saaran jila

saaran
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
saansad laaloo prasaad evam uma shankar Singh
janasankhya
ghanatv
32,48,701 (2001 tak )
• 1,231
kshetrafal 2,641 sq. kms ki.mee²
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: http://saran.bih.nic.in

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 25°a46′aN 84°a43′aE / 25.77°aN 84.72°aE / 25.77; 84.72 saaran Bhaarat ganaraajya ke Bihar praant mein sthit ek pramandal evam jila hai. yahaaain ka prashaasanik mukhyaalaya chhapra hai. ganga, gandak evam ghaaghara nadi se ghira yeh jila Bhaarat mein maanav basaav ke saarvaadhik praacheen keindron mein ek hai. sampoorn jila ek samatal evam upajaaoo pradesh hai. Bhojpuri bhaashi kshetr ki poorvi seema par sthit yeh jila sonapur mela evam raajaneetik chetna ke liye prasiddh hai.

anukram

naamaakaran

praacheen kaal mein saaran ki bhoomi vanon ke aseem vistaar aur ismein vichrane vaale hirnon ke kaaran prasiddh tha. hiran (saarang) evam van (aranya) ke kaaran ise saarang aranya kaha gaya jo kaalakram mein badalkar saaran ho gaya. britis vidvaan jenaral kaningham ne yeh aisi dhaarana vyakt ki hai ki maurya samraat ashok ke kaal mein yahaaain lagaae gaye dhamm stambhon ko 'sharan' kaha jaata tha jo baad mein saaran kahalaane laga aur is kshetr ka naam ban gaya. saaran ka mukhyaalaya chhapra kaafi prasiddh raha hai aur aksar ise chhapra jila bhi kaha jaata hai.

itihaas

mahaajanapad kaal mein saaran ki bhoomi kosal ka ang raha hai. kosal raajya ke uttar mein Nepal, dakshin mein sarpika (saain) nadi, purab mein gandak nadi tatha pashchim mein paanchaal pradesh tha. iske antargat aaj ke uttar pradesh ka faijaabaad, gonda, basti, Gorakhpur tatha devariya jila ke atirikt Bihar ka saaran kshetr aata hai. aathaveen sadi mein yahaaain paal shaasakon ka aadhiptya tha. jile ke dighvaara ke nikat dubauli se mahendrapaal Dave ke samay 898 isvi mein jaari kiya gaya taamrafalak praapt hua hai.[1] baabar ke samay hi saaran mugal shaasan ka hissa ho gaya tha. Akbar ke shaasanakaal par likhe gaye aaina-A-akabari ke vivran anusaar kar sangrah ke liye banaae gaye 6 sarkaaron mein saaran vitteeya kshetr ek tha aur iske antargat vartamaan Bihar ke hisse aate the. baksar yuddh mein vijay ke baad san 1765 mein angrejon ko yahaaain ka divaani adhikaar mil gaya. 1829 mein jab Patna ko pramandal banaaya gaya tab saaran aur Champaran ko ek jila banaakar saath rakha gaya lekin 1866 mein Champaran ko jila banaakar saaran se alag kar diya gaya. 1908 mein tirhut pramandal banane par saaran ko iske saath kar iske antargat gopaalaganj, sivaan tatha saaran anumandal banaae gaye. svatantrata pashchaat 1981 mein saaran ko pramandal ka darja dekar teenon anumandalon ko jila (mandal) bana diya gaya. svatantrata ki ladaai mein yahaaain ke majaharul hak, Rajendra prasaad jaise mahaan senaaniyon nein Bihar ka naam ooaincha kiya hai. indira gaaaindhi dvaara desh mein lagaae gaye aapaatakaal ke viruddh yahaaain ke jaya prakaash Narayan ne samooche desh mein janakraanti ki lahar paida kar satta parivartan kiya.

bhoogol

ganga, gandak tatha ghaaghara nadiyon se ghira saaran jila ek trikoneeya bhookshetr hai. yeh jila 25°a36' se 26°a13' uattari akshaansh tatha 84°a24' se 85°a15' poorvi deshaantar ke beech basa hai. jile ke uttar mein sivaan tatha gopaalaganj, dakshin mein ganga evam ghaaghara nadiyon ke paar Patna evam bhojapur jila, poorv mein mujaffarapur evam vaishaali jila tatha pashchim mein sivaan tatha uttar pradesh ka baliya jila avasthit hai. samatal evam upajaaoo krushi yogya bhoomi par jile ki saghan aabaadi basati hai. sivaan ko teen bhaugolik kshetron mein baaainta ja sakta hai.:

