaran prathamat: aavashyak hai. maadhavaachaarya 14veen shati mein bhaarateeya vidvajjanon ke shikhaamani the. ve ved, dharmashaastr tatha meemaansa ke prakaand pandit hi na the, pratyut vedon ke uddhaarak tatha vaidik dharm ke prachaarak ke roop mein unki khyaati aaj bhi dhoomil naheen hui hai. unheen ke aadhyaatmik upadesh tatha raajaneetik prerana ka suparinaam hai ki mahaaraaj harihr rai ke roop se vijyanagar saamraajya ki sthaapana ki. maadhavaachaarya ka is prakaar is saamraajya ki sthaapana mein poorn sahayog tha at: ve raajya kaarya ke suchaaroo sanchaalan ke liye pradhaanamantri ke pad par bhi pratishthit hue. yeh unheen ki preranaashakti thi ki in donon sahodar bhoopaalon ne vaidik sanskruti ke punarutthaan ko apne saamraajya sthaapan ka charam lakshya banaaya aur is shubh kaarya mein ve sarvatha safal hue. falat: ham maadhavaachaarya ko 14veen shati mein dakshin Bhaarat mein jaayamaan vaidik punarjaagrati ka agradoot maan sakte hain. meemaansa tatha dharmashaastr ke prachur prasaar ke nimitt maadhav ne anek maulik granthon ka pranayan kiya-

(1) paraasharamaadhav (paraashar smruti ki vyaakhya),

(2) vyavahaaramaadhav,

(3) kaalamaadhav (teenon hi dharmashaastr se sambaddh),

(4) jeevanmuktivivek (vedaant),

(5) panchadashi (vedaant)

(6) jaimineeya nyaayamaala vistar (poorv meemaansa),

(7) shakar digvijya (aadi shankaraachaarya ka lok prakhyaat jeevan charit).

antim granth ki rachana ke vishay mein aalochak sandehasheel bhale hon, parantu poorvanibddh chhahon granth maadhavaachaarya ki asandigdh rachanaaeain hain. anek varshon tak mantri ka adhikaar sampann kar aur saamraajya ko abheesht siddhi ki or agrasar kar maadhavaachaarya ne sannyaas le liya aur shrrungeri ke maananeeya peeth par aaseen hue. inka is aashram ka naam tha - vidyaacharan. is samay bhi inhonne peeth ko gatisheel banaaya tatha panchadashi naamak granth ka pranayan kiya jo advait vedaant ke tatvon ke parijnyaaan ke liye nitaant lokapriya granth hai. vijyanagar samraat ki sabha mein amaatya maadhav, maadhavaachaarya se nitaant pruthak vyakti the jinhonne sootasanhita ke oopar taatparyadeepika naamak vyaakhya likhi hai. saayan ko vedon ke bhaashya likhne ka aadesh tatha prerana dene ka shreya inheen maadhavaachaarya ko hai.

saayan ke guru

saayan ke teen guruon ka parichay unke granthon mein milta hai-

(1) vidyaateerth rudraprashnabhaashya ke rachayita tatha paramaatmateerth ke shishya the jinka nirdesh saayan ke granthon mein maheshvar ke avataar roop mein kiya gaya hai.

(2) bhaarati teerth shrrungeri peeth ke shankaraachaarya the.

(3) shreekanth jinke guru hone ka ullekh saayan ne apne kaanchi ke shaasanapatr mein tatha bhoganaath ne apne mahaaganapatistav mein spasht roop se kiya hai.

saayan ke granth

saayanaachaarya vedabhaashyakaar ki khyaati se mandit hain. parantu vedabhaashyon ke atirikt bhi unke praneet granthon ki satta hai jinmein anek abhi tak aprakaashit hi pade hue hain. in granthon ke naam hain-

(1) subhaashit sudhaanidhi - neeti vaakyon ka saras sankalan. kanpan bhoopaal kesamaya ki rachana hone se yeh unka aadya granth prateet hota hai.

