saayakil

saayakil

saayakil maanav-chaalit do-pahiya vaahan hai.

saayakil ka prachalan unneesaveen shataabdi mein Europe mein aarambh hua. is samay poore vishv mein anumaanat: das karod saayakilein hain. cheen aur needaralaind aadi deshon mein saayakil aavaagaman ka mukhya saadhan hai.

saayakil ne itihaas ko bahut had tak prabhaavit kiya hai. sanskruti aur udyog donon par iska prabhaav pada hai.

anukram

aavishkaar

1839 mein Scotland ke ek luhaar kirkapaitrik maikamiln dvaara aadhunik saayakil ka aavishkaar hone se poorv yeh astitv mein to thi par is par baithakar jameen ko paanv se peechhe ki or dhakelakar aage ki taraf badha jaata tha. maikamiln ne ismein pahiye ko pairon se chala sakane yogya vyavastha ki.

aisa maana jaata hai ki 1817 mein Germany ke bairan faun drevis ne cycle ki rooparekha taiyaar ki. yeh lakdi ki bani saayakil thi tatha iska naam dresiyen rakha gaya tha. us samay is saayakil ki gati 15 kilo meter prati ghanta thi.[1] iska alp prayog 1830 se 1842 ke beech hua tha.

iske baad maikamiln ne bina pairon se ghaseete chalaaye ja sakane vaale yantr ki khoj ki jise unhonne velosipeed ka naam diya tha. par ab aisa maana jaane laga hai ki isse bahut poorv 1763 mein hi France ke piyre lailameint ne iski khoj ki thi.

itihaas

cycle ka kramik vikaas

Europeeya deshon mein baaisikil ke prayog ka vichaar logon ke dimaag mein 18veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein hi aa chuka tha, lekin ise moortaroop sarvapratham san 1816 mein peris ke ek kaareegar ne diya. us yantr ko haubi haurs, arthaat kaath ka ghoda, kehte the. pair se ghumaae jaanevaale krainkon (paidal) yukt pahiye ka aavishkaar san 1865 E. mein pairis nivaasi laalemein (Lallement) ne kiya. is yantr ko velausipeed (velociped) kehte the. ispar chadhnevaale ko behad thakaavat ho jaati thi. at: ise haadtod (bone shaker) bhi kehne lage. iski savaari, lokapriya ho jaane ke kaaran, iski badhti maaaing ko dekhkar England, France aur America ke yantranirmaataaon ne ismein anek mahatvapoorn sudhaar kar san 1872 mein ek sundar roop de diya, jismein lohe ki patali patti ke taanayukt pahiye lagaae gaye the. ismein aage ka pahiya 30 inch se lekar 64 inch vyaas tak aur peechhe ka pahiya lagbhag 12 inch vyaas ka hota tha. ismein krainkon ke atirikt goli ke veyaring aur break bhi lagaae gaye the.

Bhaarat mein bhi cycle ke pahiyon ne aarthik tarakki mein aham bhoomika nibhaai. 1947 mein aajaadi ke baad agale kai dashak tak desh mein cycle yaataayaat vyavastha ka anivaarya hissa rahi. khaastaur par 1960 se lekar 1990 tak Bhaarat mein jyaadaatar parivaaron ke paas cycle thi. yeh vyaktigat yaataayaat ka sabse taakatavar aur kifaayati saadhan tha. gaanvon mein kisaan saaptaahik mandiyon tak sabji aur doosari fasalon ko cycle se hi le jaate the. doodh ki saplaai gaanvon se paas se kasbaai baajaaron tak cycle ke jariye hi hoti thi. daak vibhaag ka to poora tantr hi cycle ke boote chalta tha. aaj bhi postamain cycle se chitthiyaan baantate hain.

jamaana badla aur kooriyr sevaaen jyaada bharosemand ban gain, lekin cycle ki ahamiyt yahaan bhi khatm naheen hui. badi sankhya mein kooriyr baaaintane vaale bhi cycle ka istemaal karte hain. 1990 mein desh mein udaareekaran ki shuruaat hui aur tej aarthik badlaav ka silsila shuroo hua. desh ki yuva peedhi ko motorcycle ki savaari jyaada bha rahi thi. license paramit raaj mein scooter ke liye saalon intajaar karne vaalon ka dhairya chuk gaya tha. udaareekaran ke kuchh saal baad shahari madhyavarg ko apne shauk poore karne ke liye paisa kharch karne mein hichk naheen thi. shaharon mein motorcycle ka shauk badh raha tha. gaanvon mein bhi is maamale mein badlaav ki shuruaat ho chuki thi. raajadoot, bulet aur Bajaj samooh ke scooter nae Bhaarat mein peechhe chhoot rahe the. hero honda desh ki nai dhadkan ban rahi thi. yeh badlaav aane vaale saalon mein aur tej hua. desh mein badlaav ke donon pahiye badal gaye the. iske baavajood Bhaarat mein cycle ki ahamiyt khatm naheen hui hai. shaayad yahi vajah hai ki cheen ke baad duniya mein aaj bhi sabse jyaada cycle Bhaarat mein banti hain.

