saatraap

rudradaman ka sikka, jo pashchimi saatraap kahalaane vaale Gujarat-Rajasthan kshetr ke shak raajaaon mein se ek tha

saatraap ya kshatraap (faarasi: سaاaتaرaاaپa‎, Satrap) praacheen Iran ke meedi saamraajya aur hakhaamani saamraajya ke praanton ke raajyapaalon ko kaha jaata tha. is shabd ka prayog baad mein aane vaale saasaani aur yoonaani saamraajyon ne bhi kiya. aadhunik yug mein kisi badi shakti ke neeche kaam karne vaale neta ko kabhi-kabhi anaupachaarik roop se 'saatraap' kaha jaata hai. kisi saatraap ke adheen kshetr ko saatraapi (satrapy) kaha jaata tha.[1]

anukram

shabdottpatti

'saatraap' shabd avastaai bhaasha aur praacheen faarasi bhaasha ke 'khshathrapaavan' (xšaaaθaarapāaavan) shabd se aaya hai. is shabd mein 'khshathr' sanskrut ke sajaateeya shabd 'kshetr' se milta-julata hai. 'paavan' shabd ka arth praacheen faarasi mein 'raksha karne wala' hota hai, jo sanskrut ke 'paalan' (rakshak) shabd se aur 'paavan' (shuddh karne wala) shabd donon se milta hai. 'khshathrapaavan' samay ke saath parivrtit ho gaya - 'khshathr' ('kshetr') to 'shahar' ban gaya aur 'paavan' ('paal') 'baan' ya keval 'p' ban gaya. is se yeh shabd 'saatraap' ke roop mein aur 'shaharabaan' ke roop mein milta hai, jiska sanskrut mein 'kshetrapaal' baraabari ka shabd hota. praacheen faarasi mein iske jaisi 'shoithraapaiti' upaadhi bhi milti hai, jiska sanskrut anuvaad 'kshetrapati' saral hai aur theek yahi upaadhi chhatrapati shivaaji ke liye prayog hoti hai.[2]

parichay

'kshatrap' praacheen kaal mein faaras ke samraaton dvaara praanteeya shaasakon ke liye diya hua naam (kshatrapaavan). ibraani ka 'shakhshadrapan' bhi isi arth mein prayukt hua hai. iska arth 'pradesh ka rakshak' hota hai. greek lekhakon - heraaradotas, thyoosideedij tatha jenofn ne baabul, misr aadi deshon ke abhilekhon mein iska arth upashaasak arthaat lieutenant Governor kiya hai. herodotas ke anusaar kuroosh ke mahaan ne apne saamraajya ko anek praanton mein vibhkt kiya; daarayaavaush ne unka ek nishchit dhang se sangathan kiya tatha apne poore saamraajya mein 21 kshatrap praanton ka nirmaan kiya aur unka kar bhi nishchit kiya. kshatrapon tatha upakshatrapon ka sarvapratham kaarya apne praanton ka bhoomikr ikattha karna tha. kshatrap is kar mein se raajakeeya sena, nyaayaadheeshon tatha apne vyaktigat vyayon ko nikaalkar avashisht bhaag samraat ko deta tha. yadi kshatrap samraat ka krupaapaatr banana chaahata to vah samraat ke bhaag ki maatra adhik kar deta. kshatrapon ki aur se samraat ke liye koi nishchit rakam naheen baindhi hoti thi.

saare aay ka hisaab rakhane tatha samraat ke bhaag ki nigraani karne ke liye raajakeeya kaayasth rahata tha. unheen ko samraat ki or se raajakeeya aadesh praapt hua karte the. is prakaar di hui aajnyaa ke sheeghraatisheeghr paalan ki aasha ki jaati thi. ismein tanik bhi avarodh vidroh samajh liya jaata tha. kshatrapon ko iske liye dand bhi milta tha. aur Turkey saamraajya ki bhaaainti unke dand mein koi aupachaarikta naheen barati jaati thi. kshatrapon ke paas samraat ki aajnyaa pahuainchaane ki vidhi ke liye ek din ki yaatra ki doori par ek vyakti rahata tha. ek doosare ke paas, doosra teesare ke paas, is prakaar kshatrapon tak sandesh pahuainchaaya jaata tha. faaras ke samraaton ke paas kshatrapon ki adheenata praapt karne ke liye anya prakaar bhi the ek commissioner ko sena ke sanrakshan ke saath vaataavaran tatha aavashyakta ke anusaar krupa pradaan karne athva dand dene ke liye bheja jaata tha. jenofn ke anusaar yeh pratha saamraajya ke aarambh se hi chali aa rahi thi aur uske samay bhi prachalit thi. kshatrapon ke kaarya ki nigraani ke liye samraat swayam saamraajya ke pratyek pradesh mein prativrsh jaaya karta tha. yadi vah swayam naheen ja paata to apne kisi pratinidhi ko bhej deta tha. kshatrapon ke apne praant mein bhoomi ki urvarata athva krushi ki abhivruddhi ke liye vishesh prayaas karne par unako kuchh aur bhi praant pradaan kar diye jaate kintu jahaaain yeh suvyavastha naheen praapt hoti thi vahaaain se pradesh ko kaatkar doosare kshatrap praanton mein mila diya jaata tha. praanton mein prashaasan ke vidhaan ka bhaar samraat par hota tha jo apne bhaai, kisi kutunbi athva daamaad ko kshatrap niyukt karta tha. bhaaratavarsh mein nahapaan ne apne daamaad ushavadaat ko kshatrap bana rakha tha.