(2) praayashchitt sudha nidhi - karmavipaak naam se bhi prakhyaat yeh granth dharm shaastr ke praayashchit vishay ka vivran prastut karta hai.

(3) alankaar sudha nidhi - alankaar ka pratipaadak yeh granth das unmeshon mein vibhkt tha. is granth ke praaya: samagr udaaharan saayan ke jeevanacharit se sambandh rakhate hain. abhi tak keval teen unmesh praapt hain.

(4) purushaarth sudhaanidhi - dharm, arth, kaam tatha moksh roopi chaaron purushaarthon ke pratipaadak pauraanik shlokon ka yeh vishd sankalan bukk mahaaraaj ke nidesh se likha gaya tha.

(5) aayurved sudhaanidhi - aayurved vishyak is granth ka nirdesh oopar nirdisht san. 3 vaale granth mein kiya gaya hai.

(6) yagya tantr sudhaanidhi - yajnyaaanushthaan vishay par yeh granth harihr dviteeya ke shaasanakaal ki rachana hai.

(7) dhaatuvrutti - paanineeya dhaatuon ki yeh vishd tatha vistrut vrutti apni vidvatta tatha praamaanikta ke kaaran vaiyaakaranon mein vishesh roop se prakhyaat hai. yeh maadhaveeya dhaatuvrutti ke naam se prasiddh hone par bhi saayan ki hi ni:sandigdh rachana hai - iska parichay granth ke upodghaat se hi spashtat: milta hai.

(8) vedabhaashya - yeh ek granth na hokar anek granthon ka dyotak hain. saayan ne ved ki chaaron sanhitaaon, katipya braahmanon tatha katipya aaranyakon ke oopar apne yugaantarakaari bhaashya ka pranayan kiya. inhonne paaainch sanhitaaon tatha 13 braahman aaranyakon ke oopar apne bhaashyon ka nirmaan kiya jinke naam is prakaar hain-

  • (k) sanhita panchak ka bhaashya
(1) taittireeya sanhita (krushnayajurved ki) (2) rikru, (3) saam, (4) kanv (shuklayajurvedeeya) tatha (5) atharv - in vaidik sanhitaaon ka bhaashya saayan ki mahatvapoorn rachana hai.
  • (kh) braahmanon ka bhaashya
(1) taittireeya braahman tatha (2) taittireeya aaranyak, (3) aitareya braahman tatha (4) aitareya aaranyak.
saamavedeeya aathon braahmanon ka bhaashya- (5) taandya, (6) saamavidhaan, (8) aarsheya, (9) devataashyaaya, (10) upanishd braahman, (11) sanhitopanishd (12) vansh braahman, (13) shathapath braahman (shuklayajurvedeeya).

saayanaachaarya swayam krushnayajurved ke antargat taittireeya shaakha ke adhyeta braahman the. falat: prathamat: unhonne apni taittireeya sanhita aur tatsanbaddh braahman aaranyak ka bhaashya likha, anantar unhonne rigved ka bhaashya banaaya. sanhitaabhaashyon mein atharvaved ka bhaashya antim hai, jis prakaar braahman bhaashyon mein shatapathabhaashya sabse antim hai. in donon bhaashyon ka pranat pranayan saayan ne apne jeevan ke sandhyaakaal mein harihr dviteeya ke shaasanakaal mein sampann kiya.