saayakil taxi, emsatardam, 2005

nabbe ke dashak ke baad se saaikilon ki bikri ke aaainkanon mein aham badlaav aaya hai. saaikilon ki kul bikri mein badhotri I hai, lekin graameen ilaakon mein iski bikri mein giraavat I hai. aasaan aarthik praayojan ki badaulat log motorcycle ko in ilaakon mein jyaada tarajeeh de rahe hain. daraasal, 1990 se pehle jo bhoomika cycle ki thi, usaki jagah gaanvon aur shaharon mein motorcycle ne le li. 2002-03 mein dopahiya gaadiyon ki bikri (scooter, motorcycle, moped, bijli se chalne vaale dopahiye) jahaan 48.12 lakh thi, vah 2008-09 mein badhkar 74.37 lakh ho gayi thi. iska matlab yeh hai ki pichhle kaarobaari saal mein desh mein jitni cycle bikeen, utani hi bikri dopahiyon (scooter, motorcycle, moped, ilektrik too vheelar) ki bhi rahi.

saayakil ke vibhinn bhaag

saayakil ke vibhinn purje

baaisikil ke vibhinn bhaag nimnalikhit hain :

frem

baaisikil ka sabse mahatvapoorn ang usaka frem hai. frem ki banaavat aisi honi chaahiye ki usapar laganevaale purjein apna kaam kushalataapoorvak kar sakein. baaisikil ki tikoni frem aur aage tatha peechhe ke chimte khokhali, gol naliyon se banaae jaate hain. fir unhein frem ke konon par uchit prakaar ke braiketon mein fainsaakar jhaal diya jaata hai. tikoni frem ke banaane mein dhyaan rakha jaata hai ki usaki naliyon ki madhya rekhaaeain ek hi samatal mein rahein. frem mein laga aage ka stiyring sira (steering head), usapar laganevaale haindil ka danthal aur aage ke chimte ke danthal ki madhya rekhaaeain ek doosari par sanpaati (coincident) honi chaahiye. donon taru ke chimton ki bhujaaeain bhi unki madhya rekha se samamit tatha samaantar honi chaahiye. chakkon ki madhya rekha chimton ki madhya rekha par sanpaati honi chaahiye, anyatha baaisikil santulit rahakar seedhi naheen chal sakegi.

pahiya

pahiyon mein aajkal naabhi (hub) ki sparsheeya disha mein are lagaane ka rivaaj hai. sparsheeya are, pahiye ke ghere (rim) par bhraamak bal bhali prakaar se daal sakte hain. pratyek do aasann are kaicheenuma lagkar, hab ki flaij (flange) se sparsheeya disha mein jhuke rahate hain. peechhe ke pahiye mein 40 aur agale mein 32 are lagte hain, at: usi ke anusaar uske gheron mein chhed banaae jaate hain aur habon ki pratyek flainj mein ghere ki aadhi sankhya mein chhed banaae jaate hain. chakka taiyaar karte samay vyaasaabhimukh aath aron ko pehle lagaakar sahi kar lete hain, fir shesh aron ko usi kram se bharate jaate hain. chitron mein hab ki baai taraf ki flainj mein hi are lagaakar dikhaae gaye hain, jo kram se ghere par visham sankhyaankit chhedon mein hi baithe hai. sam sankhyaankit chhedon mein daahini taraf ki flainj ke are baitheinge, at: unke sthaanon ko khaali dikhaaya gaya hai.

taar se bane are sadaiv tanaav ki sthiti mein rahane ke kaaran taan kahalaate hain. prayog karte samay bhi pahiyon ke aron ki samay samay par pareeksha karte rahana chaahiye, koi ara dheela aur koi adhik tanaav mein naheen hona chaahiye. uaingali se bajaakar sabko dekha jaae to unamein ek si aavaaj niklani chaahiye, anyatha pahiye tedhe hokar are tootane lageinge. unhein kasane ka kaam ghere par lagi niplon ko uchit disha mein ghumaakar kiya ja sakta hai.