  • nadiyon ke kinaare sthit jalodh mitti ka maidaan jo aksar baadh ka shikaar hota hai. iske antargat chhapra, dighvaara, sonapur, riveelaganj, maanjhi, tatha dariyaapur prakhand aate hain.
  • diyaara kshetr jo nadiyon ke beech sthit neechi bhoomi hai.
  • nadiyon se door sthit kshetr jo baadh ka shikaar naheen hota.
prashaasanik vibhaajan:
  • anumandal: chhapra sadar, sonapur, marahaura
  • prakhand: chhapra, dighvaara, sonapur, riveelaganj, maanjhi, dariyaapur, garakha, parasa, madhaura, amanaur, jalaalapur, ekama, masarakh, taraiya, marahaura, ekama, lahalaadapur, baniyaapur, maker, paanaapur, isuaapur
  • panchaayaton ki sankhya: 330
  • gaaainvon ki sankhya: 1767
  • shaharon ki sankhya: 5 (nagar parishad-1, nagar panchaayat-4)
janasankhyiki

2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar is jile ki janasankhya:[2]

  • kul:- 32,48,701
  • shahari kshetr:- 298637
  • dehaati kshetr:- 2950064

krushi evam udyog

saaran jile ke kul 270245 hekteyar bhoomi mein se 199300 hekteyar kheti yogya hai. 3789.20 hekteyar sthaayau rup se jal se dhainka hai. krushi yogya bhoomi mein se 27% ooainchi bhoomi, 7% madhyam ooainchi bhoomi, 15% madhyam bhoomi, 12% neechi bhoomi, 21% chaur evam 15% diyaar kshetr hai.[3] geinhooain, dhaan, makka, aaloo, dalahan evam tilhan mukhya fasalein hain. kul jot ka saarvaadhik hissa geinhooain evam dhaan ki buaai mein istemaal hota hai. jile mein koi van kshetr naheen hai aur aam, imali, seesam jaisi lakadiyaaain niji bhookshetr par 8270 hekteyar mein lagi hain.

shiksha

  • praathamik vidyaalaya- 1265
  • buniyaadi vidyaalaya- 22
  • madhya vidyaalaya- 607 (266)
  • uchch vidyaalaya- 116
  • uchchatar vidyaalaya (10+2)- 6
  • kendreeya vidyaalaya- 3 (chhapra, sonapur evam masarakh)
  • sanskrut vidyaalaya- 17
  • madarasa- 4
  • shikshak prashikshan mahaavidyaalaya- 3 (2 diploma evam 1 degree stareeya)
  • degree mahaavidyaalaya- 11 (angeebhoot ikaai) + 6 (sambaddh ikaai)

jile ke sabhi mahaavidyaalaya jayaprakaash Narayan vishvavidyaalaya ke antargat aate hain.

paryatan sthal

Hajipur ke saamane sonapur mein pratyek varsh lagne wala pashu mela vishv prasiddh hai. sonapur ek nagar panchaayat aur poorv madhya railway ka mandal hai. iski prasiddhi lambe railway platform ke kaaran bhi hai. Bhagwat puraan mein varnit is harihrakshetr mein gaj-graah ki ladaai hui thi jismein Bhagwan vishnu ne graah (ghariyaal) ko mukti dekar gaj (haathi) ko jeevanadaan diya tha. us ghatna ki yaad mein pratyek varsh kaartik poornima ko gandak snaan tatha ek paksh tak chalanevaala mela lagta hai. yahaaain Baba harihranaath (Shiv mandir) tatha kaali mandir ke alaave anya mandir bhi hain. mela ke dinon mein sonapur ek saamaajik, aarthik evam saanskrutik kendra ban jaata hai.