samraat ke saath bahuda nikat sambandh ke kaaran kshatrapon ke jeevan mein samraat ki hi bhaaainti vilaasita parilkshit hoti thi. kshatrap ke darbaar mein bhi samraat ki bhaaainti aupachaarikta barati jaati thi. samraat ki bhaaainti hi kshatrapon ka apna antapur hota tha. antapur mein kleevon ki paryaapt sankhya rahati thi. raajakeeya sena ke atirikt kshatrapon ki vyaktigat sena hua karti thi. samraat ki hi bhaaainti unke mahalon mein bhi udyaan, pramadavan, aadi hote the. samraaton ki hi bhaaainti ve bhi varsh ke katipya maheennon mein ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par samay vyateet karne ke liye jaate the. kshatrapon ko is prakaar adhik raajakeeya shakti svat praapt thi. sainya tatha anya shaktiyon ke adhishthaata hone ke atirikt ek aur bhi baat thi jiske kaaran kshatrap atyant shaktishaali ho jaate the aur unke vidroh karne ki aashanka bani rahati thi. kabhi kabhi ve vidroh kar bhi dete the. kabhi do ya adhik kshatrap praanton ka adhishthaata ek hi kshatrap bana diya jaata tha jise mahaakshatrap kehte the. inhein adhik sainyashakti tatha raajakeeya shakti praapt hoti thi jo unke vidroh mein sahaayak hoti thi. iska udaaharan daaranavaush ke raajyakaal mein hi praapt hai. aarokleej ne, jo feejiya tatha leediya donon ka kshatrap tha, vidroh kar diya tha paravarti shaasakon ke kaal mein, visheshakar laghu Asia mein, kshatrapon ke vidroh adhik hone lage. laghu kuroosh ke kaal se kshatrapon ki is pravrutti mein nirantar vruddhi hoti gayi. kshatrap kabhi kabhi khula vidroh bhi karte the aur apne ko svatantr shaasak ghoshit kar dete the. in vidrohi kshatrapon mein se bahuton ne kai raajyavanshon ki sthaapana ki aur baad mein bilkul svatantr ho gaye. in sabke baavajood samraat unki adheenata praapt karne mein safal rahata tha. iska pramukh kaaran kshatrapon mein paarasparik kalah aur yuddh tha. iske atirikt darbaar mein striyon ki adhikta tatha vyabhichaar ke vaataavaran se bhi kshatrapon ke vyaktitv mein sahaj dheelaapan aane lagta tha. kshatrap apne ko praanton ke rakshaarth niyukt naheen samajhte the balki unapar apna aadhiptya samajhte the. iska ek kaaran yeh bhi tha ki kshatrapeeya prashaasan ki vyavastha anshat aanuvanshik bhi thi. ve kshatrap praanton ke bhoomikr tatha anya aayon ka upabhog karte the.

jenofan ke samay misiya ke ek kshatrap ne upakshatrap bhi niyukt kiya tha jise us pradesh ke log kar dete the aur vah ulake badle vyavastha karta tha. yahi vyavastha usaki mrutyu ke pashchaat usaki vidhva ke liye bhi hoti rahi. is prakaar ki vyavastha ne saamraajya ke dhaaainche ko sahaj hi dheela kar diya. paravarti kaal mein kshatrapon ko raajakeeya sena ke sanchaalan ka bhi adhikaar mil gaya tha, visheshakar tab jab vah raajakeeya parivaar ka athva usaka koi sambandhi hota tha. laghukuroosh misiya, feejiya, tatha leediya ka kshatrap tha par yuddh mein sampoorn sena ka senaapati bhi vahi tha. yahi sthiti faarnabesas tatha anya kshatrapon ki bhi hai, kintu iska arth yeh naheen hai ki kshatrap praanton mein sainik shaasan ho gaya tha. vastut samraat sainik tatha samaaj ke adhikaariyon, donon ko swayam niyukt karta tha. majistreton ki niyukti bhi vah swayam karta tha. kshatrap majistreton ke kaarya mein hastakshep naheen kar sakta tha. kshatrapeeya prashaasan ki vyavastha ko sikandar tatha uske uttaraadhikaariyon ne bhi apnaaya tha, visheshakar silyukas ke saamraajya mein yaheen vyavastha thi.