baulabeyaring

baaisikil ke achhi prakaar kaam kar sakane ke liye uske baul beyaringon ki taraf dhyaan dete rahana aavashyak hai. yadi kisi beyaring mein se jra bhi aavaaj niklati ho to avashya hi usamein koi kharaabi hai. use kholkar uske donon taraf ki goliyon ki ginti kar, kapde se ponchhakar saaf chamaka leejiye. yadi koi goli tooti, chatakhi ya ghis gayi ho to use badal deejiye, fir usaki katori (ball-race) ke valayaakaar khaaainche tatha konon ko dekhiye. ve ghise, kate, ya khuradare na hon. yadi kharaab hon, to unhein bhi badal deejiye. yadi uparyukt koi aib na ho tatha goliyaaain bhi ek hi sankhya mein tatha samaan naap ki hon, to usamein tel ki kami samajhni chaahiye. beyaring ke kisi bhi bhaag mein kisi bhi prakaar ka kachara ya keechad to hona hi naheen chaahiye.

bahuchaal yukt geear naabhi (hub)

Shimano xt rear derailleur.jpg

yeh pichhle pahiye mein lagaai jaati hain, jiske dvaara savaar apni ichha aur aavashyakataanusaar baaisikil ki chaal ke anupaat ko badal sake. aajkal teen chaal denevaale geear habon ka adhik prachaar hai. aisi geear naabhi bhi banaai jaati hai ki peechhe ko, arthaat ulata, paidal chalaane se break lag jaata hai. chaal badalne ke liye janjeer chakr aur naabhi ke beech ki chaal ke anupaat ko, naabhi ki dhuri ke madhya lagi baareek kadiyonvaali ek janjeer ko kheenchakar badal diya jaata hai. ise kheenchne se naabhi ke bheetar lage giaron (gears) ki sthiti badal jaati hai. janjeer ko kheenchne ka kaam to savaar apne livron dvaara jor lagaakar karta hai, lekin vaapas lautane ki kriya naabhi ke bheetar lagi kamaani dvaara svat: hi ho jaati hai. naabhi ke purje kholne ke liye, pehle baaeain haath ka kon kholkar, fir daahine haath ki taraf lagi goliyon ki ring kholani chaahiye.

mukt chakr (Free wheel)

peechhe ke chakke par iske laga dene se savaar jab chaahe pair chalaana band kar sakta hai, fir bhi vah pahiya aajaadi se ghoomta rah sakta hai. yeh do prakaar ka hota hai, ek to gharshan belan yukt aur doosra raichet daaaint yukt. pratyek mukt chakr mein yeh gun hona chaahiye ki bheetari purjon ke atak jaane se paidal ki janjeer par khinchaav na paida ho aur dubaara jab paidal chalaae jaaeain tab bheetari purje ek dam aapas mein jutakar kaam karne lagein aur fislein naheen. saath hi chakr ki banaavat dhool aur paani ke liye abhedya honi chaahiye. aajkal raichet daaaint yukt mukt chakr ka hi adhik prachalan hai. iske ghere ki bheetari paridhi par raichet ke daaaint kate hain, jinmein yathaasthaan lagaae kutte (pawls) atakakar, paidal ki janjeer ke maadhyam se savaar dvaara diye hue khinchaav ko pahiye ki naabhi par paareshit kar dete hain. paidal chalaana band hote hi janjeer thahar jaati hai tatha ve kutte kamaani ke jor se raichat ke daaainton mein baari baari se girte hain, jisse "katakat" ki aavaaj hoti hai.

yadi dubaara chalaane par mukt chakr fislane lage, athva jaam ho jaae, to use theek karne ki pehli tarakeeb yeh hai ki usamein mitti ka tel khoob bharakar pahiye ko khaali ghumaaya jaae, jab vah sab tel nikal chuke tab usamein snehan tel de diya jaae. yadi aib door na ho, to chakr ke dhakkan ko khol kar dekhna chaahiye ki kaheen kutte ghis to naheen gaye hain, athva unki kamaaniyaaain hi toot gayi hon. fir use bheetar se bilkul saaf kar toote purje ya goliyaaain nai badalkar, dhakkan ki choodiyaaain saavadhaani se seedhi kas deni chaahiye.

havaai tyre

tyre ko pahiye ke ghere par jamaae rakhane ke liye iske donon kinaaron par ya to ispaat ke taarayukt, athva rabar ki hi kathor gonth bana di jaati hai, jo chakke ke ghere ke mude hue kinaare ke neeche dabakar ataki rahati hai aur bheetari rabar nali mein hava bhar dene se tyre tanakar yathaasthaan baith jaata hai.