  • chiraand: chhapra se 11 kilometer dakshin poorv mein doreeganj baajaar ke nikat sthit yeh gaaainv ek saaran jile ka sabse mahatvapoorn puraataatvik sthal hai. ghaaghara nadi ke kinaare bane stoopanuma bharaav ko hindu, bauddh tatha muslim prabhaav evam utaar-chadhaav se jodkar dekha jaata hai.[4] Bhaarat mein yeh nav paashaan kaal ka pehla gyaat sthal hai. yahaaain hue khudaai se yeh pata chala hai ki yeh sthaan nav-paashaan kaal (2500-1345 isa poorv) tatha taamr yug mein aabaad tha. khudaai mein yahaaain se hadadiyaaain, geinhooain ki baaliyaaain tatha patthar ke aujaar mile hain jisse yeh pata chalta hai ki yahaaain base log krushi, pashupaalan evam aakhet mein sanlagn the.[5] sthaaneeya log chiraand teele ko dvaapar yug mein ishvar ke param bhakt tatha yahaaain ke raaja mauryadhvaj (mayooradhvaj) ke kile ka avashesh evam chyavan rishi ka aashram maanate hain. 1960 ke dashak mein hue khudaai mein yahaaain se buddh ki moortiyaaain evam dhamm se judi kai cheejein mili hai jisse chiraand ke bauddh dharm se lagaav mein koi sandeh naheen.
  • maanjhi: chhapra shahar se 20 kilometer pashchim ganga ke uttari kinaare par 1400' x 1050' ke daayare mein praacheen kile ka avashesh hai. 30 feet ooainche khandahar mein lagi inte 18" x 10" x 3” ki hai. yahaaain se praapt do moortiyon ko sthaaneeya madheshvar mandir mein rakhi gayi hai. inmein ek moorti bhoomi sparsh mudra me Bhagwan buddh ki hai jo madhya kaal mein bani maaloom padti hai. teele ke poorv bane kam ooainchaai vaale khandahar ko sthaaneeya log raaja ki kachahari bulaate hain. abul fajal likhit aaina-A-akabari mein maanjhi ko ek praacheen shahar bataaya gaya hai. aisi dhaarana bhi hai ki is jagah ka naam cheron raaja maaainjhi maker ke naam par pada hai.
  • anba sthaan, aami: chhapra se 37 kilometer poorv tatha dighvaara se 4 kilometer door aami mein praacheen anba sthaan hai. dighvaara ka naam yahaaain sthit ek deergh (bada) dwaar ke chalte pada hai. aami mandir ke paas ek bageeche mein kuainaa bana hai jismein paani kabhi naheen sookhata. is kueain ko yagya kund maana jaata hai aur navaraatr (April aur aktubar) ke dinon mein door-door se log jal arpan karne aate hain.
  • dadheshvaranaath mandir: paarasagadh se uttar dhor aashram mein puraataatvik mahatva ke kai vastuen dikhaai padti hai. gandak ke kinaare Bhagwan dadheshvaranaath mandir hai jahaaain patthar ka vishaal shivling sthaapit hai.
  • Gautam sthaan: chhapada se 5 kilometer pashchim mein ghaaghara ke kinaare sthit riveelaganj (puraana naam-godana) mein Gautam sthaan hai. yahaaain darshan shaastr ki nyaaya shaakha ke pravartak Gautam rishi ka aashram tha. hindu logon mein aisi aastha hai ki raamaayan kaal mein Bhagwan Ram ne Gautam rishi ki shaapagrast patni ahilya ka uddhaar kiya tha. aisi hi maanyata madhubani jile mein sthit ahilyaasthaan ke baare bhi hai.
  • Baba shilaanaath mandir: madhaura se 28 kilometer door silhauri ke baare mein aisi maanyata hai ki Shiv puraan ke baal khand mein varnit naarad ka mohabhang is sthaan par hua tha. pratyek shivraatri ko Baba shilaanaath ke mandir mein jalaarpan karanevaale bhakt yahaaain jama hote hain.

sandarbh

  1. [1] saaran ka itihaas
  2. saaran ki janasankhya
  3. [2] saaran jile ka bhoomi vivran
  4. [3] Historically speaking Chirand is the most important place in Saran district, which is connected with antiquity. The ruins of the ancient mounds tell that it has seen the rise and fall of the Buddhism, Hinduism and the Muslims
  5. [4] The Neolithic occupation (2500-1345 BC) contains evidence of small circular huts, and small scale farming of wheat, rice, mung, masur, and peas.

yeh bhi dekhein