Bhaarat mein kshatrapeeya raajyavyavastha

bhaaratavarsh mein shakon ke jo raajya sthaapit hue unamein bhi kshatrapeeya raajyavyavastha thi. bhaarateeya kshatrapon ke teen pramukh vansh aur ek raajavansh tha-

  • (1) kapisha, pushpapur, aur abhisaar ke kshatrap,
  • (2) pashchimi Punjab ke kshatrap,
  • (3) Mathura ke kshatrap, aur
  • (4) ujjain ke kshatrap.

(1) kapisha, pushpapur tatha abhisaar ke kshatrapon ka pata vahaaain se praapt abhilekhon se milta hai. maanikyaala abhilekh mein granavahrayak ke putr kisi kshatrap ka ullekh milta hai. use kaapisha ka kshatrap bataaya jaata hai. 83vein varsh (sanvat ?) ke Kabul sangrahaalaya abhilekh mein pushpapur ke tirvharn naamak ek kshatrap ka ullekh hai. abhisaaraprast se praapt ek taaainbe ki angoothi ke aakaar ki mudra par kshatrap shivsen ka naam praapt hai.

(2) Punjab ke kshatrap teen vanshon se sambandh rakhate hain -

  • (a) kujulaa athva kujuluk vansh- ismein liak tatha uske putr patik ki ginti hoti hai jo sanbhavat: kshaharaat vansh ke the. inka shaasan chukhsh jile ke aaspaas ka tha. kabhi ek kabhi do patikon ke bhi hone ka anumaan vidvaan karte hai. kujulua ka yeh vansh Mathura ke kshatrapon se sambandhit anumaan kiya jaata hai. shakon ko yeh praant yookreteedeej ke vanshajon se praapt hua tha. 78vein varsh ke (samvat?) takshashila ke ek taamrapatr se pata chalta hai ki liak mog naamak naresh ka kshatrap tha. uske putr pashki ko abhilekh mein mahaadaanapati kaha gaya hai.
  • (b) manigul tatha usaka putr jihonik- mudraashaastriyon ne inhein ayas dviteeya ka, pushkalaavati par shaasan karne wala , kshatrap maana hai. kintu takshashila se praapt rajatapatr abhilekh (varsh 191 sanvat?) ke anusaar jihonik chukhs jile ka kshatrap bataaya gaya hai. inka uttaraadhikaari kushulakar kaha jaata hai.
  • (s) indravarman ka vansh- is vansh mein indravarman, uske putr aspavarman tatha aspavarman ke bhateeje sas aate hai. aspavarman ne ayas dviteeya tatha gudoofar donon ke raajatv kaal mein kshatrap ka kaarya kiya aur sas ne gudoofar tatha uske uttaraadhikaari paikorij ke raajyakaal mein kshatrap ka kaarya kiya.

(3) Mathura ke kshatrap - is vansh mein sabse pehla rajuvul athva ranjuvul tha jisne sanbhavat: pehle saakal par bhi raajya kiya tha. stenakono ne us vansh ka is prakaar anumaan kiya hai:

art (pishstri) ke teen putr the- abuhol, khalmas aur maj.
abuhol ke do putr the- hyooar aur ayasi komoia
hyooar ka beta - nadadiak

rajuvul ka naam abhilekhon tatha mudraaon mein praapt hota hai. mora kroop abhilekh mein use mahaakshatrap kaha gaya hai. kintu usaki mudraaon par praapt lekh mein use 'raajaadhiraaj' kaha gaya hai. rajuvul (raajul) ka uttaraadhikaari shudas (athva shodaas) tha. abhilekhon mein bhi use mahaakshatrap kaha gaya hai. inke abhilekhon mein diye gaye varshon ko kuchh vidvaan shak aur kuchh vikram samvat mein maanate hain. is matabhed ko mitaane ka saadhan abhi tak praapt naheen ho saka hai. kono ke anusaar kharoshth raajuvul ka shvasur tatha paleet ke anusaar, dauhitr tha. ek anya mudra par kharoshthi lipi mein 'kshatrapas prakhar oshtas artasaputras' likha hua milta hai.