bheetari nali mein itni hi daab se hava bharani chaahiye jisse tyre savaar ka bojha sah le aur pahiye ka ghera sadak ke kankad pattharon se naheen takaraae, anyatha nali ke kuchale jaane aur tyre ke fat jaane ka dar rahega. aavashyakta se adhik hava bhar dene se tyre ka lacheelaapan kam hokar baaisikl sadak par uchhalati hui chalti hai, lekin aavashyak maatra mein kasakar hava bhar dene se pahiye ka vyaas apni seema tak badh jaata hai aur achhi sadak par chalte samay paidal se kam maatra mein shakti lagaani padti hai.

baalv

bheetari nali mein hava bharne ke liye bud ke hava vaalb ka bahudha prayog hota hai, jiski banaavat chitr 13. mein spasht dikhaai gayi hai. rabar ka vaalb tube fata, kuchala aur sada gala naheen hona chaahiye. baalv ke plag ke oopari sire par laganevaali topi sadaiv lagi rahani chaahiye. baalv ka aadhaar nat ghere par sakhti se kasa rahana chaahiye. baalv ka plag, rabar ke baalv tube sahit bina rukaavat ke pravisht hokar, khaaainchon mein baith jaana chaahiye.

paidal kraink

paidal kraikon ko unki dhuri se kautaron (cotters) dvaara hi joda jaata hai. baaisikil ke girne, athva durghatana ke kaaran, yadi kraik ya dhuri tedhi ho jaaeain, to kreinkon ko juda karne ke liye, unapar lage kautar ke nat ko kholkar, kaatar ke choodeedaar sire ko hathaude se thonk kar kautar ko nikaal lena chaahiye, lekin dhyaan rahe ki choodiyaaain kharaab na ho jaaeain. kraink ke vaksh (boss) ke neeche lohe ki koi laag lagaakar hi kautar thonkana chaahiye, anyatha kraink dhuri ya baul beyaring par jhatka pahuainchega. kharaabi ke kaaran yadi donon kraink ek seedh mein na hon, to kautar ke chapate bhaag ko retakar, ya palatakar, samanjit kar dena chaahiye. yadi kraink apni dhuri par dheela ho, to kautar ko adhik gaharaai tak thokane se bhi kaam ban jaata hai. bahut dinon tak dheele kautar se hi baaisikil chalaate rahane se kautar aur kraink ka chhed, donon hi, kat jaate hain tatha dhuri ka khaaaincha bhi bigad jaata hai. at: naya kautar badalna hi achha rahata hai. baaisikil ke girne se aksar paidal pin bhi tedhi ho jaati hai. aisi haalat mein paidal ke baahar ki taraf vaale veyaring ki topi utaarakar usaka samanjak kon nikaalkar goliyaaain haath mein le leni chaahiye. fir paidal ki frem ko sarakaakar, bheetaravale veyaring ki goliyaaain bhi samhaalakar le leni chaahiye, aisa karne par paidal nikal aaega aur paidalapin hi kraink mein lagi rah jaaegi. usaka nireekshan kar tatha guniyaaain mein seedha kar, paidal ko yathaapoorv baaaindh dena chaahiye.

chaalak janjeer

saayakil ki chaalanashrunkhala (drive chen) ka vistrut roop

yeh janjeer chhoti chhoti patteenuma kadiyon, belanon aur rivton (revets) dvaara banaai jaati hai. ise saaf kar, tel ki chiknaai dekar aur uske khinchaav ko sanmajit kar theek haalat mein rakhana chaahiye. janjeer ke rivteeya jodon ke dheele hone tatha belanon ke ghis jaane se usaki samagr lanbaai badh jaaya karti hai. paidal ke dantachakr ke daaainton ka pitch (pitch) to badalta naheen, at: janjeer chakr se utar kar takaleef deti hai. iski pahichaan yeh hai ki patra par chadhi hui janjeer ke sparshachaap (arc of contact) ke beech mein, use aaingoothe aur tarjani se pakadkar baahar ki taraf kheencha jaae. yadi janjeer lagbhag inch hi khinchati hai, tab to theek hai aur yadi inch tak khinch jaati hai to avashya hi ghiskar dheeli ho gayi hogi. at: badal deni chaahiye.

haath ke break

pahiyon ke gheron par dabaav daalanevaale hastachaalit brekon ki kaaryapranaali leevar aur dandon ke sambandh par aadhaarit hoti hai. baaoodan (Bowden) ke break, ispaat ki lacheeli nali mein lage ek atanpeedya taar ke khinchaav par aadhaarit hote hain. brekon ko chhudaane ke liye kamaani kaam karti hai. break, suraksha ka pradhaan upakaran hai, at: break ke dande susamanjit rahane chaahiye, arthaat aise rahane chaahiye ki ve aron ya taayaron mein na atakein. dande majaboot hone ke saath saath saralata se jodon par ghoomanevaale hone chaahiye. dekhne mein achhe aur purjein saaf suthare bhi rahane chaahiye.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain