saankhyakaarika

saankhyakaarika saankhya darshan ka sabse puraana upalabdh granth hai. iske rachayita ishvarakrushn hain. sanskrut ke ek vishesh prakaar ke shlokon ko "kaarika" kehte hain. saankhyakaarikaaon ka samay bahumat se E. truteeya shataabdi ka madhya maana jaata hai. vastut: inka samay isse paryaapt poorv ka prateet hota hai.

ismein ishvarakrushn ne kaha hai ki iski shiksha Kapil se aasuri ko, aasuri se panchaashika ko aur panchaashika se unako praapt hui. ismein unhone saankhya darshan ki 'shashtitantr' naamak kruti ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. saankhyakaarika mein 72 shlok hain jo aarya chhand mein likhe hain. aisa anumaan kiya jaata hai ki antim 3 shlok baad mein jode gaye (prakshipt) hain.

saankh‍aayakaarika par vibhinn vidvaanon dvaara anek teekaaeain ki gayeen jinmein yuktideepika, gaudapaadabhaash‍aayam, jayamangala, tat‍aavakaumudi, naaraayanakrut saankh‍aayachandrika aadi pramukh hain. saankhyakaarika par sabse praacheen bhaashya gaudpaad dvaara rachit hai. doosra mahatvapoorn bhaashya vaachaspati mishr dwaar rachit saankhyatatvakaumudi hai.

saankhyakaarika ka cheeni bhaasha mein anuvaad 6thi shati mein hua. san 1832 mein krishchiyn laasen ne iska laitin mein anuvaad kiya. H ti kolabruk ne isko sarvapratham angrejeen mein roopaantarit kiya.

saankhyakaarika ka aarambhik shlok is prakaar hai-

du:khatrayaaऽbhighaataajjijnyaaasa tadabhighaatake hetau .
dushte saaऽpaartha chennaikaantaatyantatoऽbhaavaat .
(teen prakaar ke dukh se (praani) peedit rahate hain. at: uske abhighaatak (vinaashak) kaaran ko jaanane ki ichha karni chaahiye. "drusht (pratyaksh-laukik) upaayon se hi us jijnyaaasa ki poorti ho jaayegi?" naheen, (drusht upaayon se) nishchit roop se aur sada ke liye du:khon ka nivaaran naheen hota.)

saankhyakaarika, saankhyadarshan ka bahut hi mahattvapoorn prakaran granth hai jisne atyadhik lokapriyta praapt ki hai. aaj saankhyadarshan ke jo granth praapt hote hain, unamein vyaakhya-granth hi adhik hain. mool granth to keval teen hi praapt hote hain- saankhyakaarika, tattvasamaas evam saankhyapravachanasootr. aaj praapt hone vaale saankhyadarshan ke anya granth in teen mool granthon ki hi teeka ya vyaakhya ke roop mein hain. in vyaakhya-granthon mein se adhikaansh 'saankhyakaarika' ki hi vyaakhyaaon aur in vyaakhyaaon ki bhi anuvyaakhyaaon ke roop mein hain. is prakaar ishvarakrushn ki 'saankhyakaarika' saankhyadarshan ka pramukh pratinidhi granth hai.

shaङakar aadi aachaaryon ne hi naheen, apitu isa ki chaudahaveen shataabdi tak ke aachaaryon ne 'tattvasamaas' ya 'saankhyapravachanasootr' ko apne granthon mein uddhrut na kar 'saankhyakaarika' ko hi uddhrut kiya hai. saath hi pandrahaveen shataabdi mein hone vaale aniruddh se poorv kisi ne in sootr-granthon ki vyaakhya bhi naheen ki, jabki vibhinn vidvaanon ke dvaara bahut pehle se hi 'saankhyakaarika' ki vyaakhyaaeain prastut ki ja rahi hain. at: spasht hai ki saankhyadarshan ke aaj upalabdh hone vaale ukt teen mool granthon - saankhyakaarika, tattvasamaas evam saankhya-pravachanasootr- mein se 'saankhyakaarika' praacheenatam hai. choonki shankar aadi aachaaryon ke dvaara ise uddhrut kiya jaata raha hai, at: yeh bhi spasht hai ki yeh saankhyadarshan ki ek praamaanik kruti maani jaati rahi hai.