in kshatrapon ke mooladesh ke sambandh mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai. kabhi unhein palhaav, kabhi shak desh se aaya hua bataaya jaata hai. sambhavat ve shak the. faaras se hokar aane ke kaaran ve kshatrapeeya shaasan vyavastha se parichit aur usase sambaddh ho gaye; inke atirikt hagaan aur hagaamash naamak do kshatrapon ki bhi mudraaeain Mathura se praapt hui hain. jo rajuvul vansh ke pashchaat Mathura ke shaasak anumaan kiye jaate hain. kuchh sikkon par donon ke sanyukt naam bhi milte hain aur kuchh par keval hagaamash ka hi. inke pashchaat Mathura mein do-teen kshatrap aur hue jinke naam bhaarateeya hain. kadaachit is kaal tak in videshiyon ne poornaroop se bhaarateeyata grahan kar li thi.

(4) ujjain ke kshatrap - ujjain ke kshatrapon ko 'pashchimi Bhaarat ke kshatrap' ke naam se bhi pukaarate hai. ye kshatrap do vanshon ke prateet hote hain. pehla vansh bhoomak aur nahapaan ka tha tatha doosra chashtan ka. bhoomak ke uttaraadhikaari nahapaan ka pata usaki rajat evam taamramudraaon se hi naheen varan uske daamaad ushavadaat ke abhilekhon se bhi lagaaya jaata hai. nahapaan ne pashchimi Bhaarat ke kuchh bhaag par bhi raajya kiya tha. usane saatavaahan ke saamraajya ka kuchh bhaag bhi jeet liya tha. iske vansh ko shaharaat kehte hai. shaharaat vansh ko roodradaaman pratham ne samaapt kiya. girnaar abhilekh mein use khakharaat vasanivses karas kaha gaya hai.

ujjain mein shaasan karne vaale dviteeya vansh ke kshatrapon mein kaardamakavansheeya chashtan ke pita yasmotik ka naam sarvapratham aata hai. chashtan ka putr jayadaaman kshatrap tha kintu sambhavat vah pita ke jeevanakaal mein hi mar gaya aur ujjain par chashtan tatha roodradaaman ne sammilit roop se shaasan kiya. joonaagadh abhilekh mein mahaakshatrap roodradaaman ke sambandh mein kaha gaya hai ki usane mahaakshatrap ki upaadhi arjit ki thi. prateet hota hai ki uske vansh ki raajyashri sambhavat gautameeputr saatakarni ne chheen li thi aur roodradaaman ko mahaakshatrap ki upaadhi pun: un pradeshon ko jeetkar karni arjit karni padi. joonaagadh abhilekh mein usaki vijyon tatha uske vyaktitv ki prashasti hai. roodradaaman pratham ka uttaraadhikaari usaka jyeshth putr daamaghasad (pratham) hua. uske pashchaat daamaghasad ka putr jeevadaaman tatha usaka bhaai roodrasinh pratham uttaraadhikaari hue. isi roodrasinh ke samay aabheeron ne pashchimi kshatrapon ke raajya ka kuchh bhaag hadp liya tha. roodrasinh pratham ke uttaraadhikaari uske teen putr roodrasen pratham, sanghadaaman tatha daamasen hue. tadanantar daamasen ke teen putr yashodaaman, vijyasen tatha daamajadashri mahaakshatrap hue. daamajadashri ka uttaraadhikaari usaka bhateeja rudrasen dviteeya hua. iske pashchaat uske putr vishvasinh tatha bhartrudaaman hue. bhartrudaaman ke hi kaal se usaka putr vishvasen usaka kshatrap bana. bhartrudaaman tatha vishvasinh ka sambandh mahaakshatrap roodradaaman dviteeya se kya tha. yeh nishchayapoorvak naheen kaha ja sakta. is vansh ka antim kshatrap rudrasinh truteeya hua jisne lagbhag 388 E. tak shaasan kiya. guptavansh ke chandragupt dviteeya vikramaaditya ne ujjaini ke kshatrapon ka ant kar unke saamraajya ko apne saamraajya mein mila liya aur unke sikkon ke anukaran par apne sikke prachalit kiye.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. Foreign influence on ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern Book Centre, 1992, ISBN 978-81-7211-028-4, ... The satraps were a kind of subordinate rulers with a varying degree of political importance. The term 'satrap' is the Hellenised form of the old Persian Kshathrapavan (meaning protector of the realm) Indianized into 'Kshatrap' ...
  2. A concise etymological dictionary of the English language, Walter William Skeat, Clarendon press, 1896, ... Satrap, a Persian viceroy ... Zend (O. Pers.) shoithra-paiti, ruler of a region. - Zend. shoithra, a region; paiti, chief. Cf Skt. kshetra, a field, region; pati, a lord ...