saanskrutik maanavashaastr

saanskrutik maanavashaastr (Cultural anthropology) athva saanskrutik nrutatv vigyaan maanav aur uske kaaryon ka adhyayan hai.

maanavashaastr ki do pramukh ang hain-

  • shaareerik maanavashaastr, tatha
  • saanskrutik maanavashaastr

manushya ka praanishaastreeya adhyayan, usaka udbhav evam vikaas, maanav-shareer-rachana, prajanan shaastr evam prajaati ityaadi shaareerik maanav shaastr ke antargat hain.

anukram

saanskrutik maanavashaastr ka parichay

manushya saamaajik praani hai aur samoohon mein rahata hai. vishv ke samast jeevadhaariyon mein keval vahi sanskruti ka nirmaata hai. is visheshata ka mool kaaran hai bhaasha. bhaasha ke hi maadhyam se ek peedhi ki sanchit anubhooti bhavishya ki peedhiyon ko milti hai. pratyek peedhi ki sanskruti ka vikaas hota hai. sanskruti parisar ka vah bhaag hai jiska nirmaan maanav swayam karta hai. E. bi. taailar ke anusaar sanskruti us samuchchaya ka naam hai jismein gyaan, vishvaas, kala, neeti, vidhi, reeti-rivaaj tatha anya aisi kshamataaon aur aadaton ka samaavansh rahata hai jinhein manushya samaaj ke sadasya ke roop mein maanata hai.

saanskrutik maanavashaastri un tareekon ka adhyayan karta hai jisse maanav apni praakrutik evam saamaajik sthiti ka saamana karta hai, rasm rivaajon ko seekhata aur unhein ek pusht se agali pusht ko pradaan karta hai. bhinn-bhinn sanskrutiyon mein ek hi saadhya ke kai saadhan hain. paarivaarik sambandhon ka sangathan, machhali pakadne ke fande tatha jagat‌ ke nirmaan ke siddhaant pratyek samaaj mein alag-alag hai. fir bhi pratyek samaaj mein jeevan kaarya-kalaap suniyojit hai. aantarik vikaas ya baahya sampark ke kaaran parampara ke sthir roop bhi badalate hain. vyakti ek vishesh samaaj mein janm lekar un rasm-rivaajon ko grahan karta hai, vyavahaar karta hai aur prabhaavit karta hai jo usaki saanskrutik viraasat hain. saanskrutik maanav shaastr ke antargat aise saare vishay aate hain.

kshetr

saanskrutik maanav shaastr ka kshetr bahut vistrut hai. anya vishay maanav kaaryakalaap ke ek bhaag ka adhyayan karte hain. saamaanyat: maanavashaastri aisi jaatiyon ka adhyayan karte hain jo paashchaatya saanskrutik dhaara se pare hain. ve pratyek jaati ke rasm-rivaajon ke samooh ko ek samashti ke roop mein adhyayan karne ka prayaas karte hain. yadi ve sanskruti ke ek hi paksh par apne adhyayan ko keindrit rakhate hain to unka khaas uddeshya us paksh mein aur sanskruti ke doosaron pakshon mein sambandhon ka vishleshan hota hai. poori sanskruti par vichaar karne ke liye ve us samaaj ke logon ka takaneeki gyaan, aarthik jeevan, saamaajik aur raajaneetik sansthaaeain, dharm, bhaasha, lokavaarta evam kala ka adhyayan karte hain. ve in pakshon ka alag-alag vivechan karte hain par saath-saath yeh bhi dekhte hain ki ve vibhinn paksh samay roop mein kis prakaar kaam karte hain jisse us samaaj ke sadasya apne parisar se samavasthit hote hain. is roop mein saanskrutik maanavashaastri arthashaastri, raajaneeti-vigyaan-shaastri, samaajashaastri dharmon ke tulanaatmak adhyeta, kala ya saahitya ke marmajnyaon se bhinn hain.

sanskruti

sanskruti shabd ka prayog anek arthon mein hota hai. maanavashaastr mein iska prayog ek vishisht arth mein hota hai. yeh usaka aadhaarbhoot siddhaant hai. sanskruti ke gun nimnalikhit hain-

(1) maanav sanskruti ke saath janm naheen leta, par usamein sanskruti grahan karne ki kshamata hoti hai. vah use seekhata hai. is prakriya ko sanskruteekaran kehte hain.

(2) sanskruti ka udbhav maanav jeevan ke praani shaastreeya, parisreeya manovaigyaanik aur aitihaasik angon se hota hai. uske niroopan aur vikaas mein in tatvon ka bahumoolya yog hota hai.