saayan ne apne bhaashyon ko "maadhaveeya vedaarthaprakaash" ke naam se abhihit kiya hai. in bhaashyon ke naam ke saath "maadhaveeya" visheshan ko dekhkar anek aalochak inhein saayan ki ni:sandigdh rachana maanane se paraad.mukh hote hain, parantu is sandeh ke liye koi sthaan naheen hai. saayan ke agraj maadhav vijyanagar ke raajaaon ke preranaadaayak upadeshta the. unheen ke upadesh se mahaaraaj harihr tatha bukkaraaya vaidik dharm ke punaruddhaar ke mahaneeya kaarya ko agrasar karne mein tatpar hue. in maheepatiyon ne maadhav ko hi vedon ke bhaashya likhne ka bhaar saunpa tha, parantu shaasan ke visham kaarya mein sanlagn hone ke kaaran unhonne is mahaneeya bhaar ko apne anuj saayan ke hi kandhon par rakha. saayan ne rigved bhaashya ke upodghaat mein is baat ka ullekh kiya hai. falat: in bhaashyon ke nirmaan mein maadhav ke hi prerak tatha aadeshak hone ke kaaran inka unheen ke naam se sambaddh hona koi aashcharya ki baat naheen hai. yeh to saayan ki or se apne agraj ke prati bhooyasi shraddha ki dyotak ghatna hai. iseeliye dhaatuvrutti, bhi, "maadhaveeya" kahalaane par bhi, saayan ki hi ni:sandigdh rachana hai jiska ullekh unhonne granth ke upodghaat mein spashtat: kiya hai-

ten maayanaputren saayanen maneeshina.
aakhyaya maadhaveeyeyan dhaatuvruttirvirchyate.

vedabhaashyon ke ek kartrutv hone mein katipya aalochak sandeh karte hain. sanvat 1443 vi. (san 1386 E.) ke Mysore shilaalekh se pata chalta hai ki vaidik maarg pratishthaapak mahaaraajaadhiraaj harihr ne vidyaacharan shreepaad svaami ke samaksh chaturved-bhaashya-pravartak Narayan vaayapeyayaaji, narahari somayaaji tatha pandhari Dixit naamak teen braahmanon ko agrahaar dekar sammaanit kiya. is shilaalekh ka samay tatha vishay donon mahatvapoorn hain. ismein upalabdh "chaturved-bhaashya-pravartak" shabd is tathya ka dyotak hai ki in teen braahmanon ne vedabhaashyon ke nirmaan mein vishesh kaarya kiya tha. prateet hota hai, in panditon ne saayan ko vedabhaashyon ke pranayan mein saahaayya diya tha aur iseeliye vidyaacharan svaami (arthaat saayan ke agraj maadhavaachaarya) ke samaksh unka satkaar karna ukt anumaan ki pushti karta hai. itne vipulakaaya bhaashyon ka pranayan ek vyakti ke dvaara sambhav naheen hai. falat: saayan is vidvamandali ke neta ke roop mein pratishthit the aur us kaal ke mahaneeya vidvaanon ke sahayog se hi yeh kaarya sampann hua tha.

vedabhaashyon ka mahatva

saayan se pehle bhi ved ki vyaakhyaaeain ki gayi theen. kuchh upalabdh bhi hain. paranchu samast ved ki granth raashi ka itna suchintit bhaashya it:poorv praneet naheen hua tha. saayan ka yeh vedabhaashya avashya hi yaajnyaik vidhi-vidhaanon ki drushti se rakhakar likha gaya hai, parantu iska yeh matlab naheen ki unhonne ved ke aadhyaatmik arth ki or sanket na kiya ho. vaidik mantron ka arth to sarvapratham braahman granthon mein kiya gaya tha aur isi ke aadhaar par nighantu mein shabdon ke arth ka aur nirukt mein un arthon ke vishdeekaran ka kaarya sampann hua tha. nirukt mein ine-gine mantron ka hi taatparya unmeelit hai. itne vishaal vaidik vaaङ maya ke arth tatha taatparya ke prakateekaran ke nimitt saayan ko hi shreya hai. ved ke visham durg ke rahasya kholne ke liye saayan bhaashya sachmuch chaabhi ka kaam karta hai. aaj vedaarth meemaansa ki nai paddhatiyon ka janm bhale ho gaya ho, parantu ved ki arth meemaansa mein panditon ka pravesh saayan ke hi prayatnon ka fal hai. aaj ka vedaarth parisheeli aalochak aachaarya saayan ka vishesh roop se rini hai. vedaarth meemaansa ke itihaas mein saayan ka naam suvarnaaksharon mein likhne yogya hai.

baahari kadiyaaain