saankhyakaarikaakaar ishvarakrushn ne yeh ghoshana bhi ki hai ki saankhya ke pratham aachaarya paramarshi Kapil ne jo gyaan apne shishya aasuri ko diya, use aasuri ne apne shishya panchashikh ko diya, panchashikh ne use vistrut kiya aur fir uske baad shishya-parampara se praapt-usi vistrut gyaan ko sankshipt roop se unhonein saankhyakaarika ki sattar kaarikaaon mein prastut kar diya hai. is ghoshana se saankhyakaarika ki roop mein praamaanikta spasht hoti hai ki ismein saankhya ke paramparaagat gyaan ko prastut kiya gaya hai. kehna na hoga ki is gyaan aur praamaanikta ke anuroop hi is granth ko daarshanik kshetr mein param sammaan praapt hua hai.

saankhyakaarika ki pramukh teekaaeain

saankhyakaarika ko iski rachana ke baad se hi lokapriyta evam praamaanikta praapt hui ki praay: tabhi se iski vyaakhyaaon ya teekaaon ki parampara chal padi. iski sarvapraacheen vrutti maathar vrutti hai. is vrutti ke rachayita aachaarya maathar samraat kanishk ke kaal mein vartamaan maane jaate hain. is prakaar yeh vrutti pratham shataabdi isavi ki rachana maani jaati hai. kaalakram se maatharavrutti ke baad saankhyakaarika ki doosari pramukh vyaakhya gaudapaadabhaashya maani jaati hai. vidvaanon ka bahumat iske rachayita gaudapaad ko maandookyakaarika ke rachayita evam advait vedaant ke aachaarya gaudapaad se bhinn maanane ke paksh mein hain. saankhyakaarika ke vyaakhyaakaar gaudapaad ka samay praay: isa ki shashth shataabdi maana jaata hai. kuchh vidvaan isa ki saptam shataabdi maanate hain. maatharavrutti aur gaudapaad-bhaashya mein bahut se anshon mein saamya ke darshan hote hain. gaudapaadabhaashya sankshipt hote hue bhi gambheer hai.

saankhyakaarika ki 'yuktideepika' teeka bhi praacheen teekaaon mein se ek hai. iske rachayita ka naam agyaat hai. ismein praacheen saankhyaachaaryon ke vibhinn siddhaanton ka ullekh kiya gaya hai. falat: is teeka se saankhya-siddhaanton ki paryaapt jaankaari praapt hoti hai. choonki ismein vasubandhu evam diङanaag aadi bauddh aachaaryon ke maton ka ullekh hai aur saath hi meemaansakon mein shabarasvaami ka nirdesh hote hue kumaaril ya prabhaakar ka nirdesh naheen hai, at: prateet hota hai ki yeh ukt bauddh aachaaryon se baad ki aur kumaaril se poorv ki rachana hai. kumaaril ka samay isa ki saptam shataabdi ka ant aur ashtam shataabdi ka poorvaardh maana jaata hai, at: bahut sambhav hai ki yukti-deepika isa ki saptam shataabdi ke poorvaardh ki rachana hai. shankaraachaarya dvaara virchit 'jayamangala' teeka bhi saankhyakaarika ki prasiddh teeka hai. vidvaanon ka mat hai ki yeh teeka vaachaspati mishr se poorv ki rachana hai, kyonki aisa prateet hota hai ki 'saankhyatattvakaumudi' mein kuchh sthalon par iske pratipaadyon ka nirdesh ya anusaran kiya gaya hai.

aachaarya vaachaspati mishr ki 'saankhyatattvakaumudi' teeka saankhyakaarika ki sarvaadhik prasiddh teeka hai. isne daarshanik jagat mein paryaapt khyaati evam lokapriyta praapt ki hai. is teeka mein saankhyakaarika ke pratipaadya vishay ko poornat: udghaatit karne ka prayatn kiya gaya hai.

pramukh vivechaneeya vishay

  1. du:khatraya tatha unka apaghaat
  2. pramaan-vivechan
  3. satkaaryavaad
  4. gun vivechan
  5. prakruti svaroop tatha uske astitv ki siddhi
  6. puroosh svaroop, puroosh ke astitv ki siddhi tatha puroosh bahutv
  7. sashshti prakriya
  8. liङag shareer ki avadhaarana
  9. pratyaya sarg ki avadhaarana

baahari kadiyaaain