(3) sanskruti ki sanrachana ke vishisht bhaag hain. sabse chhote bhaag ko saanskrutik tatv (Culture Trait) kehte hain. kai tatvon ko milaakar ek tatv samooh (Complex) hota hai. ek sanskruti mein anek saanskrutik tatv samooh hote hain. iske atirikt kai sanskrutiyon mein ek ya adhik prerak siddhaant hote hain jo unhein vishishtata pradaan karte hain.

(4) sanskruti anek vibhaagon mein vibhkt hoti hai, jaise bhautik sanskruti (takaneeki gyaan aur arthavyavastha), saamaajik sansthaaeain (saamaajik sangathan, shiksha, raajaneetik sangathan) dharm aur vishvaas, kala evam lokavaarta, bhaasha ityaadi.

(5) sanskruti parivrtanasheel hai. sanskruti ke pratyek ang mein parivartan hota rahata hai, kisi mein teevrata se, kisi mein mand gati se. baahya prabhaav bhi bina soche-samajhe grahan naheen kiye jaate. kisi mein virodh kam hota hai, kisi mein adhik.

(6) sanskruti mein vibhinnataaeain hoti hain jo kabhi-kabhi ek hi samaaj ke vyaktiyon ke vyavahaar mein pradarshit hoti hain. jitni chhoti ikaai hogi utana hi kam antar uske sadasyon ke aachaar-vichaar mein hoga.

(7) sanskruti ke svaroop, prakriyaaon aur gathan mein ek niymabaddhata hoti hai jisse usaka vaigyaanik vishleshan sambhav hota hai.

(8) sanskruti ke maadhyam se maanav apne sampoorn parisar se samavasthit hota hai aur use rachanaatmak abhivyakti ka saadhan milta hai.

saanskrutik maanav shaastr vartamaan kaal ki sanskrutiyon ka hi keval adhyayan naheen karta. maanav vikaas ke kitne hi goodh rahasya praagaitihaas ke garbh mein pade hain. praagaitihaasik puraatatvavetta pruthvi ke neeche se khudaai karke praacheen sanskrutiyon ki chhaanabeen karte hain. uske aadhaar par ve maanav vikaas ka kramabaddh svaroop nishchit karte hain. khudaai se bhautik sanskruti ki bahut-si cheejein upalabdh hoti hain. anumaan evam kalpana ki sahaayata se us sanskruti ke sadasyon ke rahan-sahan, aachaar-vichaar, saamaajik sangathan, dhaarmik vishvaas ityaadi ki rooparekha taiyaar karte hain. ataev praagaitihaas saanskrutik maanav shaastr ka abhinn ang hai.

bhaasha ke hi maadhyam se sanskruti ka nirmaan hua hai. srushti ke aarambh se hi manushya ne anek tarah se apni ichhaaon aur aavashyakataaon ko vyakt karne ka prayaas kiya. pehle to haav-bhaav tatha sanket chinhon se kaam chala. baad mein usi ne bhaasha ka roop grahan kar liya. pratyek bhaasha mein uske bolne vaalon ki saari maanyataaeain, spasht tatha aspasht vichaar, bauddhik aur bhaavanaatmak kriyaaeain nirhit rahati hain. aadim samaaj ke sabhi saanskrutik tatv usaki bhaasha ke bhandaar mein surakshit rahate hain.

kahaavatein, paheliyaaain, lokakathaaeain, lokageet, praarthana mantra, ityaadi mein samaaj ka sanskaar pradarshit hota hai. samaaj ki antarmukhi vrutiyon se parichay praapt karne ke liye bhaasha ka gyaan atyaavashyak hai. sambandh soochak shabdaavali se samaaj mein paarivaarik aur doosare sambandhon ka pata chalta hai. sanskruti par baahya prabhaavon ke kaaran jo parivartan hota hai vah bhi bhaasha mein pratibinbit hota hai. nae vichaar aur nai vastueain jab vyavahaar mein aane lagti hain to unke saath nae shabd bhi aate hain. is prakaar sanskruti aur bhaasha donon ka samaan roop se vikaas hota hai. aadi sanskrutiyon mein bhaashaaon ki vividhta tatha unke svaroop ki jatilta mein anusandhaan ki aseem saamagri hai. jis tarah bhaasha ke svaroop ka vishleshan karne se ham saanskrutik rahasyon ko sulajha sakte hain usi prakaar sanskrutiyon ke sanrachanaatmak tatvon aur prakriyaaon ke gyaan se hamein bhaasha shaastr ki kuchh samasyaaon par vyaapak prakaash mil sakta hai.

saanskrutik maanav shaastr ke antargat saamaajik, aarthik aur raajaneetik jeevan, dharm, bhaasha, kala ityaadi ka adhyayan aata hai. taailar ne sanskruti ke sanbodh ke sahaare adhyayan kiya par unke samakaaleen moragan ne samaaj ke prasang mein apna kaam kiya. durkaheem ne samaaj shaastreeya parampara ko pusht kiya. is prakaar nrutatv mein donon paranparaaeain samaanaantar dhaaraaon ki tarah chalti aa rahi hain. amareeka maanav shaastri sanskrutiprak vichaaradhaara se aavirbhoot hain. angrej vidvaan durkaheem isi parampara ke poshak hain. Amreeki vidvaanon ke vichaar mein sanskruti ka sanbodh samaaj ke sanbodh se kaheen adhik vyaapak hai. is prakaar saamaajik maanav shaastr unki drushti se saanskrutik nrutatv ka ek ang hai. kuchh vidvaan is dhaarana se sahamat naheen honge. unke anusaar saanskrutik aur saamaajik maanav shaastr ke drushtikon, vichaaradhaara aur tareeke bhinn-bhinn hain.

saamaajik maanavashaastr

saamaajik maanavashaastr ka kshetr maanav sanskruti aur samaaj hai. yeh sansthaabaddh saamaajik vyavahaaron ka adhyayan karta hai, jaise parivaar, naatedaari, vyavastha, raajaneetik sangathan, vidhi, dhaarmik mat ityaadi. sh is sanstha mein paraspar sambandhon ka bhi adhyayan kiya jaata hai. aisa adhyayan samakaaleen samaajon mein ya aitihaasik samaajon mein kiya jaata hai. saamaanyat: saamaajik maanav shaastri aadim sanskrutiyon mein kaam karte hain. iska yeh arth naheen ki aadim samaaj doosaron se heya hai. aadim samaaj mein jo janasankhya, kshetr, baahya sampark ityaadi ki drushti se chhote aur saral hon tatha takaneeki drushti se pichhde hue hon. aadim jaatiyon par vishesh dhyaan dene ke kai kaaran hain. kuchh maanav shaastri sanskruti ke vikaas ka pata lagaane ke kram mein aadim jaatiyon ka adhyayan karte the. aisa samjha jaata tha ki un samaajon mein aisi hi sansthaaeain pai jaati hain jo doosare samaajon mein praacheen kaal mein pai jaati theen. kaaryavaadi (Functional) vichaaradhaara ke prachalan ke baad samagr roop mein samaaj ke adhyayan ki aavashyakta maaloom hui. iske liye aadim samaaj atyant upayukt the kyonki unamein ekaroopata thi aur poorn samashti ke roop mein unhein dekha ja sakta tha. fir apne se bhinn sanskrutiyon ka adhyayan aasaan tha. unke vivechan mein nirpekshata aasaani se barati ja sakti thi. aadim samaajon mein saamaajik bahuroopata ke anek udaaharan mil sakte hain. un par aadhaarit jo sanbodh baneinge ve adhik drudh aur vyaapak honge. aadim samaaj sheeghrata se badalate ja rahe hain. lupt hone ke poorv unka adhyayan aavashyak hai.

saamaajik maanav shaastr ka sabse pradhaan ang saamaajik sangathan hai jismein un sansthaaon ka vivechan hota hai jo samaaj mein purush aur stri ka sthaan nirdhaarit karte hain aur unke vyaktigat sambandhon ko disha dete hain. mote taur par aisi sansthaaeain do prakaar ki hoti hain jo rishte se utpann hoti hain aur jo vyaktiyon ke svatantr sampark se utpann hoti hain. rishtedaari ki sansthaaon mein parivaar aur gotr aate hain. doosare prakaar ki sansthaaon mein sansthaabaddh maitri, gupt samitiyaaain, aayu samooh aate hain. saamaajik sthiti par aadhaarit samooh bhi isi ke antargat aate hain. saamaajik sangathan kuchh aadhaarbhoot kaarakon par bana hota hai, jaise aayu, yaun, bhed, rishtedaari, sthaan, saamaajik sthiti, raajaneetik sthiti, vyavasaaya, aichhik samitiyaaain, jaadoovarg ki prakriyaaeain aur taatamavaad (Totemism).

aarthik maanavashaastr

nyoonatam parishram se dainik jeevan ki aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye jin maanav sambandhon aur prayaas ka sangathan kiya jaata hai use aarthik maanav shaastr ki sanjnyaa di gayi hai. bhojan praapt karne aur utpann karne ke anek tareeke vibhinn jaatiyon mein prachalit hain. unke aadhaar par chaar mukhya star paae jaate hain-sankalan-aakhetak-star, pashupaalan star, krushi star aur shilp-udyog-star. aadim samaajon mein aarthik sambandh saamaajik paranparaaon mein baindhe rahate hain. utpaadan ke kaarakon mein bhi bhed karna kathin hota hai. aadim jagat‌ ki arthavyavastha mein upahaar aur vyaapaar vinimay ka vishesh mahatva hai. upahaaron se vyaktigat tatha saamoohik sambandh sudrudh banaae jaate hain. vyaapaar aur vinimay mein utpaadan ke vitran ka mahatva adhik hota hai. bahut se aadim samaaj mudraaviheen hain. arthashaastreeya maane mein baajaar ka bhi abhaav hai. fir bhi unka aarthik sangathan suchaaroo roop se chaaloo hai.

arthavyavastha bhautik sanskruti evam logon ki takaneeki kshamata par nirbhar hoti hai. shikaar, machhali maarane ke tareekon, kheti ke tareekon tatha udyog-dhandhon ka adhyayan bhi isi ke antargat aata hai. pehle ke maanav shaastri is prakaar ke adhyayan mein adhik ruchi rakhate the aur unke prayaason ke falasvaroop videshon ke sangrahaalaya aadim bhautik sanskruti ki vastuon se bhare pade hain.

dhaarmik maanavashaastr

adrushya evam agyaat shaktiyon ko jaanane ki abhilaasha manushya ko sada se hi rahi hai. unke vishay mein bhinn-bhinn kalpanaaeain aur vishvaas prachalit hain. jab kisi ghatna ka koi bhi kaaran samajh mein naheen aata to ham use devi ghatna maankar santosh kar lete hain. dharm aur jaadoo inheen adrushya aur agyaat vyaktiyon ko apne paksh mein prabhaavit karne ke liye banaae gaye hain. kisi bhi samaaj ke sangathan, upalabdhiyon tatha pragati ke adhyayan karte samay dhaarmik prushthabhoomi se parichay praapt karna aavashyak hai. dharm hamamein suraksha ki bhaavana jagaata hai. ek dharm ke anuyaayi ekta ke drudh sootr mein baindhe rahate hain. dharm ki chhaap hamein kisi bhi samaaj ke samast kriyaakalaapon par milti hai. kala, saahitya, sangeet, nrutya ityaadi praarambh mein dhaarmik bhaavana se hi anupraanit the. unka adhyayan bhi saanskrutik maanav shaastr ke antargat aata hai.

sanskruti ka udgam evam vikaas

sanskruti ke udgam evam vikaas ke sambandh mein maanav shaastriyon mein ghor matabhed hai. unneesaveen shataabdi mein daarvin ke udvikaas (Evolution) ke siddhaant se anek adhyeta prabhaavit hue. saanskrutik kshetr mein bhi taailar, moragan ityaadi vidvaanon ne ise maanyata di. is siddhaant ke sahaare maanav sanskruti ke vikaas ko achhi tarah samjha ja sakta tha. iske anusaar vikaas ke teen star nirdhaarit kiye gaye. nimnatam star jangaleepan (Savagery), madhya star ko barbarata (Barbarism) aur uchchatam star ko sabhyata ki sanjnyaa di gayi. sansaar ke vibhinn bhaagon mein saanskrutik samaanataaon ka kaaran ek prakaar se sochane ki pravrutti tatha samaan vaataavaran mein samaan sansthaaon ka nirmaan bataaya gaya. prasaaravaad (Diffusionism) ke siddhaant ne is maanyata ko thukara diya. iske anusaar sanskruti ka udgam kuchh sthaanon par hua aur vaheen se vah faili. prasaaravaad ke kuchh pandit mishr ko sanskruti ka udgam sthal maanate the. prasaaravaadi samajhte hain ki manushya ki aavishkaar shakti atyant seemit hoti hai aur grahan shakti aparimit hai. viyna ke nrutatvavettaaon ne isi aadhaar par sansaar ke pramukh sanskruti vruton (Kultur Kreis) sambandhi maanyataaeain sthaapit ki hain.

ismein sandeh naheen ki aavishkaar aur prasaar dvaara sanskrutiyon ka roop badalta hai. anya sanskrutiyon ke tatv kai kaaranon se grahan kiye jaate hain. kuchh to dabaav ke kaaran apanaae jaate hain, kuchh naveenata ke liye, kuchh suvidha ke liye aur kuchh laabh ke liye. kuchh naveen tatv pratishtha badhaane ke liye apanaae jaate hain. baarnet ne sanskruti parivartan ka naya vivechan prastut kiya hai. ve utprekshan (Innovation) ko sanskruti-parivartan ka aadhaar maanate hain. utprekshan maanav ki ichhaaon se utpann hote hain. yadyapi ve sanskruti parivartan ke kaaran hote hain, fir bhi ve swayam saanskrutik paristhitiyon aur kaarakon se achhoote naheen rahate. utprekshan ki safalta ke liye asantosh ki sthiti aavashyak hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • jaivik nruvijnyaaan (Biological anthropology)

baahari kadiyaaain